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December, 1922 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



vf» ¥ 



Journal of The Engineering Institute of Canada 

Index to Volume V 

January 1st to December 31st, 1922 



Page 

Accident Prevention in Industrial Plants, W. G. Cam, a.m.e.i.c. 537 
Ackerman, P., a.m.e.i.c, Relay Protection for Radial Trans- 
mission and Distribution Systems 571 

Gzowski Medal Winner 107 

Act Respecting Professional Engineers of Ontario 391 

Actuarial Factors in the Design of Irrigation Structures, H. B. 

Muckleston, m.e.i. c 192 

Addresses Wanted, (Members of The Institute) 545 

Aeroplane Engine, The, P. E. Biggar, S.E.I. C 15 

Air Board Specifications 233 

Alberta, Association of Professional Engineers of 31 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Toronto 

Meeting 104, 151 

American Association of Engineers 566 

American Electro-Chemical Society 521 

American Railway Association 24 

American Society of Civil Engineers 435, 521 

American Society for Testing Materials, Tentative Standards . 566 

Angus, Robert, m.e.i.c, personal 262 

Annual Meeting, Report of the thirty-sixth 89 

Annual Reports of Branches 64 

Association of Professional Engineers of Alberta 31 

Association of Professional Engineers of British Columbia, 

Annual Meeting 30 

Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario 479 

Automatic Box Car Unloaders for Grain, F. Newell, a.m.e.i.c. 451 



Badge of The Institute, editorial 88 

Bicknell. Alfred, Some Legal Aspects of Engineering Contracts 347 

Biggar. P. E., S.E.I.C, The Aeroplane Engine 15 

Boyle, R. W., Ph.D., Rainmaking 255 

Branch News: — 

Border Cities Branch 34. 112, 163, 267, 316, 378, 598 

Calgary Branch 31. 109, 161, 214, 322, 380, 432, 476, 560, 604 

Cape Breton Branch.42, 119, 176. 275, 318, 434. 476, 520. 564, 596 

Edmonton Branch 161. 216, 266, 324, 386, 602 

Halifax Branch .42, 177, 232, 277, 320, 381. 434, 597 

Hamilton Branch. . . .34, 113, 164. 220, 268, 327, 376, 434, 518. 596 

Kingston Branch 36, 168, 269, 602 

Lakehead Branch 517 

Lethbridge Branch 34, 162, 266, 432, 602 

London Branch 112, 219. 268, 559, 596 

Moncton Branch 41, 118, 174, 231, 321, 379, 561. 598 

Montreal Branch 38, 116, 170, 227, 315, 520 

Niagara Peninsula Branch 34, 163, 219. 319, 518, 564 

Ottawa Branch. 37, 115, 168, 225, 271, 323, 378, 435, 519, 557, 599 

Peterborough Branch 36, 167, 225, 269, 317, 376, 562, 606 

Quebec Branch 117, 171, 229. 273, 324, 432 



Page 

Saskatchewan Branch 325, 381, 477, 557 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch 218, 432 

St. John Branch 40, 173, 230, 275, 326. 594 

Toronto Branch 35, 114, 165. 222. 517, 554, 605 

Vancouver Branch 30, 109, 159, 213, 321, 380, 562 

Victoria Branch 109, 159, 266. 318, 386, 594 

Winnipeg Branch 33, 111, 162, 216. 267, 603 

Branch Reports, Annual 64 

British Columbia Professional Meeting, Report of 401 

British Columbia, Association of Professional Engineers of 30 

British Engineering Standards Association, Publication of the.. .24, 609 
Buckley, I. Walter, a.m.e.i.c, Mechanical Working of Iron 

and Steel 499 

Bush, H. D., M.E.I.C, obituary 311 

By-Laws, Proposed Changes in 587 

Byng, Baron, of Vimy, New Honorary Member 108 

Calgary Branch, Chairman's Address, P. J. Jennings, m.e.i.c 215 
Cam, W. G. H., a.m.e.i.c, Accident Prevention in Industrial 

Plants 537 

Cambie, H. J., m.e.i.c, Unique Tribute, editorial 471 

Cameron, K. M., m.e.i.c, personal 157 

Canadian Electrical Association 101, 388 

Canadian Engineering Standards Association 283, 389, 435, 608 

Canadian Engineering Standards Committee, Annual Report ... 58 

Canadian Good Roads Association 387 

Canadian Institute of Chemistry 388, 565 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changes Policy 

editorial 203 

Canadian National Committee. International Electro-Technical 

Commission, Annual Report 59 

Caton, E. V., m.e.i.c, Extensions to the Hydro-Electric System 

of the City of Winnipeg 441 

Cement Specifications. Approval of, editorial 513 

Changes in By-Laws, Proposed 587 

Chemistry of Portland Cement and its Disintegration by Alka- 
line Ground Waters, The, Professor T. Thorvaldson 457 

Discussions 495 

Civil Service Classification Committee, Annual Report 59 

Clark, A. L., Ph.D., New Honorary Member 550 

Classification and Remuneration of Engineers, Report of Com- 
mittee 541 

Cleveland, E. A., m.e.i.c, Irrigation in British Columbia 417 

Code of Ethics, Suggested, editorial 511 



Considerations for a Road Policy, M. A. Lyons, a.m.e.i.c. . . 
Contents: — 

January 

February 

March 



504 

1 

49 
125 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



Page 

April....: 183 

May 241 

June 289 

July 345 

August 399 

September 439 

October 482 

November 525 

December 569 

Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec 150, 281, 389 

Correspondence: — 

Advertising in The Journal, J. L. Rannie, a.me.i.c 26 

Canadian Electrical Association Meetings, E. Vinet, 

a.m.e.i.c 101 

Triangulation Data, D. H. Nelles, M.E.i.c 278 

Transactions of American Society of Civil Engineers 278 

A Professional Card of 1846. Willis Chipman, m.e.i.c 340 

Engineering in Southern Provinces, Nigeria, B. H. Hughes. 

Jr. e.i.c 340 

Investigation of Failure of Top Chord Covering Plate of 

Boom of Dredge "Industry", E. Viens, A.M.E.I.C... 341 

The Pavement of Sherbrooke Street, C. A. Mullen, m.e.i.c. 342 
The Transmission of Energy by the Water Molecule, Its 
Relation to Basic Production, Wilson Taylor, Associate 

e.i.c 394,479 

Reforming the Calendar, P. H. Buchen, a.m.e.i.c 436 

Canadians at Gold Coast Harbours, Africa, A. G. Graham, 

a.m.e.i.c 522 

Concrete Proportioning Theories Discussed. R. B. Young, 

a.m.e.i.c 610 

Specifications for Belgian Railway Contracts, John Van 

Rickstal . Correspondence 611 

Council, Members of. .2, 50, 126, 184, 242, 290, 346, 400, 440,484, 

526, 570 

Council Report of, for the year 1921 51 

Cowie. F. W., m.e.i.c, personal 157 

Dean, C. D., a.m.e.i.c, General Oil Refining Practice 3 

Desbarats, G. J., c.m.g., m.e.i.c, personal 552 

Deterioration of Concrete in Alkali Soils Committee 59, 367 

Developments in Sewage Disposal, C. J. Mackenzie, M.E.I.C 248 

Deville, Edouard, ll.d., d.l.s., New Honorary Member 566, 600 

Dobbin, R. L., m.e.i.c, personal 155 

Dobson. W. P., m.e.i.c, The Place of the Laboratory in Stand- 
ardization 11 

Dodwell, C. E. W.. Hon. m.e.i.c, New Honorary Member 589 

Halifax Branch, Retiring Chairman's Address 382 

Doucet, A. E., m.e.i.c, personal 156 

Drummond, Thos., a.m.e.i.c, obituary 106 

DuCane, C. G, Lt.-Co!., o.b.e., a.m.e.i.c. personal 313 

Editorials, — 

Annual Meeting Announcement 22 

Transactions of Other Societies 22 

Institute Songs 22 

Acknowledgment of Courtesies 23 

Registration Pro and Con 23 

Greetings from American Federation of Engineering So- 
cieties 88 

Policy Committee Meeting 88 

Badge of The Institute 88 

Montreal and Winnipeg 148 

Mining and Metallurgical Institute Meeting 148 

Papers Committee 149 

Leonard Medal Award 149 



Page 

Research Problems 149 

Engineers not Employed 150 

Assisting Student Members 150 

Canadian Engineering Standards Association 150 

Meeting of Branch Secretaries 150 

George Montefiore Foundation 151 

British Columbia Professional Meeting 202 

Code of Ethics 202 

Committee on Policy Meeting 202 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changes 

Policy 203 

Presentation of Leonard Medals 204 

Other Societies Transactions 204 

British Columbia Professional Meeting 258 

Change in By-laws 258 

Committee on Policy Meeting 258 

Gzowski and Plummer Medals 259 

Employing Engineering Students 259 

British Columbia Professional Meeting 308 

Engineering Legislation in Ontario 308 

Recent Honours and Degrees 309 

Invitation to American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Convention 310 

Unveiling of Memorial Statue and Tablet, C.P.R 310 

First B.C. Professional Meeting Marked by Enthusiasm. . . . 366 

The Professional Engineers' Act of Ontario 369 

Recent Honours and Degrees 370 

Winnipeg in September 426 

Appreciation of the Engineer 426 

Legislation in Ontario 427 

A Tribute to Peterborough Branch 428 

General Professional Meeting Programme 470 

The Lakehead Branch 471 

Unique Tribute to H. J. Cambie, m.e.i.c 471 

The Winnipeg Meeting 510 

Employment Conditions Improved 511 

Suggested Code of Ethics 511 

Secretary Rice Represents E.I.C 512 

David Thompson 512 

Approval of Cement Specifications 513 

Nominations for Officers' Ballot 546 

The Policy Committee's Recommendations 546 

Engineer heads Government Railways 547 

Annual Meeting 586 

Making the Library Valuable 586 

Proposed Changes in By-Laws 587 

New Honorary Member, C. E. W. Dodwell, Hon. m.e.i.c 589 

E.I.C, and its Branches, J. M. R. Fairbairn, D. Sc, 

m.e.i.c, address before Ottawa Branch 37 

Elections and Transfers 102, 210, 265, 314, 375, 515, 553, 593 

Ellis, O. W., a.m.e i.e., Some Points of Contact between 

Metallurgy and Engineering 576 

Employment Bureau and Members' Exchange, 27, 102, 152, 207, 262, 

314, 374. 431, 474, 515, 553, 592 

Engineer and the Town Plan. The, James Ewing, m e.i.c 412 

Discussion by H. M. Bigwood, a.m.e.i.c, and W. B. Young. 

A.M.E.I.C 415 

Ewing, James, m.e.i.c, The Engineer and the Town Plan 412 

Extensions to the Hydro-Electric System of the City of Winni- 
peg. E. V. Caton, M.E.I.C 415 

Fairbairn, J. M. R., D.sc, m.e.i.c, Retiring President's Address 94 

E.I.C, and its Branches, Address before Ottawa Branch 37 



December, 1922 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Page 

Fairhurst. T. W., a.m.e.i.c. Professional Engineering in 

the British Columbia Logging Industry 423 

Finance Committee, Annual Report 55 

Federated American Engineering Societies 478, 521 

Fraser, D. M., m.e.i. c, personal 108 

Galbraith. Robert A., m.e.i. a, obituary 154 

Garden. Charles, M.E.i.c. obituary 371 

General Oil Refining Practice, C. D. Dean, A.M.E.I.C 3 

General Professional Meeting. Winnipeg, Report of 485 

Generation of Steam by Electricity, F. T. Kaelin, a.m.e.i.c 127 

Girard, Emile, J., a.m.e.i.c, obituary 28 

Gnaedinger, F. Theo., a.m.e.i.c, Industrial Plants and their 

Location 354 

Goldman, H. A., a.m.e.i.c, Rise and Fall in Prices 140 

Greene, J. F., M.E.I.C, Maryland Street Bridge, Winnipeg 197 

Grieve, John, a.m.e.i.c, Paint as a Protection for Steel Struc- 
tures 582 

Gzowski Medal Winner 1920, P. Ackerman, a.m.e.i.c 107 

Halifax Branch, Retiring Chairman's Address, C. E. W. Dodwell, 

m.e.i.c 382 

Hallock, Byron, A.M.E.I.C, obituary 106 

Harvie. T. W. A.M.E.I.C, personal 156 

Henry, R. A. C, m.e.i.c, Principles and Practices for the 

Valuation of Public Utilities 527 

High Frequency Telephone as Applied to High Tension Power 

Stations, A. S. Runciman, A.M.E.I.C 243 

Hill, A. E. B., m.e.i.c, obituary 106 

Hogarth, Geo., m.e.i.c, personal 212 

Honour Roll and War Trophies Committee, Annual Report 60 

Hungerford, S. J., m.e.i.c, personal 551 

Improvements to the Moncton Yard and Engine Facilities, 

S. B. Wass, a.m.e.i.c 445 

Industrial Plants and their Location, F. Theo. Gnaedinger, 

a.m.e.i.c 354 

Institute Affairs, Discussion on 407, 486 

Institute Committees, for 1922 147, 284, 365, 469, 509, 585 

International Co-operation Committee. Annual Report 61 

International Engineering Congress, Brazil, Report of Calvin 

W. Rice 565 

Iron Ore Mines of Bell Island, Newfoundland, Sydney C. Mifflen, 

a.m.e.i.c 301 

Irrigation in British Columbia, E. A. Cleveland, m.e.i.c 417 

Discussion by, P. J. Jennings, M.E.I.C 423 

Johnston, H. L., m.e.i.c, personal 313 

Jones, S. S., Jr.E.I.C, obituary 371 



Kaelin, F. T., a.m.e.i.c, Generation of Steam by Electricity. 

Kingston, J. S., a.m.e.i.c, personal 

Klingner, L. W., Capt., m.e.i.c, obituary 

Knight, A. G., s.e.i.c, obituary 



Lafleur, E. D.. m.e.i.c, obituary 

Lakehead Branch, Petition, editorial 

Legislation and By-laws Committee, Annual Report 

Leman. B., a.m.e.i.c, personal 

Leonard Medal, Presentation of, editorial 

Library and House Committee. Annual Report 

Lignite Briquetting Plant, Bienfait, Sask., E. R., Woodward, 

jr.E.l.C 

Litz, E. E., m.e.i.c, Some Fuel Problems of the Steel Plant. . 



127 
551 
259 
154 

105 
471 

54 
431 
204 

54 

185 
533 



Page 

Lyons, M. A., a.m.e.i.c, Considerations for a Road Policy 504 

Mackenzie. C. J., m.e.i.c, Developments in Sewage Disposal . . 248 

Magrath, C. A., M e.i.c, personal 474 

Manitoba Power Company's Development at Great Falls, 

F. H. Martin, m.e.i.c, 488 

Discussion 489 

Martin, F. H., m.e.i.c. Manitoba Power Company's Develop- 
ment at Great Falls 488 

Maryland Street Bridge, Winnipeg, J. F. Greene, m.e.i.c 197 

McBeath, J. D., m.e.i c, Moncton Branch, Retiring Chairman's 

Address 379 

McLean, D. L., a.m.e.i.c, personal 552 

McLean, H. J. G, a.m.e.i.c, personal 431 

Mechanical Working of Iron and Steel, I. Walter Buckley, 

a.m.e.i c 499 

Membership Roll of the Institute 53 

Mifflen, Sydney C, a.m.e.i.c, The Iron Ore Mines of Bell 

Island, Newfoundland 301 

Moncton Branch, Retiring Chairman's Address 379 

Moore, E. V., m.e.i.c, personal 552 

Muckleston, H. B., m.e.i.c, Actuarial Factors in the Design of 

Irrigation Structures 192 

Nelles, D. H., m.e.i.c, Triangulation Data 278 

New 41,000-H.P. Unit at Shawinigan Falls, The, Julian C. 

Smith, m.e.i.c 134 

Newell, F., a.m.e.i.c, Automatic Box Car Unloaders for Grain. 451 

Nominations for Officers' Ballot, editorial 546 

Obituaries: — 

Girard, J. Emile, a.m.e.i.c 28 

Phillips, A. M., a.m.e.i.c 28 

Lafleur, Eugene D., m.e.i.c 105 

Drummond, Thos., a.m.e.i.c 106 

Hallock, Byron, A.M.E.I.C 106 

Hill, Arthur, E. B., M.E.I.C 106 

Galbraith, Robert A., a.m.e.i.c 154 

Knight, Capt. A. G., S.E.I.C 154 

Smith, Hon. Geo. R., m.e.i.c 206 

Klingner, Capt. L. W., m.e.i.c 259 

Bush, H. D., m.e.i.c 311 

Garden, Chas., m.e.i.c 371 

Jones, S. S., Jr.E.l.C 371 

Wallis, Herbert L., m.e.i.c 371 

Powell, Major R. W., a.m.e.i.c 513 

Borden, H. P., m.e.i.c 548 

Loveland, C. P., a.m.e.i.c 548 

Timbrell, Alan, a.m.e.i.c 548 

Officers of Branches, 2, 50, 126, 184, 242, 290, 346, 400, 440, 484, 526, 570 

Ontario, Professional Engineers of, (Act) 391 

Paint as a Protection for Steel Structures, John Grieve, a.m.e.i.c 582 

Papers Committee, Annual Report 55 

Peters, J. F., 220,000-Volt Transmission and Apparatus 296 

Phillips, A. M., A.M.E.I.C, obituary 28 

Pearce, Wm., a.m.e.i.c , personal 261 

Place of the Laboratory in Standardization, The, W P. Dobson, 

M.E.I.C 11 

Policy, Report of Committee on 329 

Policy Committee Recommendations 546 

Preliminary Notice of Applications for Admission and for 

Transfer, 45, 121, 179, 235, 285, 343, 397, 437, 481, 523, 567, 612 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



Page 

Powell, Major R. M., obituary 413 

Principles and Practices for the Valuation of Public Utilities, 

R. A. C. Henry, M.E.I.C 527 

President's (Retiring) Address, J. M. R. Fairbairn, D.Sc. m.e.i.c, 94 
Professional Engineering in the British Columbia Logging In- 
dustry, T. W. Fairhurst. a.m.e.i.c 423 

Professional Meeting, British Columbia, Report of 401 

Professional Meeting, Winnipeg, Report of 485 

Publicity Committee, Annual Report 61 

Professional Engineers of Ontario, (Act) 391 

Professional Engineers of Quebec, editorial 369 

Professional Engineers of Quebec, Annual Meeting and Act 381 

Quebec, Professional Engineers of 381 

Rainmaking, R. W. Doyle, Ph.D 255 

Relay Protection for Radial Transmission and Distribution 

Systems. P. Ackerman, a.m.e.i.c 571 

Report of Council for the year 1921 51 

Retiring President's Address, J. M. R. Fairbairn. D.Sc M.E.I.C. 94 

Rise and Fall of Prices, H. A. Goldman, a.m.e.i.c 140 

Roads and Pavements Committee, Annual Report 62 

Robertson, A. M., S.E.I.C, Students' Prize Winner 107 

Runciman, A. S., a.m.e.i.c, High Frequency Telephone as 

Applied to High Tension Power Stations 243 

Self Corrosion of Buried Lead Pipes, W. Nelson Smith, m.e.i.c, 

and J. W. Shipley, Ph.D., Part 1 291 Part 2 359 

Shipley, J. W.. Ph.D., and W. Nelson Smith, m.e.i.c, Self Cor- 
rosion of Buried Lead Pipes, Part 1 291 Part 2 359 

Smith, Hon. Geo. R., m.e.i.c, obituary 206 

Smith. Julian C, m.e.i.c, The New 41,000-H.P. Unit at Shaw- 

inigan Falls 134 

Smith, W. Nelson, m.e.i.c, and J. W. Shipley, Ph.D., Self Cor- 
rosion of Buried Lead Pipes, Part 1 291 Part 2 359 

Society of Chemical Industry 26, 153, 609 

Some Fallacies in Concrete Proportioning Theories, Prof. 

G. M. Williams, a.m.e.i.c 465 

Some Fuel Problems of the Steel Plant, E. E. Litz, m.e.i.c 533 

Some Legal Aspects of Engineering Contracts, Alfred Bicknell 347 
Some Points of Contact between Metallurgy and Engineering, 

Owen W. Ellis, a.m.e.i.c 576 



Page 

Specifications for Belgian Railway Contracts, Corrsepondence . . 611 

St. Laurent, Arthur T., m.e.i.c, Honoured by Ottawa Branch. . 157 
Storrie, Wm., M.E.I.C, Toronto Branch Chairman's Inaugural 

Address 554 

Students' Prize Winners A. M. Robertson, S.E.I.C 107 

E. R. Woodward, Jr.E.LC 155 

Sullivan, John G., m.e.i.c. President for 1922 29, 87 

Address at Winnipeg Professional Meeting 485 

Taylor, Wilson, Associate e.i.c, The Transmission of Energy 

by the Water Molecule 394, 479 

Toronto Branch Chairman's Inaugural Address 554 

Thorvaldson, T., Professor, The Chemistry of Portland Cement 

and its Disintegration by Alkaline Ground Waters 457 

Town Planning Notes and Comments. .43, 119, 177, 234, 277, 328, 389 

Transactions, Other Societies 204, 278 

Transfers, Elections and 102, 210, 265, 314, 375, 515, 553, 593 

Transmission of Energy by the Water Molecule, The, Wilson 

Taylor, Associate e.i.c 394, 479 

Triangulation Data, D. H. Nelles, M.E.I.C 278 

Turbines for the Great Falls Development of the Manitoba 

Power Company, H. S. Van Patter, a.m.e.i.c 461 

220,000-Volt Transmission and Apparatus, J. F. Peters 296 

Uniform Steam Boiler Specifications Committee, Annual Report 63 

Van Patter, H. S., a.m.e.i.c, Turbines for the Great Falls 

Development of the Manitoba Power Company 461 

Van Scoyoc, H. S., m.e.i.c, personal 551 

Walkem, Geo. A., m.e.i.c, personals 212, 591 

Wallace, Herbert L., obituary 371 

Wass, S. B., a.m.e.i.c, Improvements to Moncton Yard and 

Engine Facilities 445 

Water Power Lectures at University of Toronto 205 

Williams, Professor G. M., A.M.E.I.C, Some Fallacies in Concrete 

Proportioning Theories 465 

Woodward, E. R. Jr.E.i.c. The Lignite Briquetting Plant, 

Bienfait, Sask 185 

Students' Prize Winner 155 

Wolsey, R. B., personal 598 

Western Irrigation Association 435, 472 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 1 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 




JANUARY 1922 



CONTENTS 



Volume V, No. 1 



American Railway Association 24 

Publications of the British Engineering 

Standards Association 24 

Errata 24 

Annual Meeting 25 



GENERAL OIL REFINING PRACTICE, C. D. Dean, A.M.E.I.C 3 

THE PLACE OF THE LABORATORY IN STANDARDIZATION, W. P. Dobson, M.E.I.C 11 

EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS:— 

Greetings 22 

Annual Meeting Announcement 22 

Transactions of Other Societies 22 

Institute Songs 22 

Acknowledgement of Courtesies 23 

Registration — Pro and Con 23 

CORRESPONDENCE :— 

Advertising in The Journal 26 

SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, MONTREAL SECTION 26 

CANADIAN SITKA SPRUCE 26 

EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 27 

MEMBERS' EXCHANGE 27 

IMPERIAL OIL LTD. COAL HANDLING PLANT AT SARNIA 27 

BRITISH INDUSTRIES FAIR 27 

OBITUARIES 28 

PERSONALS 28 

BRANCH NEWS 30 

TOWN PLANNING NOTES AND COMMENTS, H. L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C 43 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 45 

ENGINEERING INDEX (facing page 48) 1 

The Institute does not hold itself responsible for the opinions expressed by the 
authors of the papers published in its records, or for discussions at any of its meetings, 
or for individual views transmitted through the medium of The Journal. 



Published by 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



176 Mansfield St., Montreal 



BRANCHES: 



Halifax Branch, Halifax, N.S. 

Cape Breton Branch, Sydney, Cape Breton. 

Moncton Branch, Moncton, N.B. 

St. John Branch, St. John, N.B. 

Quebec Branch, Quebec, Que. 

Montreal Branch, Montreal, Que. 

Ottawa Branch, Ottawa, Ont. 

Kingston Branch, Kingston, Ont. 

Peterborough Branch, Peterborough, Ont. 

Toronto Branch, Toronto, Ont. 

Hamilton Branch, Hamilton, Ont. 



Niagara Peninsula Branch, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

London Branch, London, Ont. 

Border Cities Branch, Windsor, Ont. 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Winnipeg Branch, Winnipeg, Man. 

Saskatchewan Branch, Regina, Sask. 

Lethbridge Branch, Alta. 

Edmonton Branch, Edmonton, Alta. 

Calgary Branch, Calgary, Alta. 

Vancouver Branch, Vancouver, B.C. 

Victoria Branch, Victoria, B.C. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Members of Council for 1921 

PREIDENT 
J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Montreal. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 
tH. G. ACRES, Niagara Falls, Ont. tWALTER J. FRANCIS, Montreal 

•W. G. CHACE, Toronto, Ont. *BRIG. Gen. C.H. MITCHELL, Toronto 



H. H. VAUGHAN, Montreal. 



•Brig. Gen. Sir ALEX. BERTRAM, Montreal 

tA. C. D. BLANCHARD, Niagara Falls. 

•W. P. BRERETON, Winnipeg, Man. 

tFREDERICK B. BROWN, Montreal. 

tF. A. BOWMAN. Halifax, N.S. 

tH. M. BURWELL. Vancouver, B.C. 

tH. S. CARPENTER, Regina Sask. 

JJ. B. CHALLIES, Ottawa, Ont. 

tG. W. CRAIG. Calgary, Alta. 

•H. B. R. CRAIG, London, Ont. 

tA. R. DECARY, Quebec, P.Q- 

•For 1921 



PAST PRESIDENTS 
LT.-CoI. R. W. Leonard, St. Catharines, Ont. 

COUNCILLORS 
tR. L. DOBBIN, Peterborough, Ont. 
JG. B. DODGE, Ottawa, Ont. 
tGUY C. DUNN, Toronto, Ont. 
*L. B. ELLIOTT, New Westminster, B.C. 
*G. GORDON GALE, Hull, P.Q. 
•J. E. GIBAULT, Quebec, P.Q. 
•ALEX. GRAY, St. John, N.B. 
tE. R. GRAY, Hamilton, Ont. 
tH. L. JOHNSTON, Victoria, B.C. 
tC. C. KIRBY, St. John, N.B. 
•G. D. MACKIE, Moose Jaw, Sask. 
tFor 1921-22 



R. A. ROSS, Montreal. 



tS. S. OLIVER, Montreal, P.Q. 
tS. G. PORTER, Lethbridge, Alta. 
•W. A. McLEAN, Toronto, Ont. 
tJ. R. C. MACREDIE, Moose Jaw, Sask. 
tW. M. SCOTT, Winnipeg, Man. 
tF. P. SHEARWOOD, Montreal. 
tJULIAN C. SMITH, Montreal. 
•ARTHUR SURVEYER, Montreal. 
tK. B. THORNTON, Montreal. 
JC. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 
GEO. A. WALKEM, Vancouver. 
tFor 1921-22-23 



TREASURER 
Brig. Gen. SIR ALEX. BERTRAM, Montreal. 



SECRETARY 
FRASER S. KEITH, Montreal. 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, C. E. W. DODWELL 
Sec.-Treas., O. S. COX 

Asst. Engineer Public Works Dept., 

Halifax, N.S. 
Executive, H. W. L. DOANE 

F. R. FAULKNER J. B. HAYES 
W. P. MORRISON K. H. SMITH 
L. H. WHEATON 

(Ex-Officio) F. A. BOWMAN 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, C. M. ODELL 
Sec.-Treas., K. G. CAMERON 

Bk. of Commerce Bldg., Sydney, N.S. 
Executive, D. S. MORRISON 

D. F. MacISAAC H. LONGLEY 
ST. JOHN 

Chairman, FRANK P. VAUGHAN 
Sec.-Treas. HARRY F. BENNETT 

P.O. Box 1417, St. John, N.B. 
Executive, G. G. MURDOCH, A. G. TAPLEY 
A. DUFRESNE 

G. N. HATFIELD 
(Ex-Officio) ALEX. GRAY C. C. KIRBY 

MONCTON 

Chairman, J. D. McBEATH 
Vice-Chair., S. B. WASS 
Sec.-Treas. M. J. MURPHY 

Asst. Engr., C.N.R., Moncton 
Executive, A. F. STEWART F. O. CONDON 
R. G. GAGE R. McMANUS 

H. J. CRUDGE F. B. FRIPP 
QUEBEC 

Chairman, A. R. DECARY 
Vice-Chair., ALEX. FRASER 
Sec.-Treas. H. CIMON, 

8 Laporte St., Quebec. 
Executive, L. C. DUPUIS PAUL JONCAS 

J. A. BUTEAU A. B. NORMANDIN 
(Ex-Officio) J. E. GIBAULT 

MONTREAL 

Chairman, J. H. HUNTER 
Vice-Chair., J. A. DUCHASTEL 
Sec.-Treas. J. L. BUSFIELD 

260 St. James St., Montreal 
Executive, tA. E. DUBUC 

tCHAS. M. McKERGOW 

tS. F. RUTHERFORD 

•JOHN T. FARMER 

•O. O. LEFEBVRE 

•GEORGE R. MACLEOD 
(Ex-Officio) Brig-Gen. Sir ALEX BERTRAM 

FRED. BROWN 

WALTER J. FRANCIS 

F. A. ROSS 

F. P. SHEARWOOD 
JULIAN C. SMITH 
ARTHUR SURVEYER 
K. B. THORNTON 

S. S. OLIVER 
OTTAWA 

Chairman, r. p. EDWARDS 
Sec.-Treas. F. C. C. LYNCH 

Dept. of Interior, Motor Building, Ottawa. 
Executive, K. M. CAMERON A. FERGUSON 
O. S. FINNIE J. E. BROWN 

M. F. COCHRANE 
(Ex-Officio) J. B. CHALLIES G. B. DODGE 
G. GORDON GALE 

PETERBOROUGH 

Hon. Chair R. H. PARSONS 
Chairman, P. L. ALLISON 
Vice-Chair., P. P. WESTBYE 
Secretary D. I. McLAREN 

291 Stewart St., Peterborough, Ont. 
Treasurer, A. B. GATES 
Executive, E. R. SHIRLEY H. O. FISK 

A. L. KILLALY 

G. R. LANGL Y 
JAS. MACKINTOSH 

B. L. BARNES 
Ex-Officio) R. L. DOBBIN 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, W. P. WILGAR 
Vice-Chair., L. M. ARKLEY 
Sec.-Treas. L. T. RUTLEDGE 

262 University Ave., Kingston 
Executive, J. M. CAMPBELL A. McPHAIL 
D. J. EMERY 
TORONTO 

Chairman G. T. CLARKE 

Vice-Chair., Wm. STORRIE 

Sec.-Treas. F. B. GOEDIKE 

201 Humberside Ave., Toronto 

Executive, PETER GILLESPIE 
G. G. POWELL 
M. V. SAUER H. J. LAMB 
J. M. OXLEY R. C. MUIR 

(Ex-Officio) W. A. McLEAN C. R. YOUNG 

HAMILTON 

Hon. Chair. ROBERT HOBSON 
Chairman, E. H. DARLING 
Vice-Chair., E. H. DARLING 
Sec.-Treas. W. F. McLAREN 
c/o Canadian Westinghouse Co , Hamilton, Ont. 
Executive, H. GRAHAM BERTRAM 

W. G. MILNE F. W. PAULIN 
J. W. TYRRELL 
(Ex-Officio) R. K. PALMER E. R. GRAY 

LONDON 

Hon. Chair., J. DAVIS BARNETT 
Chairman, H. A. BRAZIER 
Vice-Chair., W. J. FORBES MITCHELL 
Sec.-Treas. GEO. C. WRIGHT 
Executive, F. A. BELL F. J. URE 

H. SMITH E. I. LEONARD 

W. C. MILLER 
(Ex-Officio) H. B. R. CRAIG 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, N. R. GIBSON 
Vice-Chair., F. S. LAZIER 
Sec.-Treas. REX. P. JOHNSON 

Box 245, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Executive, F. E. STERNS S. R. FROST 

W. H. SULLIVAN H. L. BUCKE 
(Ex-Officio) Lt.-Col. R. W. LEONARD 

H. G. ACRES 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, GEO. E. PORTER 
Sec.-Treas. J. CLARK KEITH 
Executive, L. M. ALLAN A. J. M. BOWMAN 
H. C. McMORDIE 



SAULT STE MARIE 

Chairman, K. G. ROSS 
Vice-Chair., B. E. BARNHILL 
Sec.-Treas. F. T. GNAEDINGER 

Const. Depart., Algoma Steel Corp., 

Sault Ste. Marie. 
Executive, tJ. W LeB. ROSS 
tF. F. GRIFFIN 
tL. L. JACOBS 
•C. H. E. ROUNTHWAITE 
*J. G. McLAURIN 
*L. R. BROWN 
WINNIPEG 

Chairman, E. P. FETHERSTONHAUGH 
Sec.-Treas. GEO. L. GUY 

503 Tribune Bldg., Winnipeg 
Executive, tJ. G. LEGRAND 

tD. A. ROSS 

*A. J. S. TAUNTON 

*B. S. McKENZIE 

•J. M. LEAMY 
(Ex-Officiio) W. P. BRERETON 

GUY C. DUNN 

W. M. SCOTT 



SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, W. R. WARREN 
Vice-Chair., J. R. C. MACREDIE 
Sec.-Treas. D. A. R. McCANNEI. 

City Engineers Dept., Regina, Sask. 
Executive, C. J. MACKENZIE 

W. H. GREENE 

J. W. CALDER 

H. McIVOR WEIR 

C. W. DILL 

a. J. Mcpherson 

(Ex-Officio) G. D. MACKIE, H. S. CARPENTER 
J. R. C. MACREDIE 

LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, SAM G. PORTER 
Sec.-Trea. C. M. ARNOLD 
Executive, G. N. HOUSTON H. W. MEECH 
C. D. MACKINTOSH 



EDMONTON 
Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Sec.-Treas. 

Executive, 



CALGARY 
Chairman, 
Sec.-Treas. 



Executive, 
(Ex-Officio) 



VANCOUVER 
Chairman, 
Vice-Chair., 
Sec.-Treas. 

930 Birks 
Executive, 



C. A. ROBB 
J. G. REID 
R. H. DOUGLAS 

Railway Dep't, Edmonton, Alta. 
II. H. TRIPP 
R. W. JONES 

C. F. CORBETT 

A. G. STEWART 

D. J. STEWART 

B. L. THORNE 
ARTHUR L. FORD 

District Chief Engineer, Dominion 
Water Power Branch, Calgary, Alta. 

F. W. ALEXANDER 
P. J. JENNINGS 
R. S. TROWSDALL 
P. TURNER BONE 

G. W. CRAIG 



CHAS. BRAKENBRIDGE 
A. C. EDDY 
P. H. BUCHAN 
Building, Vancouver, B.C. 
J. N. ANDERSON WM. SMAIL 
R. G. EDWARDS R. G. E. LECKIE 
(Ex-Officio) H. M. BURWELL 
GEO. A. WALKEM 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, E. G. MARRIOTT 
Vice-Chair., E. N. HORSEY 
Secretary, H. M. BIGWOOD, 

610 Belmont House, Victoria, B.C. 
Treasurer, E. P. GIRDWOOD 
Executive, E. F. COOKE D. O. LEWIS 
J. B. HOLDCROFT 
ONTARIO PROVINCIAL DIVISION 
Chairman, Col. W. H. MAGWOOD 
Vice-Chair., W. A. McLEAN 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS 
Lt.-Col. R. W. LEONARD 
Brig.-Gen. C. H MITCHELL 
H. G. ACRES G. G. GALE 

J. B. CHALLIES G. B. DODGE 
W. A. McLEAN C. R. YOUNG 
R. L. DOBBIN E. R. GRAY 
A. C. D. BLANCHARD 
H. B. R. CRAIG 
GEO. HOGARTH 
REPRESENTATIVES OF BRANCHES 
P. L. ALLISON, Peterborough Branch 
WILLIS CHIPMAN, Toronto Branch 
REX. P. JOHNSON, Niagara Peninsula Branch 
A. B. LAMBE, Ottawa Branch 
J. J. NEWMAN, Border Cities Branch 
R. K. PALMER, Hamilton Branch 
F. M. PERRY, Sault Ste. Marie Branch 
W. P. WILGAR, Kingston Branch 

REPRESENTATIVES OF NON-RESIDENT 
MEMBERS 
J. A. BELL 
H. A. BRAZIER 
G. H. BRYSON 
S. B. CLEMENT 
Col. W. H. MAGWOOD 
F. D. REID 

Sec.-Treas., A. B. LAMBE, Dominion 
Power Board, Journal Building, Ottawa, Ont. 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Published Monthly at 176 Mansfield Street, Montreal 

By 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

INCORPORATED IN 1887 AS 
THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 



Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, As Second Class Matter 



Volume V 



MONTREAL, JANUARY 1922 



Number 1 



General Oil Refining Practice 

Selection of refinery site; boiler plant and pumping requirements, 

details of distillation and treatment processes for oils, pitches and 

asphalts; storage; fire protection precautions; railway 

trackage and wharf requirements. 

CD. Dean, A.M.E.I.C. 
Paper presented before Toronto Branch, The Engineering Institute of Canada, October 21st, 1920. 



Among all the great mass of technical literature, 
that devoted to petroleum refining, is very meagre, partly 
on account of the great complexity in the physical and 
chemical characteristics of crude oil and the products 
therefrom. In the past the technologists in the industry 
have been made from within and the extensions they 
made to the knowledge of the art were of a confidential 
nature until comparatively recent times, when the aca- 
demically trained man with the scientific mind has found 
a place therein with the result that literature pertaining 
to petroleum has made its appearance, and no doubt 
from now on will increase in scope and volume. 

The difficulty confronting anyone interested in the 
art and anxious to get a quantitative as differentiated 
from a qualitative knowledge of the industry is the preli- 
minary data to which the usual engineering principles 
can be applied and in this paper by courtesy of Imperial 
Oil, some — at least — of this data will be given. 



Selection of Refinery Site 

In the selection of a refinery site, aside from the usual 
economic consideration such as, markets, transportation, 
land values, labor and taxation, the primary physical 
requirement is fresh water in comparatively large quanti- 
ties for boiler and condensing purposes. Sea-board plants 
use sea water for condensing purposes if fresh water is 
scarce or difficult to obtain, but one sea-board plant 
secures fresh water from a river 22 miles away. 

Depending on the method of receiving crude and 
shipping finished products, as well as the variety of pro- 
ducts to be manufactured, it is found that from 10 to 20 
acres of land will be required per 1000 barrels of crude 
capacity daily. To minimize pumping heads, steam and 
electric power transmission losses, etc. the area should 
preferably be square and level, but as standard trackage 
is a necessity not only to handle current car movements, 
but also as storage for surplus empties, a rectangular 
area is usually selected — if available. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



The total water requirements are usually found to lie 
between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 Imperial Gallons per 1000 
barrels crude capacity daily, depending on the variety of 
manufacture, and ordinarily the pumping rate will be 
found to be quite uniform. For plants located on level 
ground the combined static and friction heads are rarely 
over 100 feet and during the past ten year the use of 
centrifugal pumps for this purpose, operating at speeds 
of 1500 to 2000 R.P.M., has increased, due to their well- 
known characteristic of flexibility. 

Aside from the requirements for mechanical power 
and heating, a great amount of steam is required for 
distillation and other uses in the process of refining and 
it is found that the steam requirements in our Canadian 
climate necessitates a boiler plant of between 500 and 650 
H.P. per 1000-35 I.G. barrels crude daily. The load is 
usually found to vary quite widely and overloads for 
sustained periods 25 per cent above nominal rating are 
common. The water tube boiler is now coming into 
general use, but the nominal rating is figured 50 percent 
higher than the builders' rating and there is sufficient 
overload capacity left to take care of the variations 
encountered in refinery work. 

Boiler Plant 

Oil refining is a process carried on throughout the 
24 hours each day and the boiler plant is the mainstay 
on which operation depend. The selection of the proper 
size of units for a boiler plant is sometimes rather 
difficult, but for refineries of up to 10,000 barrels of crude 
daily, 300 to 500 H.P. units are used. Above 10,000 
barrels per day crude capacity, any large size of unit 
can be used, but it is generally felt that not more than 
15 percent of the boiler capacity should be shut down 
at a time for repairs or cleaning. 

As one-third of the total refinery fuel requirements 
which if liquid fuel, would vary between 20 and 30 percent 
of the crude run daily, is consumed in the boiler plant, 
economizers and super-heaters, the former preferred, 
are a regular installation and it is pretty generally the 
present day to install recording thermometers and water 
and steam meters, as well as C02 recorders, etc. in order 
to check and maintain efficiency and to ascertain correctly 
steam costs. 

In certain locations fuel oil is used as refinery fuel, 
but it has so many advantages of an economic nature that 
makes it ideal as a fuel for ships and for heating purpo- 
ses in cities, especially for offices and for public and 
private institutions, where transportation or cartage is a 
considerable item in fuel costs, that an effort is usually 
made to leave the fuel oil for these purposes. Generally 
speaking, coal is favoured as a refinery fuel and when it is 
used in boiler plants, especially in those of 1500 H.P. and 
up, stokers and power driven coal and ash handling appar- 
atus are used, as in nearly every case they can be econo- 
mically justified. 

It is the general practice to locate the steam plant as 
near as possible to the centre of the refineries and carry 
the steam pipes supported on stanchions to the points 
where steam is used. In many of the processes, exhaust 
steam is as advantageous as the live steam and a network 
of exhaust lines, practically duplicating the live steam 



lines is installed. The steam pressures vary from 100 to 
125 pounds gauge, while the exhaust line pressures are 
usually set at from 6 to 10 pounds gauge with an average 
of 8 pounds, and standard steel line pipe is used in both 
cases. 

In general, it is found that the uses for exhaust steam 
are so varied and continuous that no waste from the ex- 
haust lines occurs, and it is a rare thing to see the relief 
valves on them blowing. The current practice is to cover 
live steam lines with one inch of 85 percent magnesia, and 
one inch of hair felt with staggered joints and a final pro- 
tective covering of roofing felt, while the exhaust lines 
have only a covering of one inch of 85 percent magnesia 
with roofing felt protection. 

Under these conditions the radiation losses in live 
steam lines are found to be approximately .248 B.T.U. 
per hour per square foot of external surface of pipe per 
degree difference in temperature between the steam and 
the outside air. The radiation losses from the exhaust 
lines are found to be approximately .463 B.T.U. per hour 
per square foot of external surface of pipe per degree diffe- 
rence in temperature between the steam and the outside 
air. Taking the average boiler load, throughout the year 
it is found that the actual heat losses, from both live and 
exhaust lines, rarely exceed 5 percent of the generated 
steam. 

The prices of coal have risen so much, compared with 
the prices of insulating materials, that a double jacket 
on exhaust lines would probably be financially justified. 
In designing live steam lines, the effort is made to 
keep the pressure drop for lines supplying large units of 
power to not more than 5 pounds. 

Power Requirements 

The requirements for mechanical power for pumping 
and other purposes, up to a few years ago, were all provid- 
ed for directly by steam apparatus. In pumping, the dup- 
lex steam pump was used, while the throttling and occa- 
sionally the automatic cut off steam engine was depend- 
ed on for the general mechanical purposes, incident to the 
business. For some time a controversy raged, as to 
whether or not there was a loss in using power apparat- 
us, which required large quantities of live steam when 
the exhaust could be used so conveniently in the process. 

It has been found by more refined investigation that 
the losses incident to the blowing of exhaust lines have 
been practically eliminated by the use of more efficient 
steam using apparatus and besides a real saving in boiler 
fuel for the same refining capacity has resulted from the 
same cause, seemingly altogether due to the more efficient 
use of the heat units absorbed in the prime movers. 

The substitution of the centrifugal pump for the old 
style steam pump has had the largest effect in determining 
the modern trend for mechanical power in oil refining work. 
It is the nearest approach to a duplex steam pump for 
reliability in refining operations where liquids of a visco- 
sity comparable with water are to be handled and its use 
has introduced the electric motor. Profuse lighting is a 
necessity for oil refineries and with the advent of the 
electric motor, an electric power plant became standard 
apparatus in a well ordered layout. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



It is usually found for lighting and all mechanical 
purposes, except pumping high viscosity oils, the electric 
power consumption for a plant on level ground will be 
approximately 1000 K.W. hours per 1000 barrels of crude 
run. For plants built on sloping ground where compara- 
tively high static pumping heads are encountered, it will 
be found that the electric power consumption will vary 
between 1500 and 1750 K.W. hours per 1000 barrels of 
crude run. 

It is generally found that the maximum peak at the 
switch-board will be not more than 2-1 J^ times the 24 hour 
average, and the demand factor, figuring input to motors 
and watts per lamp, ranges around 40 percent, but this 
latter figure must be accepted with reservations for ob- 
vious reasons. As far as the peak load ratio is concerned, 
intermittent services like loading and discharging steamers 
are not included because as they usually occur throughout 
a 24 hour period continuously, they simply add their input 
rating to the refinery peak. While it is true the refinery 
process is continous, it is found that the peaks occur be- 
tween 7 a.m. and 6 p.m. 

The power characteristics usually selected are 440 
volt, 3 phase, 60 cycles or 25 cycles-depending to some 
extent on the type of prime mover, and 440 volt apparatus 
was chosen primarily, because of the opinion that prevailed 
that this voltage would be safer for the operators, 
although the writer believes doubts on this points are 
confessed. The lighting voltage is all 120 and in the case 
of a small refinery is stepped down at the switch-board to 
save transformer costs. For large tramsmissions and 
comparatively large powers, where economically justified 
2200 volts with step-up transformers are used and latterly 
for certain purposes 2200 volt apparatus is coming into 
use, although it is considered in its experimental stage, as 
far as oil refining work is concerned. Motor drives through- 
out are either the constant speed or variable speed induction 
motor, the latter being a rarity as it is only used to drive 
plunger displacement pumps. 

The power factor at the switch-board is found to be 
between .8 and .9 although on occasions the writers has 
seen certain plants go as low as .7, but it will be found that 
if the water pumps are carefully calculated and the oil 
pumps are designed to take the worst case, as far as head 
conditions are concerned, the motors will run close enough 
to full load to give good power fadtor, especially if the 
generator capacity is flexible enough to have as near full 
load operation as possible. The transmission lines give 
a line loss of from 5 to 8 percent and trunk lines are gen- 
erally liberally figured, because of the certainty of adding 
additional apparatus from time to time. 

The type of prime mover used to drive the generators, 
is either steam engines or turbines oil engines of the full 
Diesel or semi-diesel type and gas engines. The steam 
engine is favored for units up to 200 H.P. each, while for 
larger units than this the direct connected turbine or the 
belted oil engine is chosen with preference for the former 
unless the advantages of the latter are overwhelmingly 
in its favour. 

The gas engine driven units are not adopted unless 
the plant is located contiguous to a large field yielding 
natural gas or unless the refinery produces large quanti- 
ties of by-product gas and only then when fuel is high, 
giving the gas a high comparative value. As a rule the oil 



and gas engines are not flexible and cannot respond to 
overload without distress, and the manufacturers usually 
recommend that they be operated on continuous loads of 
80 percent or less than their rating. 

Crude Oil Reception 

Crude oil in quantities is received by tank car, by 
pipe line and by tank ship, or any combination of these 
methods. The most favoured means are by tank car or 
tank ship, because these means are independent of any 
field. As a rule, oil producing is a hazardous game and 
a pipe line usually requires a comparatively large capital 
expenditure. For short distances to the sea-board, a 
pipe line is preferred to tank cars, if the field warrants, 
while for long distances over land, the decision for pipe 
is a matter of considerable moment, and requires the 
exercise of judgment, based on long experience in the 
vagaries of oil production. 

When crude is received by pipe line the tankage 
for receiving it is usually in two units of sufficient capacity 
to hold a full week of pumping to guard against possible 
shut-downs of the line which frequently occur, enough 
to warrant the expenditure for this safe-guard. The two 
units are necessary to gauge receipts properly. 

When receipts occur by tank cars, provision must 
be made for interruptions in railway service, as well as 
for the vagaries of train movements and transfers, so that 
it is customary to carry about one week's supply, although 
it is not unusual for the tank car situation itself to dictate 
the amount of storage necessary for crude because of 
fluctuations and peaks in the movement of finished pro- 
ducts at certain periods of the year. When crude is receiv- 
ed by tank ship the capacity of the largest ship, plus 
about 15 days supply must be provided for due to the 
hazards of navigation and the difficulty of adhering to 
a pre-arranged schedule. 

In the case of crude receipts by tank cars, pumps 
must be provided for unloading and these are usually made 
large enough to permit unloading and the re-dispatch of 
the empties within the standard 8 or 10 hours day or 
between switchings if two per day can be arranged. While 
it may seem like an economic waste to dispatch cars 
empty, the fact is cars in crude service must be cleaned 
to carry refined oils and besides the cost of cleaning and 
the time lost to do this, is the uncertainty of load in 
the direction of the crude supply. Tank ships are equipped 
with steam pumps for discharging their cargoes, 
but the rate of discharge which should be high to minim- 
ize avoidable demurrage, is influenced by two factors; 
the capacity of the ship's boilers and the allowable pres- 
sure on the hose connecting the ship to the permanent 
lines on the dock. If the lines to the crude tankage are 
long or if the static head ashore is comparatively high, 
shore booster pumps are used of large enough capacity to 
accommodate the rate of discharge of the largest ship. 

First Distillation 

The first distillation of crude oil occurs in crude stills, 
which are operated either continously in a battery or batch 
singly. Sometimes a combination of methods is used 
but the effort always is to get the most out of the crudes 
without using too much apparatus and the whole opera- 
ton depends on the characteristics of the crudes - no two 
of which are alike. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



In the first distillation the separations that are made 
are naphtha distillate, refined oil distillate, gas oil, lubri- 
cating distillate and fuel oil, as well as coke if distillation 
is carried to dryness. These distillates are usually run 
to gravities which have a range of boiling points, in which 
considerable latitude is necessary but the aim is to approx- 
imate a degree of separation that reduces the necessity 
for subsequent distillation. 

The continuous method lends itself to an exchange 
of heat between the ingoing charge and the distilled vapour, 
as well as the residual bottoms and thereby gives an 
opportunity for fuel saving, but it is only used when run- 
ning for fuel oil or in refining parlance topping, because it 
does not give good separation. In running for fuel oil, 
the aim is to prevent cracking and while distillation occurs 
at what is called "atmospheric pressure" the temperature 
rises and reaches the critical temperature for certain frac- 
tions. To eliminate this tendency in distillation, the 
temperature are reduced by introducing dry steam, which 
owes its efficacy to the law of partial pressures, but which, 
as before mentioned, cause the fractions to overlap. 

To get the most from crude in the sense of securing 
all the products with characteristics that are the most 
useful in industry, it seems to be necessary to distil to 
coke and do whatever cracking will naturally occur with 
a given crude at atmospheric distillation, which in reality 
is about H pound gauge. 

In skimming operation alone it is ordinarily found 
that from 8 to 35 cubic feet of fixed gas, under standard con- 
ditions, is produced per barrel of crude run, while in cok- 
ing from 50 to 120 cubic feet of fixed gas is produced, 
and it is found that a relation exists between the gas and 
coke produced. There is a distilling loss which probably 
averages for paraffine base crudes around 5 percent, but 
for asphaltic crudes goes as high as 15 percent. As far as 
they will apply, considering the uncertain element from 
cracking, the specific heat of oil on the pound degree Fahr- 
enheit basis is l / 2 B.T.U., while the latent heat ranges 
between 140 and 150 B.T.U. per pound for atmospheric 
distillation. 

An effort is made to secure as good fractionation as 
possible in the first distillation by using reflux towers 
through which air circulates and knocks down the heavier 
fractions in the vapour stream. In designing these towers 
they are made as flexible as possible by some system of 
control of the air circulation and for certain crudes and 
certain rates of running, it is sometimes necessary to 
jacket the towers, at least, in part. 

The modern still of 1000 barrels charging capacity, 
has two towers and 3 worms or condensing coils, or 3 tow- 
ers and 4 worms and the design of worms is made alto- 
gether on the basis of a low rate of heat transference, about 
1000 B.T.U. per square foot of surface per hour, so as to 
provide great flexibility. Ordinarily the stills run either 
a 2 day or 3 day schedule, depending on the characteristics 
of the crude. " The condensing water used is altogether 
based on the heat to be extracted from the oil and the rate 
of distillation, and for oils that have no viscosity the 
temperature is allowed to go as high as 120 to 140° F. 

For such oils as have viscosity at ordinary tempera- 
tures, as would retard flow in the worms and thereby 
increase the time schedule the practice is to cool these 



to a temperature that gives them low viscosity and this 
is done by taking the condenser water at 120 or 140° F. 
from the light worms and using it to cool the contents of 
the heavier worms. 

It will be appreciated that distilling to coke means 
very high temperature and the flue gases reach as high 
as 2000° F. towards the end of the run. As a general 
thing, the temperature of operations are all very high 
and as a result the labour needed to affect current repairs 
is as great as that needed in the operations. All still 
equipment is designed to permit the making of repairs as 
cheaply as possible by arranging the fire sheets and brick 
work so as to minimize the amount of tearing down in 
order to affect the real repairs. For the same reason the 
worms are built of cast iron flanged pipe installed so 
that any section can be removed and replaced without 
disturbing the other parts. 

The draw-offs from the towers are arranged so that 
they can be sent back to the stills or on through the worm 
to the receiving-house and the run-backs to the stills are 
equipped with traps. Each worm runs to a look-box 
or turret in the receiving-house and the manifolds deliver- 
ing to the receiving tanks are ordinarily placed in the 
ground floor of the buildings. 

The gas is taken from the discharge end of the worms 
by a suction of about 2- 3^ inches of water, so as not to 
lift off any light vapours. 

Treatment of Distillates 

The finishing of the distillates is done by treating 
to remove unsaturated compounds, which give odor 
and color, etc. and subsequently distilling, but the order 
in which these are done depends on the product. In gen- 
eral, it may be said that treating is the first process in naph- 
thas and refined oils and the last process in lubricating 
oils, but this is not necessarily so. 

The treating of naphtha distillates is done either 
continuously or batch, and consists in bringing the distillate 
into intimate contact with commercial sulphuric acid of 
66° Be. and after the re-actions have proceeded allow the 
sludge to settle out. The oil is then washed with water 
to remove all traces of the acid that can be removed by 
this means, then settled again, after which it is treated 
with caustic soda or soda ash to neutralize the acid that 
still remains. The sludge is again settled out after which 
the oil is washed with water. In general, it is found that 
the quantity of water required in treating is equal to about 
35 I.G. per barrel, while the quantities of acid vary be- 
tween Yi and 12 pounds per barrel, and the quantity of 
soda solution is approximately 12 gallons per barrel. There 
is always a loss in treating, varying between Yi and 3 
percent. 

From the treating plant the naphtha distillate is 
ready for finishing and is charged constinuously to a steam 
still, where the gasoline is extracted by fractionation leav- 
ing a bottom or residue that is largely kerosene. 

Steam stills, since they run continuously, are equipped 
with vapour heat exchangers, oil heat exchangers, oil 
coolers, water separators, etc., and in addition have over 
the still a large tower, where the ingoing charge trickles 
over stones through which the out-going vapours pass. 
The object of the tower is to knock down any kerosene 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



fractions that may be leaving the still with the gasoline. 
The heating medium free, live or exhaust steam, is intro- 
duced into the still beneath the oil surface and it owes 
its efficacy to the operation of the law of partial pressures, 
previously mentioned. The pressure in the still is not 
allowed to exceed about y>, pound gauge, if possible, but 
on occasions it may, and the still is, therefore, usually built 
with spherical head's or is otherwise braced. These stills 
are built usually of 1200 or 1500 barrels batch capacity 
and the running rate depends on the condensing surface 
in the worms which is, therefore, made ample. It is found 
that approximately 8 pounds of steam is required per gal- 
lon of gasoline or roughly 1 pound steam per pound of gaso- 
line overhead and the charge is fed at the rate of about 60 to 
75 barrels per hour per still, requiring about 450 to550boiler 
horsepower depending on the percentage taken overhead. 
On the condenser end of the vapour line means is provided 
for expanding the vapours before they enter the worm so as 
to take out any condensed steam and at the outlet end 
of the worm a trap is provided that takes out the most 
of the water from the interior of the worm and discharges 
it to a sewer. It may be mentioned here that for this 
and all other stills, about a two inch thickness of magne- 
sia blocks and a weather protection is used to minimize 
radiation losses. 

The treating of refined oil distillate is similar to that 
for naphthas, except that this is always batch in a loose 
top cone bottom agitator. The reason for this is that 
the oil has some viscosity and it is difficult to get an 
intimate mix of the chemicals and oil without violent agi- 
tation. This agitation is secured either by blowing with 
air or by circulating through a pump. Blowing with air 
means large losses; circulation with a pump means longer 
time and therefore large investment, but at the present 
time, both systems are in use. If, however, the oil 
contains large quantities of sulphur, blowing must be 
resorted to in order to get efficient chemical action. 

After treatment and neutralization, the kerosene 
distillate is charged continuously to a battery of rerun 
stills which are, as in the case of crude stills, of about 1000 
barrels capacity each, using bottom steam. With these 
stills use is made of vapour heat exchangers and towers, 
as well as oil heat exchangers and coolers for the residual 
bottoms. The condensation in the vapour heat exchan- 
ger and the tower is removed through separate cooling coils, 
while the vapours passing the tower are conducted into a 
worm. From these stills is taken a gasoline cut and 
refined oil as well as what is known as a re-run cut for re- 
treatment and re-distillation and the bottoms go to fuel 
oil. 

There are many specifications for gasoline and refined 
oil, but in operating in the refinery the former is run for 
boiling points, while the latter is run for flash and vis- 
cosity which in a measure are imperfectly related. 

The lubricating distillate contains the waxes or at 
least most of them, and before it is ready for finishing 
and treating, this wax must be removed. Present day 
practice involves the cooling by refrigeration of the whole 
distillate to between 32° F. and 0° F. and forcing the 
distillate under about 1000 pounds per square inch through 
filter presses where the wax crystallizes out and allows 
the oil to drip through. In cooling the distillate, it is 
fed through chilling machines, which are a series of long 



pipes, in which screw conveyors work to prevent the 
wax from adhering, and around which the brine is cir- 
culated. It requires a press for every 200 to 250 barrels 
of distillate and about 25 tons of refrigeration per press. 
After the press is full of wax, the filter plates are loosened 
and the slack wax drops into a hopper with a conveyor in 
the bottom, where it is broken up into small blocks and 
discharged into rundown tanks. In the rundown tanks 
the wax is melted and heated to quite a high temperature 
when it is pumped to the wax sweaters. 

Slack Wax 

The slack wax contains about 50 percent of its volume 
as oil, which must be removed before the wax is ready 
for treating and finishing in commercial articles. Wax 
sweaters consist of two sets each, consisting of a series, 
usually 12 to 24 shallow pans, one above the other carried 
on a frame work and enclosed within a brick or concrete 
building. The building has no windows, but both ends 
are almost completely doors, and the roof has ample adjus- 
table ventilating openings, while the sidewalls are covered 
with steam coils. 

In each pan is installed a closed coil on top of which 
is a screen of about \i inch mesh, although coarse sand 
is sometimes used. Each pan is filled with cold water 
up to the screen, and on top of this is pumped the hot 
slack wax, after which cold water is circulated through 
the coils if necessary to cool and solidify the wax. After 
the wax has become solid enough the water is run from 
each pan to the sewers and the doors and ventilators 
are shut, after which the steam is turned on in the building 
which heats the air up and allows the wax to soften suffi- 
ciently to allow the entrained oil to filter through to a 
pipe line that carries it to the pressed oil tank where the 
oil, which escaped from the presses when the wax was being 
pressed out, is stored preparatory to being transferred 
for further treatment. After the oil has been sweated 
out, steam is turned on in the coils within the pans which 
melts the wax and allows it to run down a separate line into 
what is known as a rundown tank building, which is plenti- 
fully supplied with steam coils. From this building the 
wax is fed to the wax treating plant, where it is filtered 
through Florida clay to eliminate the colouring matter 
and is then sent to the candle works where it is moulded 
into candles and other shapes for consumption. 

The oil from the wax presses is delivered to the reduc- 
ing department, where it is distilled in reducing stills 
either continuously or batch. These stills are never 
run down to coke and all the overhead distillates are close- 
ly fractionated into the various grades of lubricating 
stocks. The oils all carry considerable viscosity and they 
are allowed to issue quite warm from the ends of the worms, 
from 125° F. on up, depending on the viscosity. The 
bottom is the very high viscosity oils which at tempera- 
tures little below boiling temperature would flow very 
sluggishly, and it is termed a botton product. As cracking, 
which destroys viscosity, is to be eliminated great quantities 
of steam are used, about one pound for each pound of oil 
overhead, which must be disposed of and in order not 
to make it necessary to install too large a worm the steam 
is withdrawn from the worm after the oil has become li- 
quid by a light suction induced by a jet of water. When 
the stills run continuously, an effort in made to converse 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



heat by creating a suction through an exchanger, where 
the steam gives up some of its heat to the ingoing charge. 

The lubricating distillates, including the bottoms, are 
transferred to the treating plant where they are treated 
to remove objectionable matters of various kinds which 
are due to the insaturated compounds. 

The treating is done in agitators which are equipped 
with closed coils running up and down adjoining the 
interior of the shell vertically. After charging, the steam 
is turned on and the batch is heated up to reduce viscosity 
and the acid dumped in successive doses, while the whole 
is agitated violently for some hours by an excess of air. 
The acid heat and the heat from the coils serves to allow 
the sludge to settle out, when it is drawn from the cone 
bottom of the agitator into either an acid coke pit or cook- 
ing kettle. 

The treatment of lubricating oils some times necessi- 
tates as much as 50 pounds of acid per barrel of oil and 
there is a great deal of sulphuric acid left in the sludge and 
in a sludge coke pit ; this is allowed to fester and drop out a 
coke, which can readily be handled and burned. With 
a cooking kettle, however, live steam is turned in the mass 
which separates the uncombined acid and the coke and 
this uncombined acid is pumped to the acid restoring 
plant and the coke, which is much less in amount in this 
case, can be handled and burned. 

The treated oil in the agitator is now transferred to a 
wash tank, which is about double the capacity of the 
agitator, and which is jacketed and equipped with both 
open and closed steam coils. Here the oil is thoroughly 
washed with hot water about 180° F. and as the oil has 
been heavily treated, larger quantities must be used. 
After treating and washing the oil is neutralized with a soda 
solution and again washed with large quantities of hot 
water. The batch is then left in the wash tank and is 
maintained at a high temperature by the steam coils to 
permit the water to settle to the bottom. After all the 
water has settled out that can be eliminated in this way, 
the oil is transferred to a bleacher which is a tank, contained 
within a building, and in which is a large steam coil as well 
as air blowing coils. In the bleacher the oils are blown 
bright, i.e. the moisture is all eliminared, and are then 
transferred to the stock tanks, either for shipment or for 
filtering through clay to remove soapy substances that at- 
tract moisture and that in certain services would be dele- 
terious. 

Pitches and Paving Asphalts 

One of the modern developments in the art of refining, 
which is growing enormously, is the production of pitches 
and paving asphalts from asphaltic base crudes, which 
in America come from California, Texas or Mexico. 

This distillation is conducted batch in 1000 barrel 
stills, the condensers of which have large worm capacity. 
For certain crudes comparatively low in asphalt or pitch 
content, the stills are equipped with one or more towers 
for fractionation, but when the asphalt content is compa- 
ratively high these are notused. Mexican crude is the 
only one that the writer knows of that is used in Canada 
for the production of asphalts. 

The various light oils come over successively, and 
depending on their boiling points comparatively close 
fractionation can be arranged in the tail house on the 
basis of gravities. The present practice is to produce 



asphalts as a bottom product, that is they are not driven 
overhead, on account of the high temperature necessary 
to do this. The steam serves the purpose of preventing 
the rise of temperature and thereby prevents the crack- 
ing of the bottoms, and asphalts can be produced that 
will have a minimum of carbon content. The steam is 
drawn from the worms beyond the point where the oil 
has condensed and is condensed with a water jet in a 
sealed chamber from which the still gas escaping with the 
steam is pulled by exhausters and burned beneath the 
stills. In order to cheapen the cost of operation, insofar 
as the use of bottom steam is concerned, some California 
refineries use vacuum stills operating at from 24 to 26 
inches of vacum, and in addition introduce small quan- 
tities of steam which if properly distributed facilitates 
circulation and thereby prevents local heating. 

High melting asphalts are produced by blowing air 
through the bottom, as it lies in the still and a slow fire 
is maintained beneath. It is claimed that the effect of 
the air is to oxidize some of the hydrogen in the chemical 
structure of the pitches producing the higher in the series 
with consequent raising of the melting point and other 
physical characteristics that go with this. It may be 
mentioned that about 500 cubic feet of free air is required 
per minute per still for oxidizing purposes. 

Distillation under Pressure 

In the early days of petroleum refining the effort 
was made to produce all the refined oil, fuel and lubricat- 
ing stocks that the crude would yield and waste the 
light fractions, now in such great demand, and a good 
crude was considered to be one in which the percentage of 
fractions lighter than those permissible in refined oil was 
low. The development of the motor car, truck and 
tractor has radically changed the situation and crude 
oils are now valued, very largely on the basis of their 
gasoline and lubricating oil content. It was quite natural 
to expect that with a knowledge of the fact that crude 
oil can be cracked at atmospheric pressures in a coking 
still, an effort would be made to see what advantage 
would lie with distillation under pressure. Several 
patents in this direction were secured very early when the 
demand for gasoline showed evidence of exceeding the 
supply, and there are a few that are being commercially 
used on a large scale by big refineries in the United States 
and Canada. There is an immeasurable host of patents 
of this kind appearing every month, but they are mostly 
mechanical deviations from the existing apparatus and 
depend for success on the same principles on which all 
are based. 

The first principle is that oils suffer a redistribution 
of molecular structure when raised to their critical tem- 
peratures and the heavier fractions have critical tempe- 
ratures lower than those for the lighter fractions. 

The second principle is that as pressure is made use 
of to get higher temperatures it is necessary to produce 
a fixed gas as well as condensible vapours in the still in 
order to hold pressure. 

Probably the most successful apparatus in use is 
that covered by the Burton patents now owned by the 
Standard Oil Co. (of Indiana) and licensed to various 
companies in the United States and Canada. The stills 
use a gas or fuel oil of 30 to 35 gravity, as charging stock 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



which contains comparatively heavy fractions, having 
little or no lubricating properties and which would ordi- 
narily reach the market as fuel oils. They are charged 
batch and run semi-continuously at about 96 pounds 
gauge pressure and have a capacity varying between one 
and two hundred barrels each per day. Approximately 
50 percent of 50 gravity distillate is taken off ovehead 
and the bottoms are about 22 to 26 gravity. There is 
a loss of about 3-H percent in operating which is nearly 
all gas. These stills sometimes have quite complicated 
overhead fractionating equipment to knock down for 
recracking the heavier vapors, as there is a rise in still 
temperature occurs of about 100° F. during a run as the 
gravity of the bottom increases. 

The fuel consumption is about 1-8 of the charge if 
liquid fuel and the fixed gas produced is around seventy- 
five cubic feet under standard conditions per barrel charg- 
ed. The still temperatures vary from about 640° to 740° 
F. and the flue temperatures are around 1200° F. The 
latest practice is to install steam superheaters in the flues 
to supply superheated steam to the various continuous 
and reducing stills using bottom steam. 

The distillate is treated either continuously or batch, 
similar to the method of finishing crude naphtha and is 
then distilled continously either in fire stills or steam 
stills and yields gasoline, refined oil and a residual bottom 
which is gas oil. 

The general refinery production of still gas, which 
will average probably about a hundred thousand feet per 
1000 barrels per day, is usually burned in the refinery 
although instances in the United States are not rare where 
it is sold to gas companies direct as enrichment for water 
gas, etc. In refineries a very elaborate system of exhaus- 
ters and gas lines is installed to dispose of it and when 
the production is large with wide fluctuations in the rates 
of production, as sometimes occurs, gasometers are used 
to prevent loss. 

The still gas is usually found to have a heating value 
from 1000 B.T.U.'s per cubic foot to as high as 1800 B.T. 
U's per cubic foot, depending on the amount of gasoline 
vapour carried. Modern practice now calls for absorbers 
to extract the vapours from the gas which is usually done 
by forcing the gas after cooling, under low pressure through 
towers in which a menstruum of gas oil or any other similar 
heavy oil, the inital boiling point of which is considerably 
higher than the final boiling point of the absorbed naphtha 
can be, — is trickling. It is ordinarily found that the 
menstruum will absorb about 10 to 1 1 per cent of its volume 
as naphtha and a gas that will yield one Imperial gallon per 
1000 cubic feet is considered to pay for the extraction. The 
menstruum with entrapped naphtha is steam stilled under 
about 15 pound gauge pressure and the recovered naphtha, 
after treatment, is mixed with the current production of 
naphtha. On steam stilling, it is found that a loss of about 
5 percent of the volume of the menstruum occurs, i.e. this 
amount goes overhead with the naphtha. 

Storage 

Practically everything including waxes and asphalts — ■ 
but of course not coke — is stored in tankage and handled 
by pumping. The tankage is all steel and varies in size 
from 5' diameter by 10' high, having a capacity of 35 
barrels to 120' diameter by 40' high, having a capacity 
of 80,000 barrels. 



The tanks are designed for a stress of 20,000 pounds 
per square inch on the net area of the shell, when full of 
water, but no plate in the shell or bottom is less than \i 
inch thick. Generally speaking the bottom is made of 3-8 
inch steel and the roof plates of 3-16 inch material. The 
roof is designed to carry a wind and snow of 30 pounds 
per square foot and while the practice of a few years ago 
was to install truss roofs quite extensively, the present 
practice is to use I beam supports, bolted at one end and 
free to slide on the other to take care of tank distortion, 
due to settlement of the foundation or varying elongation 
of the materials with differing oil heights. 

Tanks varying in capacity from 20,000 barrels to 80, 
000 barrels weigh about 9 pounds per barrel, while for 
tanks from 10,000 barrels to 20,000 barrels the weight of 
steel per barrel is about 10- \i pounds and for tanks from 
5,000 to 10,000 barrels the weight is about 12- 3^ pounds per 
barrel. 

The space occupied per tank is quite variable, but 
very roughly follows the plan of allowing one square foot 
of ground per barrel capacity. The deviations from this 
rule are frequent however, depending on the shape of the 
tank lot and local regulations, if there are any. As far 
as possible, for light products ,i.e. gasoline, refined oil, fuel 
oil and crude, the tanks are surrounded by dykes - built 
high enough to hold the contents of the tank should disas- 
ter occur, but there is a rule restricting the height of the 
dykes to 6 feet, and it is adhered to quite religiously on 
account of the need for accessibility for hose reels, etc. 

For certain heavy products, such as heavy crude oils, 
fuel oils, lubricating oils, waxes and asphalts, the tanks 
are equipped with very elaborate heating coils, the surface 
of which is designed on the basis of the highest expected 
pumping rate, and in addition, certain lubricating tanks 
and all wax and asphalt tanks are jacketed with four inch 
hollow tile jackets to conserve heat and assist in maintain- 
ing high temperature. Every tank is equipped with two 
or more water draw-offs, in the shell near the bottom, 
which are arranged so as to remain full of oil after the 
water has been withdrawn from the tank. In tanks 25' in 
diameter and larger, two manholes are provided, one on 
the roof and one on the shell near the bottom. 

The oil lines are connected through the shell either 
at the top or the bottom. The top connection is favoured 
by some people, as line breakage does not involve the loss 
of the contents. It does, however, mean a continuous 
maximum pumping head and the bottom connection on 
this account is generally used. To safe-guard as much as 
possible against loss from line breakage, the line inside 
the tank is on a swing either by using a specially construct- 
ed valve or by using two ells so that the entrance of the 
pipe can be raised above the oil level. 

The oil lines are all screwed steel pipe and are made 
large enough to give a total head for a refinery on level 
ground of from 65 to 75 ft., i.e. when centrifugal pumps are 
used, but for asphalts, waxes, etc. the pumping heads vary, 
although initial starting pressures greater than 100 lbs. 
per square inch are not favoured. In general for all 
important inter-refinery process pumping, no line is made 
less than 6". Process pumps, motor driven, are either 
centrifugal driven by constant speed motors, or triplex 
single or double acting, or some of the patented positive 
displacement pumps driven by variable speed motors. 



10 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



In pump-houses, which are located in carefully selected 
locations and are as few in number as possible, the pumps 
and motors are separated by brick walls as an additional 
protection against fire. For certain purposes, such as 
pumping waxes and asphalts, etc., no motor driven appara- 
tus can be used, because the power required at starting 
is several times that required after the volume of oil in 
the line gets moving, and it is usual to put in a high ratio 
duplex steam pump for this work, as the exhaust steam 
need not be wasted. 

Fire Protection 

Fire protection is an important consideration in an 
oil refinery and large expenditures are made to provide 
fire fighting facilities on an elaborate scale. All tanks 
are equipped with 2" steam fire lines, which enter in two 
places on a diameter near the top and which during thun- 
der storms are opened. If steam enters a tank and dis- 
places the air, the risk of fire is nil, but after an explosion 
if the roof blows off, and it nearly always does, steam is 
comparatively useless. During the past five years a new 
system of fighting oil fires has been developed known as 
chemical foam and there are three commercial foam formu- 
las in use now. 

The foams are mixed right at the tank in a mixing 
chamber either within or without and when discharged 
on the surface of burning oil, act as a blanket. The protec- 
tion required per tank is difficult to estimate and is usually 
based on judgment. A conservative figure is that about 
three feet of foam per tank will be needed which is equiva- 
lent to about three gallons of solutions per square foot. 

Current practice does not call for the installation 
of foam storage, totalling the whole risk, and it is customa- 
ry to aprovide storage for, roughly, 10 percent of the tank 
risk. The foam making solutions are kept in separate tanks 
until required. In all the foam making formulas, the 
acid solution consists principally of 10-3^2 to 12 percent 
by weight of aluminum sulphate and 85-^2 to 89 percent 
of water. The soda solution consists of about 8 percent 
of sodium bicarbonate and 89 to 91-3/2 percent of water. 
These produce the carbon dioxide and the other ingredients 
to produce the bubble for containing the gas, differ. 

In the first one glue, glucose and arsenous oxide is 
added to the soda solution. In the second foam powdered 
extract of licorice is added to the acid solution, while in 
the third foamite is added to the soda solution. The 
first two are not used much for new installations, as the 
bubble materials deteriorates rapidly. In all cases, the 
expansion by mixing is about eight to one when fresh 
solutions are used, but ordinarily refinery storage solu- 
tions will give an increase of about 6 3^2 to 1. 

To cover a refinery risk means quite an extensive 
network of lines, as well as powerful pumping equipment, 
and it may be noted that foam hydrants are located at 
strategic points to permit the use of foam an other risks 
besides tanks. 

Probably the most expensive fire fighting apparatus 
consists of the usual water protection. This consists of 
the well known hub and spigot pipe which in refinery 
work is all class "C" and powerful pumping equip- 
ment with boosters wherever necessary. It is the aim 
to provide for at least 12 standard 2 H inch hose at the farth- 
est point in the fire lines. The use of water in oil fires is 
simply to keep surrounding apparatus and tanks, build- 
ings, etc. cool during the progress of a fire to prevent 
insofar as this means will, the widening of the fire area. 



Railway Trackage and Wharf Facilities 

The amount of trackage required at a refinery varies 
considerably and depends on the percentage of the crude 
and finished products that will be moved by rail, as well 
as the amount of tank car storage space desired for seasonal 
variations in the movement of finished products. A 
rough figure of trackage requirements is about a half 
mile per 1000 barrels of crude daily, but for plants located 
on water it will be very much less than this. 

Tank cars for use in the transportation of oil are 
built in accordance with the American Railway Associa- 
tion's specifications for carrying inflammable liquids, 
whose vapour pressure does not exceed 10 gauge at 100° F. 
If however casinghead naphtha is to be moved, Class IV 
tank cars must be used. 

Wharfage facilities for plants erected on navigable 
waters, are, as far as possible, pile structures with deep 
water face, approximately 400 feet long and arranged for 
a boat draft of 20 feet in fresh waters and 30 feet at low tide 
in sea waters. 

The deck loading is figured at about 400 pounds per 
square foot. For certain sea locations, particularly in 
South America loading and discharge of steamers is done 
through undersea lines, which sometimes are laid a mile 
out before sufficient depth of water for boat draft is reach- 
ed. The end of the pipe line is either a hose supported on 
an anchored float or a small deck protected by pile dol- 
phins. Such lines have a life of about four years. 

Repair Shop Equipment 

As mentioned previously, a very large part of the 
expense of refinery operation is due to the excessive repair 
work necessitated by the severe punishment that distill- 
ing and treating apparatus receives in service. On this 
account, mechanical shops, having carpenter, machine, 
boiler, blacksmith and pipe departments are a regular 
installation. 

The customary equipment for the carpenter shop 
is a bandsaw and planer, and for pattern work a wood 
lathe is useful. The machine shop equipment preferably 
consists of two lathes, a planer, two drills, a tool grinder 
and bolt cutter, as well as the miscellaneous small tools, 
incidental to a well equipped machine shop. In the boiler 
shop, plate rolls to handle plates up to 16 feet wide are 
used, although some situations can be cared for by 12' 
rolls. In addition, a power operated punch with at least a 
36" throat and fitted with a shearing device is a necessity, 
as well as a full complement of air drills, hammers, etc. 
The blacksmith shop should have a steam hammer, as 
well as the usual hand forges, etc. The pipe shop should 
be equipped with two pipe machines, one to cut and thread 
pipe from ]4" to 4" and one to handle up to 16" O.D. pipe, 
and in addition, the usual complement of hand tools for 
cutting and threading up to 4" pipe should be available 
for use outside the shop. 

Tank cars require regular repairs, and these together 
with the repairs incident to refining necessitate a store- 
house of ample capacity, fully stocked with standard 
hardware and equipment specialties, as well as brick, 
lime, cement etc. 

It is rather difficult in a paper of this kind to cover 
matters in as great detail as perhaps the importance of the 
subject justifies and in case any one is further interested 
in petroleum refining and wishes to rend an authentic pub- 
lication, no better selection can be made at the present time 
than Bacon and Hamor's American Petroleum Industry. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



11 



The Place of the Laboratory in Standardization. 

Types of engineering standards: measurement, constants, quality, performance, practice; work of the 

laboratory in determining standards, methods employed by the laboratories of 

the Hydro -Electric Power Commission of Ontario 

W.P. Dobson, M.E.I.C. 

Paper presented before Toronto Branch, The Engineering Institute of Canada, November 1921. 



Standardization has been the subject of so much 
discussion during the past few years that an apology is an 
almost necessary introduction to a paper on this subject. 
Yet it is the hope of the writer that a description of the 
part played by a large operating organization in the pre- 
paration of standards of engineering and in their applica- 
tion to its work, may be of interest to The Engineering 
Institute. The part of the Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario in this work, as will be brought out, lies 
chiefly in the application of these standards; their prepa- 
ration is the co-operative work of many organizations- 
industrial, operating and regulating- in which work the 



The standards of engineering may be grouped into 
five main classes: 

1. Standards of measurement 

2. Standard constants 

3. Standards of quality 

4. Standards of performance 

5. Standards of practice. 

Standards of measurement form the basis of all scien- 
tific and industrial research and of commercial intercourse. 
They are based upon arbitrary choice and include both 
fundamental and derived standards for expressing quan- 




General View of High Tension Laboratory. 



Commission shares. The discussion approaches the sub- 
ject from the point of view of the laboratory. An attempt 
will be made to establish the thesis that the laboratory is 
of fundamental importance in the preparation of engineer- 
ing standards. Such examples as given are taken from 
the work of the Laboratories of the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission. 

In its broadest sense a standard is a model, example 
or authority with which comparison may be made. The 
application of a standard thus implies measurement and 
the value of standards in engineering is directly propor- 
tional to the degree to which they reduce comparison to 
quantitative measurement. 



titatively the relations of space, time, energy, matter and 
motion. Among standard of measurement are included 
the units of length, mass, heat, light and electricity. 

Standard constants are the numerical expressions of 
the fixed properties of matter or of the relations between 
the various forms of energy and matter and between phy- 
sical quantities, the value of which it is necessary or useful 
to know. These are also of fundamental importance to 
science and industry and include such quantities as the 
mechanical equivalent of heat, viscosities, boiling and 
melting points, electrical conductivities of materials, etc. 

Standards of quality usually take the form of specific- 
ations of the desired properties of a material in terms which 



12 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



admit of measurement . The purpose of such standards is to 
provide a guide for the manufacturer in the production of 
material and thus to secure a high quality in the products 
of industry; and to serve as a scientific basis for purchasing 
by enabling the purchaser to specify the desired qualities of 
the material in definite terms and to make the necessary 
tests to determine its quality. 

Standards of performance are specifications which 
may be applied to machines, instruments, or devices 
as standards of quality are applied to materials. To be 
of value they should specify the factors involved in terms 
susceptible of measurement. Specifications for electric 
generators, motors, transformers, weighing devices, steam 
engines, are standards of performance. To determine 
the performance of a machine requires the application of 
standards of measurement and standards of quality. 

Standards of practice are the expression of scientific 
or technical requirements in the form of rules or laws. 
They involve such matters as the safety of property or 
persons, the relations between different corporations or 
between corporations and the public. Building codes 
and standards of electrical construction are examples 
of this class of standard. 

Of the five classes of standards discussed above, the 
first, standards of measurement, includes those standards 
which are fundamental to science and industry, but which 
are purely arbitrary. The second class, standard con- 
stants, embraces fixed quantitative relations expressed in 
terms of standards of measurement. The preparation 
of these standards does not come within the province 
of an operating organization but is the function of 
national standardizing laboratories and scientific research 
workers. Certain standards of measurement are, how- 
ever, maintained by most operating organizations; these 
may be called secondary or working standards as con- 
trasted with the primary standards maintained by the 
national laboratories. The Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission maintains standards of electrical measurement 
and of photometry in the form of precision resistances, 
standard cells and incandescent lamps. These are instru- 
ments of high quality which have been compared with 
the fundamental standards of resistance, current and 
candle power maintained by the Bureau of Standards of the 
United States, and their characteristic properties deter- 
mined to a high degree of accuracy. They are used to 
maintain the accuracy of the laboratory measuring 
instruments, and thus form the basis of all the work of 
the laboratory and of the standardization work of the Com- 
mission. 

The determination of standard constants is also with- 
out the province of our laboratories. 

The standards with which the operating organiza- 
tions such as the Hydro Electric Power Commission are 
chiefly concerned are those of quality, performance and 
practice. The Laboratories are engaged in co-operation 
with other departments of the Commission in the prepa- 
ration of such standards and in their application to the 
work of the Commission. 

The preparation of standards of any kind involves a 
clear understanding of the requirements of the service to 
which the standard may be applied. These requirements 
must be stated in terms susceptible of measurement. A 



standard of engineering involves such questions as the 
properties of materials, the efficiency of apparatus, the 
safety of property or persons and the legal rights of cor- 
porations and individuals. 




Short Circuit Test on 13,000 Volt Fuses. 

The purpose of a specification may be defeated by 
setting the standard too low or too high. Too low a 
standard will cause waste and poor efficiency; too high a 
standard may have the same results. A careful study 
of the economics of each case should be made before setting 
a standard of quality, performance or practice. For example, 
in the design of a transmission system, the insulation 
of the transmission line should be so related to the insul- 
ation of the terminal apparatus that safety will be obtain- 
ed at the minimum of cost. Too low a value of flash- 
over voltage would result in frequent interruptions and 
line repairs; on the other hand, too high a value would 
increase the cost of the line and would impose an additional 
hazard on the system in that it would transfer the burden 
of defence against the attacks of excess voltage and of 
destructive surges of the terminal equipment, the failure 
of which would be more serious than in insulator failure 
and more difficult and costly to repair. As a further exam- 
ple, consider the specification of the efficiency of a trans- 
former or of its exciting current. An increase in efficiency or 
a decrease in exciting current will increase the cost. It must 
be determined by the purchaser how much he can afford to 
pay for these improvements. In other words, he must bal- 
ance the saving in cable, bus bars, switches, etc, resulting 
from the higher standards against the additional cost of 
the higher standards. 

The preparation of standards of engineering, especia- 
lly those of quality, performance and practice, can be 
satisfactory accomplished only by co-operation among 
the interested parties. The preparation of standards 
of practice is usually the work of governmental bodies who 
prepare the standards in co-operation with those organi- 
zations interested in and affected by the regulations; 
the standards are then promulgated as rules or codes. 
Standards of quality and performance are the peculiar 
interest of engineering and operating organizations. The 
work of preparing such standards has heretofore devolved 
largely upon the professional engineering bodies. In the 
United States there is also an organization whose exclusive 
function is the preparation of Standards, the American 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



13 



Society for Testing Materials. The work of standardiza- 
tion has received a great impetus recently in the formation 
of national engineering standards associations. The co- 
operation of these national bodies has in reality formed an 
international standardizing association, the importance 
of which will grow rapidly and have an enormous influence 
on future engineering pratice in all countries. 

The Hydro Electric Power Commission is represented 
on committees of the various standardizing organ- 
izations and the Laboratories are co-operating in the 
investigational work of these committees. 




Thermal Conductivity of Generator Armature Coil. 

A — Source of heat (a coil of wire carrying current). 

B — Resistance coils wound over insulation to determine 

temperature at various points. 
Thermal conductivity calculated from readings. 



Standards of Quality 

The need for standards arises whenever it is desired 
to purchase material intelligently, to effect economies in 
the construction of large works, or to operate such efficient- 
ly. The beginning of any£standard is in the laboratory 
because it is almost always necessary.^ to know the 
properties of a material before a standard of quality or 
even of performance and [practice can be prepared, 
and a knowledge of the | properties j ofmaterials can 
only be obtained by investigation. " The preparation 
of a standard is a process of evolution; let us 
take for example a standard of quality - insulating 
varnishes for electrical work. The desired properties 
are first determined. The varnish must resist the passage 
of electricity, that is, it must possess dielectric strength. 
It must have elasticity and flexibility under the temperatu- 
re conditions to which it will be subjected. It must be 
moisture-resisting, oil-proof; and must not contain acid 
which would be injurious to the conductor or material 
to which the varnish is applied. These qualities are 
all necessary, but in order that a standard may be' 'definite 
the properties must be stated in terms which admit of 
measurement. The first attempt at comparing varnishes 
under specification would probably be an estimate of the 
relative standing of the several samples submitted, with 



respect to these desired qualities. As experience was obtain- 
ed in the use of the varnishes it would be possible to set suit- 
able values for dielectric strength, oil proofness etc. and a 
definite standard would finally be evolved. 

The work of the Laboratories respecting standards of 
quality covers practically the entire field of engineering 
materials. When standards exist the task of comparing 
any number of materials or of determining the quality of 
a single sample submitted is comparatively easy. It 
involves merely chemical or physical measurement. But 
for many materials no standards are available and it is 
then necessary to prepare tentative standards. It is 
usually possible to make comparison between two or more 
samples of a material with respect to any desired quality 
even though definite standards be not available. 

The gradual accumulation of data from such tests lays 
the foundation for definite standards of quality. The work 
of the Laboratories in this connection has included such 
materials as transformer oil, tapes and cambric for elec- 
trical insulation, insulating varnish and moulded insulating 
material for electrical purposes, Portland cement, lubri- 
cating oils, gasoline, paints, protective coatings, metals 
for various structural uses, etc. The task of the Labora- 
tories in the preparation of standards for such materials 
is twofold: first, to determine what values to assign to 
the desired properties; second, to devise methods of 
test by which the properties may be measured. 

Methods of test are fundamental in the application 
of specifications and may have an important effect upon the 
value of the results of any comparison between competi- 
tive materials. In developing methods of testing it is 
also necessary, in many cases to devise testing instru- 
ments and apparatus; the results obtained often depend 
to a great extent upon the testing apparatus employed. 
An example will serve to illustrate this point. 

The dielectric strength of insulating material such 
as oil or thin sheet insulation is determined by applying 




High Frequency Test on Transformer Coil. 

voltage to the material placed between electrodes. The 
values of breakdown voltage depend upon the shape of 
the electrodes and their size, as well as upon the time of 



14 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



application of the voltage; it is then necessary that the 
required dielectric strength be specified in relation to 
the apparatus used to determine it. In the case of trans- 
former oil three different devices have been developed to 
determine dielectric strength and confusion often arises 
in the interpretation of results when the method of test 
is not stated. The device used by the Laboratories 
consists of two discs 1 inch diameter spaced 0.1 inch 
apart on a horizontal axis. In the case of thin sheet in- 
sulation no standards have as yet been universally adopt- 
ed; for the purpose of comparison the Laboratories has 
adopted a particular form of electrode and rate of appli- 
cation of voltage. 

Standards of Performance 

The work in connection with standards of performance 
is the counterpart with respect to apparatus, of the work 
in connection with standards of quality. The function 
of the laboratory is advisory to the engineering, purchas- 
ing and operating departments. The greater part of this 
work consists in efficiency tests on electrical machinery 
after installation and in tests on incandescent lamps. 
Assistance has also been given to the engineering and 
purchasing departments in the preparation of specifica- 
tions for these classes of apparatus. In the preparation 
of specifications for high tension transformers, the neces- 
sity arose to specify the dielectric strength of the end 
turns nearest the line side, it being evident that these 
turns must be more heavily insulated then the interior 
turns. Such a test must be made at a very high frequency, 
as it is manifestly impossible to build up sufficient voltage 
at low frequency across the low impedance of the few 
turns of the end coil. After considerable investigation 
an oscillating circuit was built up which supplied sufficient 
energy at a frequency of approximately 300,000 cycles 
to accomplish the test and to enable us to set a reasonable 
value for the required dielectric strength of the end coils 
of the transformers. Considerable work has also been done 
in preparing specifications for incandescent lamps. This 
has included compilation of data regarding lamp perfor- 
mance; investigation of the effect of various operating 
conditions upon life; economic studies to determine the 
most suitable efficiencies and life under conditions of 
power cost in Ontario. 

Standards of Practice 

The standards of practice with which the Commission 
is concerned are of two kinds: 

1 . Standards governing practice in conctruction or 
operation of its systems. 

2 . Standards which it is obliged to enforce by reason 
of legislation 

Among the first class are included all standards of con- 
struction and of operating routine. Those with which 
the Laboratories have a certain responsibility are concrete 
materials and linemen's rubber gloves. 

Standard instructions for the handling of concrete 
materials have been prepared by a committee on which 
the Laboratories are represented and it is the duty of 
the Laboratories to act in an advisory capacity to the 
engineering and construction departments in carrying 
out these instructions. These instructions provided 
for the selection of suitable sources of materials for any 



concrete construction job; this is the duty of the Labora- 
tories. From tests on these materials at the Laboratories 
the proportioning to yield the desired strength of concrete 
is determined. On jobs of sufficient size to warrant the 
expense, a field laboratory is installed and a continuous 
check upon the quality of concrete is maintained. The 
proportioning is varied as rendered necessary by changes 
in the quality of the materials; test samples are taken 
periodically from the mixer, stored for 28 days and tested 
for compression. In this way it is possible to determine 
whether the desired strength in the concrete structure 
is being obtained. Considerable research work has been 
conducted by the Laboratories in connection with methods 
of proportioning and a method has been evolved and 
tried out on several large jobs which renders possible 
important economies in the use of cement. The results 
of these researches have been given in several publications 
in the technical press. These articles have also been 
printed by the Commission and are available to those 
interested. The value of the standard of practice just 
described is not confined to economy in the use of cement. 
It furnishes the designing engineers with knowledge of 
the strength of the structure. Without this knowledge 
they would be forced to a more conservative design calling 
for higher strength in many cases than necessary. 



























| ^aJa J-jj 




I ; 


ra 








D I ¥ £j 




^KS^_ 






':> 1 












1Mb 


f ! 



60,000 Volt Test Set for Testing Transformer Oil, 
Rubber Gloves, etc. 



The standard for rubber gloves and its application 
is the function of the accident prevention department. 
All gloves are purchased under strict specifications as to 
plysical and electrical properties and stored in the Labo- 
ratories. Before being sent out to the field each glove is 
given a dielectric test of 10,000 volts and all good gloves 
are sealed in special envelopes indicating that the gloves 
have been tested. Each month all gloves are returned 
to the Laboratories for re-test. They are given a minute 
inspection for mechanical defects and a dielectric test of 
10,000 volts. Every percaution is thus taken to insure 
againts accident to employees working on live lines. In 
connection with the preparation of this standard many 
tests have been made on the physical properties of the 
material entering into the gloves and methods of test have 
been developed to determine these properties. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



15 



The second class of standards of practice relates 
to the enforcement of the proviions of the Electrical 
Inspection Act. There are two distinct standards, one 
relating to the installation of wiring and electrical equip- 
ment in or upon buildings, the other to the design and 
construction of electrical material, devices and fittings 
for use in such installations. The first standard thus has 
to do with methods of installation, the second with the 
quality of the material or devices installed. The appli- 
cation of this latter standard is the function of the Labora- 
tories. 

The law requires that all electrical material, devices 
and fittings for use as specified in the preceding paragraph 
be approved by the Commission before being offered for 
sale or used in the province of Ontario. The object of this 
regulation is to eliminate as far as possible, fire and acci- 
dent hazard from electrical apparatus and appliances, and 
thus protect the public from loss or danger incident to the 
use of electricity by reason of defective construction The 
work of the Laboratories consists in testing and inspect- 
ing all such material, devices and fittings, and in main- 
taining lists of approved material. A routine procedure 
has been adopted under which manufacturers submit 
samples of their product to the Laboratories where they 
are examined and tested in accordance with standar- 
dized methods as set forth in the specifications. When a 
device has been found to agree with the specifications 
it is formally approved by the Commission and may be 
so marked by the manufacturer. The Commission issues 
a list of approved devices and conducts an inspection 
service in order to be assured that approved devices are 
kept continously up to standard by the manufacturers. 
The preparation of specifications for the test and construc- 
tion of electrical material, devices and fittings is a neces- 
sary part of this work, which is carried on in co-operation 
with the electrical inspection department of the Commis- 
sion, the electrical contractors, manufacturers and job- 
bers, and the fire underwriters. 




Testing machines in Structural Laboratory. 

Many standards are in use by the Commission which 
are not mentioned in this paper. As indicated in the 
introduction the aim has been to describe the place of 
the laboratory in the work of standardization and such 
examples as are given were chosen with this aim in view. 
Standards to be of value must be continuously revised 
to keep pace with advances in industry. This implies 
improvements in methods of test and in testing instru- 
ments as well as revision of the requirements of use, and 
this in turn, implies investigation. The principal contri- 
bution of the laboratory to the work of standardization is 
the substitution of exact knowledge for judgment, which 
latter even when experienced can be but a poor substitute 
for the former. It would thus appear that the laboratory 
has an important place in the work of standardization. 



The Aeroplane Engine 



The requirements of aircraft propulsion and 
their effect on engine design. 

P. E. Biggar, S. E. I. C. 

Paper presented before the Montreal Branch, The Engineering Institute of Canada, November 3rd, 1921. 



Man has always been keenly attracted by the air. 
Throughout the ages, he has been willing to risk, and too 
often sacrifice, his life in his efforts to explore this alluring 
element. He speaks of the lowly mortal as "of the earth, 
earthy" and depicts the heavenly being as an angel with 
wings. Even the sophisticated man of to-day feels this 
spell and cannot resist the temptation to gaze at the chance 
aeroplane overhead. 

Probably this attraction is principally due to the 
very invisibility of the air. The intangible always posses- 
ses a psychological fascination. Then, there is the possi- 
bility of attaining very high speeds which already exceed 



those reached by any other mode of transportation. In 
flight, one leaves behind the restrictions of the earth and 
may travel by the shortest route and manoeuvre in three 
dimensions. 

For many centuries, the conquest of the air remained 
but a dream. Nature's great barrier to flight, gravita- 
tion, proved insurmountable, until the wonderful devel- 
opment of the internal combustion engine, in the hands 
of Daimler, Benz and others, made available a power plant 
which would, in some measures at least, fulfil the exact- 
ing requirements of aerial use. 



16 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 




Fig. 1 The 450 H.P. Bristol " Jupiter ". 

Flight, like all man's greatest achievements, depended 
upon the evolution of a suitable prime mover. The 
standard of performance is so high and the conditions of 
operation so severe, that the aero engine will always be 
the finest of mechanisms. The only motor which has 
proved suitable for use in the air is the internal combus- 
tion engine of the four cycle, low-compression type, which 
is so widely known through its use for automotive 
propulsion. 

The Requirements of the Aero Engine 

Let us consider the factors which have governed the 
development of the aero engine. The following may be 
said to be the specifications of an engine suitable for use 
in the air, in order of their importance. 

(1) The aero engine must be reliable. 

(2) It must be as light as possible. 

(3) It must be economical in its consumption of 
fuel and oil. 

(4) Its head resistance, when installed in the plane, 
must be as low as possible. 

(5) It must have a satisfactory degree of uniformity 
of torque and freedom from vibration. 

(6) For use in war, it should be concentrated. 

(7) For commercial use, it should be low in first 
cost and durable in service. 

Reliability. 

The first factor, reliability, is of very great importance. 
Apart from financial considerations, the whole future of 
commercial aviation depends upon the degree to which 
engine failure can be eliminated. In land or water trans- 
portation, a failure of the motive power will result in a 



delay of a few hours at most, but with flying, the plane, 
no longer able to keep to the air, must glide to a landing. 
The passengers will be delayed indefinitely and, if the plane 
is forced down over unsuitable country, run the risk of 
personal injury. 

Reliability is of even greater importance to fighting 
craft. The efficiency of a squadron is measured by the 
number of hours of useful flying carried out per machine 
per day. Planes which are unfit to take the air demand 
the attention of the mechanics, night and day, until they 
are made serviceable and, during moving warfare, must 
often be abandoned, just when their potential value is 
greatest. Should the engine fail when over the lines, the 
pilot is unable to carry out his duties and becomes an add- 
ed responsibility to his companions. 

How, then, is reliability to be ensured ? Firstly, the 
materials must be carefully chosen. During the war, 
great advances were made in the quality and treatment 
of the steels used in aero engines and 100 ton steel is now 
employed for the more highly stressed parts. Then the 
design must be worked out with great care. Success is 
only attained by a nice blending of the science of accurate 
calculation and the art of wide experience. To meet the 
requirements of use in the air, the stresses and load fac- 
tors are somewhat higher than those used in stationary 
engine design and good judgement is necessary in deciding 
limiting values. Troublesome parts are duplicated, as 
far as possible. When the engine is completed, it is given 
a very severe running test on the bench, is then dissembled 
and inspected and any faulty parts are replaced. 




Fig. 2 The 240 H. P. Siddeley "Puma" 

This care is wasted if the engine is carelessly handled 
in service. Before each flight the engine must be gradual- 
ly warmed up, by running it quite slowly. The pilot 
must see that the oil pressure and the gasoline 
supply pressure are maintained at the correct point and, 
when the cooling water has reached the normal tempera- 
ture, the throttle is gradually opened until the full rate of 
revolution is indicated. The condition of the engine is 
judged from the feel of the compression, when it is cranked 
over, by the sound of the exhaust and by the rate at which 
it is able to drive the propeller. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



17 



The mechanic is largely responsible for the service of 
his engine. Each night, the spark plugs must be cleaned 
and adjusted, the distributors wiped off and all gasoline 
and oil filters carefully cleaned. The entire engine is 
inspected for any indication of incipient trouble. After 
about one hundred flying hours, a stationary engine is 
given a "top overhaul". The cylinders are removed, the 
carbon cleaned out, the valves ground into place and all 
parts inspected. After about two hundred hours, the 
engine is removed from the plane and given a complete 
overhaul. In the case of a rotary engine, the top overhaul 
is carried out after thirty-five and seventy hours and the 
complete overhaul after one hundred hours flying. 

Engine Weight. 

The effect of engine weight on the load which the 
plane can carry is fairly obvious. Every pound added to the 
powerplant is just one pound less 'available lift'. The weight 
of the engine reacts on the strength of the bearers and in- 
ternal bracing needed to carry it in the fuselage and on the 
extent of plane area and external bracing necessary to take 
it into the air. An aeroplane fitted with a heavy engine 
thus presents what the political economist would call a 
"vicious circle". 

This was the great difficulty of the early aviators. 
Their flights were not of sufficient duration to demand 
a very high degree of reliability, but it was essential that 
the engine should develop sufficient power to lift itself and 
some hundreds of pounds of aeroplane off the ground. 
This factor was the dominating one in all the early engines. 
Langley was anxious to try an internal combustion engine 
in his "Aerodrome" and, as no manufacturer would 
undertake to produce a model of the extremely low weight 
required, he designed and built his own. It had five 
steel cylinders arranged radially about a common crankcase 
and developed 52 brakehorse power, for a dry weight of only 



115 pounds. This type of engine received a great deal of 
attention during the later stages of the war. Fig 1 shows 
the Bristol "Jupiter", one of the finest radials of to-day. 

The engine used by the Wright brothers was of the 
four cylinder vertical type. Though quite heavy, it 
developed but 24 horsepower. In response to a demand 
for greater power outputs, the six cylinder vertical was 
produced. Fig. 2 shows the Armstrong-Siddeley "Puma" 
which was designed during the war. Later on, in order 
to permit the development of more power without unduly 
increasing the length of the engine, the V, or diagonal type 
was evolved and has been brought to a high degree of refine- 
ment. Fig. 4 shows the Rolls-Royce "Eagle VIII", so well 
known for its wonderful performance in the trans-Atlantic 
and London-Australia flights. Of recent years, the number 
of banks of cylinders has been increased to three and even 
four. Fig. 5 shows the Napier "Lion", an extremely 
successful twelve cylinder engine. Fig. 7 shows the 
Napier "Cub" which was built for the Air Ministry. 
Full particulars are not available, but this engine is stated 
to have developed 1057 B.H.P. in its sixteen cylinders. 

A few years after the first flight, the Gnome rotary 
engine made its appearance. In this type, the crank- 
shaft is held stationary and the cylinders, which are arrang- 
ed radially, revolve en masse. In spite of its rather 
startling design, the engine showed a remarkable weight 
efficiency and enabled planes to fly which had never been 
able to lift their heavy powerplants from the ground. As the 
centrifugal stresses are somewhat severe, the entire engine 
is usually constructed of forged steel. Fig. 8 shows one 
of the more recent developments of this type. 

The weight efficiencies of some of the engines in use 
to-day are given in table I. It is interesting to note that 
the weight of stationary engines varies from about 150 to 
500 Lbs./B.H.P., though 30 Lbs./B.H.P. is attained in 
special types, such as submarine Diesels. 



Table I. 



Make and Model 



Number of 


B.H.P. 


Cylinders 




6 


160 


9 


220 


6 


185 


9 


450 


9 


130 


12 


700 


8 


180 


8 


300 


12 


400 


6 


260 


12 


450 


16 


1050 


12 


360 


6 


240 



Type 



Bore and Stroke 
Inches. 



Weight 
Lbs/ B.H.P. 



Fuel and Oil 
Lbs/BHP/Hour 



Beardmore 

Bentley BR-2 

Bayern or B.M.W 

Bristol "Jupiter" 

Clerget BF 

Fiat A- 14 

Hispano-Suiza "Viper". . . . 

Hispano-Suiza H-2 

Liberty 

Maybach 

Napier "Lion" 

Napier "Cub" 

Rolls-Royce "Eagle VIII". 
Siddeley "Puma" or B.H.P 



Vertical 

Rotary 

Vertical 

Radial 

Rotary 

V 

V 

V 

V 
Vertical 
Bd. Arrow 

X 

V 
Vertical 



5.7x6. 

5.5x7. 

5.9x7. 

.7x7. 

.7x6. 

.7x8.2 

.7x5.2 

.5x5.9 

5.0x7.0 

6.5x7.1 

5.5x5.1 

( ?) 
4.5x6.5 
5.7x7.5 



4.0 

2.25 

3.15 

1.74 

2.70 

2.30 

2.34 

2.00 

2.67 

3.10 

1.98 

2.01 

2.5 

2.65 



0.55 
0.70 
0.46 
0.61 
1.00 
0.53 
0.52 
0.54 
0.57 
0.51 
0.51 
( ?) 
0.52 
0.55 



18 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



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12 3 4-56 
DURATION OF RUN, HOURS. 



Fig. 3 The Relation of Fuel Consumption to Total Weight. 

Consumption of Fuel and Oil. 

The factor of fuel consumption is very closely related 
to that of weight efficiency. It is useless to produce an 
engine of low dry weight, if, by an abnormal consumption 
of fuel and oil, the total weight when ready for a few hours 
run may be bettered by a heavier but more economical 
rival. Fig. 3 will show this point. The starting point of 
the curve for any particular engine is determined by its 
dry weight in lbs./B.H.P. and the slope by its fuel consump- 
tion in lbs./B.H.P./hour. It appears that, for a flight 
of two hours or more, it would be better to use any of the 
stationary engines shown than to use the 130 H.P. Cler- 
get rotary. In the case of the Napier "Lion", the fuel and 
oil for a run of six hours will weigh more than the entire 
powerplant. 

With the airship, of which the only promise of com- 
mercial utility lies in its ability to remain in the air for long 
periods and to carry out extended cruises, the factor of 
fuel consumption is of even greater importance. Consi- 
dering the case of the 260 H.P. Maybach, which was used 
in the Zeppelins and in the ill-fated British"ZR-2",we have 
the following figures, 

Weight of powerplant in running order, less 
fuel and oil 1102.0 lbs. 

Weight of fuel per hour 139.0 lbs. 

Weight of oil per hour 12.36 lbs. 

Weight of fuel and oil per hour 151 . 36 lbs. 



The fuel and oil for a flight of fifty hours, such as a voyage 
from London to New York, would thus be 7568 lbs., or 
nearly seven times the weight of the powerplant. This 
would be modified by the degree to which the engines could 
be run throttled down, but the figures will serve to bring 
out the great extent to which total weight is governed by 
fuel consumption. 

Fuel is a costly item of expense. Figures based on the 
operation of aerial routes in Europe show that the fuel bill 
constitutes from 29%to 54% of the total cost of operation, 
depending on the type of machine. American figures 
show as much as 28% for this item. In the operation of 
bombing planes, it was usual to place a calculated amount 
of fuel in the tanks and to use the remainder of the lift for 
bombs. On the way over, the planes requires careful 
protection, but, on the return journey, with bombs and 
half the fuel gone, the bombing machines could easily take 
care of themselves and, in fact, had an unpleasant custom 
of leaving their fighting escort far behind, to settle with 
the Huns. 




Fig. 4 The 360 H. P. Rolls-Royce "Eagle VIII". 

The effort to economize fuel gains added importance 
from the ever increasing inadequacy of the supply of 
crude oil. We are forced to seek a more economical use of 
the gasoline of to-day and to consider a less attractive use 
of the indigestible fuels of to-morrow. Because of its 
high thermal efficiency and its ability to burn the heavier 
oils, the Diesel may yet be used in the air. It would 
settle our difficulties of carburetion, distribution and igni- 
tion, though at the expense of a rather delicate fuel injec- 
tion system, and the fire risk would be almost eliminated. 
Experimental engines have been built, but their weight is 
rather greater that that of the low compression type. 

Head Resistance 

Since the engine is never left exposed to the air, this 
factor is really measured by the limitations it imposes 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



19 



upon the shape of the nose of the fuselage. To this must 
be added a charge for the "drag" of those parts which are 
allowed to project from the cowling. In all the latest 
racing machines and many of the fighting craft, the fuse- 
lage is of a very efficient "streamline" shape and the tops 
of the cylinders are allowed to project a few inches. Some 
types of engine lend themselves very readily to this treat- 
ment. All the water-cooled stationaries may be cowled 
in very neatly, though their radiators offer a very noticea- 
ble resistance to the air. The rotary requires an almost 
flat nose about four feet in diameter and the radial must 
have all its cylinders exposed to the air, for effective cool- 
ing. 

The engine must nearly always be mounted so that 
it is directly in the path of the air blown back by the pro- 
peller and this slip-stream has a velocity somewhat in 
excess of the air speed of the plane. When we consider 
that the power required to lift the plane varies almost 
directly as the speed, while that required to overcome 
inactive resistances varies nearly with the cube of the 
speed, one realizes the necessity of keeping this "drag" as 
small as possible. 

Torque and Balance. 

The factors of torque and balance cannot be discussed 
in exact terms. The range of each encountered in practice 
is surprisingly great. There has been a distinct tendency 
to increase the number of cylinders used and this may be 
ascribed to the difficulty of obtaining a very high power 
from each cylinder. Mechanical and thermal problems 
arise which are not easy of solution. The largest cylinders 
used are those of the Ricardo engine which are 8x1 1 inches 
and develop 120 B.H.P. Twenty-four cylinder engines 
have been designed, but the sixteen cylinder Napier "Cub" 
is the largest yet produced. 

Probably an engine of less than six cylinders suffers 
to some extent from fluctuations in propeller velocity. 
Gearing is frequently employed to improve the propeller 
efficiency without a sacrifice of engine power which would 
arise from a reduced r.p.m. It is difficult to obtain satis- 
factory service from gearing, if driven by less than twelve 
cylinders, owing to fluctuations in torque. Flywheels 
are very seldom used in aero engines, owing to their weight. 

With regard to balance, it may be pointed out that, 
as the engine and its mounting must be very light in 
weight, any unbalanced forces will cause an unpleasantly 
marked vibration. The balance characteristics of most 
of the stationary types are well known, but it may be men- 
tioned that the four has a resultant secondary force acting 
in a vertical direction, the eight combines the forces of 
its banks of cylinders so that the resultant is horizontal 
and the six and its multiples have no resultant forces. The 
radials have rather large resultant primary forces, which are 
easily balanced by counterweights, except in the three 
cylinder radial. The rotary type has perfect balance. 

It should be clearly understood that inherent balance 
may easily be spoiled by careless assembly. Reciprocat- 
ing parts are always weighed and matched when the 
engine is built, but this arrangement may be altered during 
overhaul. In the case of the rotary, if one ounce is left 
unbalanced at the cylinder head, a centrifugal force of 
nearly fifty pounds will be exerted, at normal revolutions. 




Fig. 5 The 450 H. P. Napier "Lion." 

For this reason, the rotating parts should always be balanc- 
ed on a pair of horizontal knife edges. 

Torsional vibration in the crankshaft is often rather 
difficult to overcome. The Germans met this effect, which 
we may describe as rotary whipping, by the use of very 
heavy crankshafts. That of the 260 H.P. Mercedes, for 
instance, weighs 140 lbs. Even this rather questionable 
cure seems to have failed in the eight cylinder in line type 
of Mercedes. In the later British engines, the Lanchester 
anti-vibrator was used with very good results. Briefly, 
this consists of a very small flywheel, which is mounted on 
the end of the crankshaft opposite to the propeller and is 
driven through a friction clutch. This slips slightly, back- 
wards and forwards, in response to the rotary accelerations 
of the end of the shaft and exerts a very marked damping 
effect. 

Concentration 

The factor of concentration is only of importance for 
engines used in fighting craft, where rapid manoeuvring is 
essential. If a rotary or a radial is used, the pilot may 
be placed immediately in rear of the engine and a very 
close-coupled arrangement results. The longitudinal mo- 
ment of inertia is reduced and the machine responds very 
readily to the controls. This is of great value in a "dog 
fight" which may best be described as planes flying"madly 
in all directions". It may perhaps be considered that the 
gyroscopic effects of the rotary would render it unsuited 
for this use, but, in practice, these are so slight as to cause 
no noticeable inconvenience to the pilot. 

Cost And Durability 

These factors only enter into the commercial use of 
aircraft, since, in war everything must be sacrificed for 
effect. By careful design and a slight loss of weight 
efficiency, the engine may be constructed of cheaper 
materials and with more durable wearing parts. A com- 
mercial engine may weigh as much as 33^ lbs./B.H.P. and 



20 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



should be able to run for 150 hours between overhauls. 
Accessibility of design and installation is most important. 
Inaccessible parts are nearly always neglected and the time 
of overhaul may be much reduced by careful attention to 
these details. In one of the latest English machines, 
the entire powerplant, less the fuel tanks, may be removed 
by loosening four bolts, after disconnecting the fuel lines 
and the controls. 

Nearly all the current work on aero engines has been 
the re-designing and improvement of war-time models. In 
many cases, these were brought out in the shortest possible 
time with the result that many imperfections were in- 
troduced which nothing but the experience of hard service 
could bring to light. In England, the experimental work has 
largely been directed towards the development of the 
maximum power from a given cylinder. 

Maximum Development of Power 

In considering the possibility of improving the power 
output of a given engine, let us first examine the theoret- 
ical aspects of the case. For the comparison of ther- 
mal efficiency in internal combustion engines, there has 
been set up the "Air Standard". Assuming a perfect engine 
and that the specific heat of the working fluid is a con- 
stant quantity, thermodynamic reasoning will deduce the 

1 Cp 

equation, E = l-(;)cv-l. In the Air Standard, the value of 
gamma, the ratio of the specific heats, is taken as 1.4 and, 
using this, we may plot the upper curve in Fig. 6, for prac- 
tical values of ; ,the compression ratio. 




|:4 ':5 

Compression Ratio 



Fig. 6 The Relation of Thermal Efficiency to Compression Ratio. 



Specific heat is, however, not a constant quantity. 
According to Ricardo, the value of gamma for the products 
of the combustion of a mixture of gasoline or of benzol and 
air is more correctly 1.296. Using this value in the above 
equation, we may plot the second curve. The engine is 
by no means thermodynamically perfect and best practical 
efficiencies fall lower still. Results obtained by Ricardo 
in a series of experiments on a variable compression engine 
are shown in the lower curve. The space between this 
and the second curve represents the heat losses of the 
engine. The indicated thermal efficiencies of a number of 
modern aero engines are indicated by dots. The scope 
for improvement would appear to be rather small. 

High compression is plainly desirable. The possible 
thermal efficiency becomes greater and the performance 
at height is improved by the use of high compression ratios. 
Their great disadvantage is that they invariably bring pre- 
ignition and fuel knock, more often known as "detonation". 
This phenomenon has caused a great deal of trouble and, 
if allowed to persist, is capable of ruining the engine in a 
few hours. A compression ratio of 4.85 to 1 may be used with 
gasoline fuel, up to 7.05 to 1 with a fuel of high aromatic 
content, but, beyond this point, direct injection must be 
used. 

The compression ratio is now frequently carried so 
high that the engine cannot be run "full out" near the 
ground. Its performance at height is much improved, but, 
until this designed height is attained, it must be throttled, 
or, better still, the closing of the inlet valve so delayed as to 
shorten the compression stroke. The density of the air has 
a direct bearing on the mass of the charge inspired during 
the inlet stroke and, since nearly all war flying is carried out 
at over 15,000 ft., at which altitude the power is about 
half that available at ground level, the maintainance of 
output is an important problem. The present altitude 
record of about 40,000 ft. was made by a plane equipped 
with a system of forced induction. Air was supplied to the 
carbureters by a blower driven by an exhaust turbine and 
the inlet pressure maintained equal to that of ground 
level up to about 24,000 ft. 

Minimum Loss of Power 

Let us now examine the mechanical side of the ques- 
tion. It remains to obtain the maximum efficiency in 
those points which thermodynamic reasoning assumes to 
be perfect. Consideration of the familiar "PLAN" formula, 
indicates that the requirements are as follows,- 

(1) The development of maximum brake mean 
effective pressure which depends on,- 

(A) The mean effective pressure and, for a 

given compression ratio, this is based on,- 

(a) Maximum volumetric efficiency. This 

is a matter of careful design of the inlet 
tract and accurate valve timing. 

(b) Correct and complete ignition, requiring 

an accurate mixture ratio, especially at 
full load.- 

(c) Minimum heat and pressure losses - quan- 

tities which present little scope for 
improvement. 

(B) The reduction of mechanical losses, which 

is a matter of careful design and effective 
lubrication. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



21 



(2) The attainment of maximum r.p.m., without 
serious loss of B.M.E.P. This figure reaches 
2,100 r.p.m. in modern engines and shows 
continued improvement. 







siLtii 


r£*t* 


1 




* 




'*- v- 














■ * 31 








'T ihTzi 


. 


^^Pgg. 






*»• : ' 







Fig. 7 The 1050 H.P. Napi;r " Cub ". 

The extent of the mechanical losses in a modern aero 
engine is indicated by the following figures. They refer 
to the 260 H.P. Mercedes and are expressed in pounds per 
square inch of piston area. 

(a) Piston friction 7 . 85 lbs . ,/sq . in . 

(b) Bearings, valve gear 

and auxiliaries 2 . 50 

(c) Pumping losses 4 . 50 



Total losses 
Brake M.E.P. 



14.85 lbs. /sq. in. 
107.50 



Indicated M.E.P. 
Mechanical efficiency 



122.35 lbs./sq. in. 
107.5 -*- 122.35 
= 87.9% 

In the case of the rotary type, it is necessary to add a 
windage loss of about 15% of the output. This represents the 
power required to revolve the cylinders against the resis- 
tance of the air. 



The Development of the Aero Engine. 

We have laid down seven requirements which govern 
the characteristics of an aeroplane engine. We have shown 
how these have affected its development and have indicated 
the limitations of present day design. There is one 
point which the engineer may well bear in mind. During 
the eighteen years which man has been able to respond to 
the lure of the air, there has been no change in any funda- 
mental point of aero engine design or operation. The 
wonderful development of the science of aeronautics is 
due to careful and unprejudiced attention to the smallest 
and most insignificant detail. Truly, in the words of 
the R.F.C. arms, "Per Ardua ad Astra", - "By our Efforts 
even to the Stars." 




Fig. 8 The 130 H. P. Clerget. 



22 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Board of Management 

President 
J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

Vice-President 

WALTER J. FRANCIS 

Councillors 

A. ROSS H. H. VAUGHAN 

Brig.-Gen. SIR ALEX. BERTRAM 

FREDERICK B. BROWN 



Editor and Manager 

FRASER S. KEITH 
Assistant-Editor 

A. W. SWAN 



Associate Editors 

J. CLARK KEITH Border Cities 

FLOYD K. BEACH ... . ' . . . Calgary 

R. H. DOUGLAS Edmonton 

O. S. COX Halifax 

J. A. McFARLANE Hamilton 

L. T.RUTLEDGE Kingston 

C. M. ARNOLD Lethbridge 

GEO. C. WRIGHT London 

M.J. MURPHY Moncton 

J. L. BUSFIELD Montreal 

G. R. TAYLOR Niagara Falls 

F. C. C LYNCH Ottawa 

D. L. McLAREN Peterborough 

H. CIMON Quebec 

D. A. R. McCANNEL Regina 

GEO. H. KOHL Sault Ste. Marie 

HARRY F.BENNETT St. John 

C. R. YOUNG Toronto 

H. L. SEYMOUR Toronto 

P. H. BUCHAN Vancouver 

HORACE M. BIGWOOD Victoria 

J. E. PORTER Windsor 

GEO. L. GUY Winnipeg 



VOL. V. 



January 1922 



No. 1 



(Greetings 



®he ipreBibent anb (Council of tEhc Jnstitute for the pear just closeb, 
besire to congratulate tlje members anb the branches on the progress that 
has been mabe buring the pear, particularly noticeable in increaseb 
membership anb greater JSranch actibitp. 

tEo ebcrp member of tEhe Knstitute the |)resibent anb Council extenb 
sincere toishes of goob toill, anb express the hope that curing the coming 
pear, engineering toork toill be touch more actibe, anb that the members of 
®he Jnstitute toill see their breams realijeb in greater measure than 
eber before. 



Annual Meeting Announcement 

The Annual General Meeting of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada will be held at Montreal on 
Tuesday, January 24th, 1922, at ten o'clock A.M., 
and will be followed by a one day professional 
meeting under the auspices of the Montreal Branch. 

The October Journal announcement regarding the 
Annual Meeting stated that the Annual Professional 
Meeting would be held in Winnipeg, February 21st, 
22nd and 23rd. Owing to representations received, 
advising that it would be desirable to hold the Annual 
Professional Meeting at Winnipeg at a later date, the 
matter was referred to the Winnipeg Branch by the 
Council, no decision having been reached at the time 
of going to press for the December issue, the announce- 
ment of the business meeting only was included. Following 
the meeting of Council held on December 20th, it is 
possible to announce the decision of the Winnipeg Branch 
that on account of request from Ontario and if for the 
general welfare their meeting be postponed until September 
5th, 6th and 7th, was heartily approved. Owing to the 
time elapsing between the business meeting and the 
Winnipeg professional meeting, it was considered by 
Council advisable, in order to make the meeting at 
Montreal more attractive, to hold a one day professional 
meeting, provided the co-operation of the Montreal 
Branch was secured. The Montreal branch executive, 
at a meeting held immediately after the Council meeting, 
unanimously approved of the suggestion that the Montreal 
Branch should hold a professional meeting in conjunction 
with the Annual Meeting, on the day following, January 
25th. 

Although too early to give all details, the members 
of The Institute, coming to Montreal for the Annual 
Meeting, are assured that they will not only have the 
opportunity of taking part in the business portion of the 
Meeting, but that enjoyable social functions will be 
planned for their entertainment. 

Transactions of Other Societies. 

It affords considerable satisfaction to be able to 
announce at this time that definite arrangements have been 
made with the four Founder Societies of the United States, 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The 
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, 
The American Society of Civil Engineers and The Amer- 
ican Institute of Electrical Engineers, whereby members 
of this Institute have the privelege of receiving the trans- 
actions and publications issued by the Founder Societies 
at the same price as paid by their own members. 

The transactions and publications of the Founder 
Societies may be ordered direct or through the headquar- 
ters' office. 

Institute Songs 

During the past two years a complete change has 
taken place in the nature of the social functions attendant 
upon Institute meetings. The more or less perfunctory 
speech is giving way to the Community song, for the 
better, as all who have attended Institute functions of 
recent years will readily admit. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



23 



It has been planned for sometime to issue an Institute 
Song Sheet, and the Secretary has been collecting for 
that purpose. Suggestions are called for, and any 
member having any verse relative to engineers, any 
paraphrase of a popular air directed towards engineering, 
or any suggestions of songs which he thinks should be 
included, they will be gratefully received at the Secretary's 
office. Various college yells will be included, as all 
Canadian universities are represented in The Institute 
membership. One or two have been received that 
make light of the work of the engineer and his respon- 
sibility, but that is not the kind that it is intended to 
publish, but rather those of a boosting, inspirational 
nature. 

It is hoped that the members will respond readily 
to this request, and forward suggestions as soon as 
convenient. Herewith is reproduced the most recently 
received suggestion, the key-note of which is along the 
right line. 

I Wanna be in E. I. C. 
TUNE; — I Wanna be in Tennessee. 
I wanna be in E. I. C, 
Our own Society, 
Where the sunny atmosphere 
Sends out its radiant cheer 
I wanna be where I can see 

The engineering feats 
Of all the world, upon the lantern sheets 
I wanna hear the engineer 

Describe with modest mien 
And show upon the screen 
The things he's done and seen 

Come and sing our songs 
And forget about our wrongs 
And happy be, eternally 
In our dear old E. I. C. 

Acknowledgment of Courtesies 

At a recent meeting in New York of the Board ol 
Direction of the American Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion held at their Headquarters, an event of interest to all 
members of The Institute took place. . On the occasion 
referred to, President J. M. R. Fairbairn was presented 
by the Board of Direction with a beautifully engrossed 
memento, fittingly framed, of the Board's meeting at 
Montreal in July last. 

The presentation was made by President L. A. 
Downs, who gave a brief and pleasing address of apprec- 
iation of the courtesies extended by our President and 
by other members of The Institute. Although taken 
by surprise, Persident Fairbairn made a suitable reply, 
extending his thanks for the beautiful souvenir of a happy 
gathering, as he felt the pleasure had been largely his, 
and that of those associated with him in Montreal. The 
memento, which was autographed by the members of 
the Board present at the meeting is reproduced, and will, 
no doubt, be highly prized by President Fairbairn. 

President Downs advised the Board that on behalf of 
the members of the Board of Direction, he had addressed 
communications of appreciation for courtesies extended 
by their Canadian hosts on the occasion of the meet- 
ing of the Board at Montreal on July 13th and 14th, 
including J. M. R. Fairbairn, President of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada) Julian C. Smith, Vice- 



^n^pprccitttion 




|> resi^fJFnamecirmA3ln5tihrtc oFCfonq ftn 

'{ ^"hl0lHttnmtobmsaibc5(»aiDhai 

m \ of the esteem ano remark in which he 
\***S is helo by his colleagues, in^pprc- 
aation.ofthe many courtesies 9Eteu6eo to thx 
Members ofthe $oaro of direction ofthe^fmerican 
%\\wy Sr^necrin^J^ssociatxcm on the occasion 
ofthe mcenna; helo at Montreal onjuly thirteenth, 
nineteen twenty-one . wz7&^>% ^*^>iSK?F] 




President Shawinigan Falls Water and Power Company; 
F. W. Cowie, Chief Secretary of the Montreal Harbour 
Commission; Fraser S. Keith, Secretary, Engineering 
Institute of Canada, and the management of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company. 

Registration — Pro and Con 

In view of the prominence which has been given 
during the past few years to the question of registration 
for the professional engineer in Canada and the acts 
already in force in all the Provinces but two, it is of 
considerable interest to have a light thrown on the 
situation as it exists in Great Britain. There the move- 
ment has not attained the momentum of the Canadian 
agitation for registration of the professional engineer but 
more than one of the professional engineering organizations 
is taking up the matter with some vigour. Whereas in 
Canada it is generally felt that the title "professional 
engineer" is sufficiently distinctive in Great Britain the 
expression is that of "chartered engineer", and parlia- 
mentary powers are to be sought to make this title only 
available to the professional engineer. Opinion is, however, 
by no means unanimous as to the advantages of this step 
and following thought provoking editorial from "The 
Electrician" is worthy of study by the Canadian profes- 
sional engineer. 

The Chartered Electrical Engineer 
In the short time that has passed since the granting of a Royal 
Charter to the Institution of Electrical Engineers, it has become 
evident how widespread is the gratification at this increase in 



24 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



status, accompanied as it is by so signal a mark of the Royal favour. 
This gratification, which is both natural and laudable, exists in 
spite of the feeling that the possession of such a document 
can have but a shadowy influence on the average electrical engin- 
eer's power of earning his bread and butter, or in assisting the 
Institution to take its proper place in leading the electrical profes- 
sion and industry. Nevertheless, it was high time that the Insti- 
tution should be invested with that prestige which is the prero- 
gative of a State-constituted association as distinguished from a 
private company, and allowed to take the official position to 
which its influence and good work entitled it. 

But though the charter places a Royal seal on the work and 
influence of the Institution, after all prestige is a quality which is 
generated from within rather than from without. If, therefore, 
the Institution is to be worthy of a Royal Charter, it must be the 
aim of its members to ensure that its policy and action are worthy 
of a profession to which it is their pride to belong. In other words 
although the possession of a Royal Charter confers a well-merited 
distinction on electrical engineers it requires from them a recogni- 
tion that their profession has received a promotion which carries 
with it an additional responsibility. The possession of a Charter is 
a small thing, unless they continue to make the Institution worthy 
of the profession and industry it represents. 

To discuss the new Institution which the possession of a Royal 
Charter will bring in its train is, therefore opportune. It will, 
first, ensure, on paper, that no one may use the title of electrical 
engineers, unless he or she is a member of the Institution of the 
Electrical Engineers. It will allow a sharp line of demarcation to 
be drawn between authorized and unauthorized practitioners, and 
will place clearly before the public the choice of employing duly 
qualified men under certain guarantees as regards the knowledge 
and performance they bring to their work, or of availing themsel- 
ves of piratical outsiders, accompanied by a certain risk that is by 
no means off-set by a problematical saving of their pockets. It is 
true that the public cannot be forced to employ the real or chartered 
electrical engineers, but it should be the aim of chartered members 
to see that it is worth their while to do so by a display of individual 
skill and insight. 

If we continue to look at this matter from the public's point 
of view, however, we find that these sanctions are moral rather than 
penal. No attempt is to be made to force the public by Act of 
Parliament or Order in Council to employ only chartered electri- 
cal engineers. The attempt could only fail if it were to be made. 
In this connection the benefits that are conferred by the kind of 
recognition we are trying to obtain are enormously exaggerated, 
both as a means of protection and as a method of obtaining wealth 
and work. To be entitled to the designation "chartered electrical 
engineer" may, therefore, be little more than a barren honour unless 
the public can be persuaded to realize that the holder of the title 
is able to do for them something that cannot be done so well by 
anyone else, despite protestations to the contrary, of which, inci- 
dentally, there will be many, both strident and voluminous. 

The lesson the embryonic chartered electrical engineer has to 
learn is that upon his own exertions alone depend the value of his 
title, that if to secure that title he imposes upon himself and upon 
candidates for admission to the profession the necessity of complet- 
ing a certain course of education and of complying with certain 
rules, all will be well, and that to be called a chartered electrical 
engineer will be a mark of honour. That if this is not done and he 
allows his ranks to be thrown open to all and sundry, the titel, 
though high-sounding, will be empty and barren of any value. 

It is, therefore, essential that the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers should jealously guard admission to its ranks. Posses- 



sion of a Royal Charter, the institution of registration for engineers^ 
the laying down of standards of conduct are nothing in themselves. 
They are, indeed, little more than indications of a policy of 
purification, which to be successful must be justly and fearlessly 
carried out. The individual chartered electrical engineer has an 
equal responsibility in proving to the public, not only that he is 
competent in his profession, but that he is more competent than the 
unchartered free-lance man. While, therefore, we view with 
pleasure the constant growth of the membership of the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers, we must reiterate the importance of ensur- 
ing that such membership is not to be lightly granted. 

American Railway Association 

x<\n interesting little volume has been published by the 
American Railway Association relative to the past and 
present activities of the Association. A copy has been 
presented to The Institute and is available for reference 
in the Library. The American Railway Association was 
founded in 1871 and has expanded to a remarkable extent, 
the membership list including railways in Canada as well 
as Mexico, Cuba and Japan. On the Board of Directors 
are a number of Canadians including Howard G. Kelley 
M.E.I.C, president of the Grand Trunk Railway and 
E. W. Beatty, president of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

The Association work is conducted by committees 
dealing with operating, transportation traffic, engineering,, 
freight claims, automatic train control, etc. and the work 
of these committees is most noteworthy. 

Publications of the British Engineering 
Standards Association 

The following specifications and reports have been 
issued by the British Engineering Standards Association 
and can be obtained at twenty-five cents per copy from 
Capt. R.J. Durley M.E.I.C, Secretary, Canadian Engin- 
eering Standards Association, Room 112, West Block, 
Ottawa. A series of translations of a number of the most 
important specifications and reports issued in French, 
Italian, Spanish and Portuguese have also been issued by 
the British Engineering Standards Association and can 
be obtained from Captain Durley, a revision of the 
British specification for Portland Cement has also been 
issued. 

Condenser Tubes and Fittings for Marine Condensers; 

Creosote for preservation of Timber; 

Wood Poles for Telegraph and Telephone Lines; 

Terms and definitions for Automatic Telephone Systems; 

Benzol for Motor Fuel; 

Tungsten Electric Lamps; 

Metallic Resistance Meterials for Electrical Purposes; 

Switches and Circuit breakers for pressures not exceeding 

660 volts; 
Tramway Tires ; 

Soldering Sockets for Electric Cables; 
Electrical Pressures for new systems of installations. 

Errata 

In the letter on "The Metric System" appearing in 
the December number, the word "Meteorological" should 
have been "Metrological". 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 25 

The Annual General Meeting 

OF THE INSTITUTE 
WITH WHICH WILL BE ASSOCIATED A 

Professional Meeting 

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE MONTREAL BRANCH, 
WILL BE HELD AT 

Montreal, January 24th and 25th 

= PROGRAMME = 

(Subject to alteration) 



Tuesday, Jan. 24th, 9.00 a.m. — Registration, E.I.C. Headquarters, 176 Mansfield St. 

10.00 a.m. — Annual Meeting Called to Order. 

1.00 p.m. — Informal Luncheon. (Tickets, $1.00) 

C.P.R. Windsor Street, Mezzanine Dining Room. 

" 2.30 p.m. — Resumption of Business Meeting and 

President's Address. 

" " 7.30 p.m. — Banquet, followed by Smoking Concert. (Tickets, $5.00) 

Rose Room, Windsor Hotel. 

Wednesday, Jan. 25th, 9.30 a.m. — Visit to Dominion Engineering Works, Rockfield. 

(Large 41,000 h.p. turbine unit for Shawinigan may be seen 
under construction) 

" " 1.00 p.m. Luncheon — Rose Room, Windsor Hotel. 

Members and Ladies. 

(Tickets, $1.50 — Visiting Members, Complimentary) 

Followed by short address. 

" " 3.30 p.m. — Professional Paper at Headquarters. 

8.15 p.m. " " " 



Accommodation for Visiting Members will be reserved at the Windsor Hotel. 
Will you please notify: 

J. L. Busfield, Secretary-Treasurer, Montreal Branch, E.I.C, 
260 St. James St., Montreal, 
of your requirements and of the functions you expect to attend — or advise your local Secretary. 

MONTREAL BRANCH EXTENDS A CORDIAL 
INVITATION TO ALL MEMBERS 



A number of important committee meetings will take place about the same dates. 



26 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



CORRESPONDENCE 



Advertising in the Journal 

Dec. 14th, 1921. 
Editor, Journal: — 
Dear Sir: 

All members of The Engineering Institute of Canada 
are directly interested in making a success of The Journal. 
Advertising has a great effect on the financial success of 
The Journal and, hence, anything we members can do to 
encourage firms to advertise therein will greatly benefit 
The Institute and us. 

In connection with the work of the Sub-Committee 
of the Ottawa Branch on Advertising, one firm stated that 
the money they spent was wasted, as no enquiries or 
business had come to them as a result of their advertise- 
ment in The Journal. This may or may not have been 
the case, as unless those engineers writing to a firm men- 
tion that they have seen their advertisement in The 
Journal, the firm has no way of knowing that their ad. 
has served its purpose to them. Another Ottawa firm 
has mentioned that its advertisement in The Journal 
has been the most productive of results of any of its 
magazine or newspaper advertising, this statement being 
made solely because engineers have mentioned that the 
firm's advertisement has been noticed in The Journal 
when they are writing for prices or information. 

Evidently incidents of this nature are what determine 
the policy of a company in regard to advertising and it 
will contribute greatly to the success of The Journal, 
The Institute and ourselves, if every member consistently 
mentions the fact that they have seen a firm's ad. when 
they are writing to that firm information or prices. 
Let's boost our Journal in every possible legitimate 
manner. 

Yours faithfully, 

J. L. Rannie, A.M.E.I.C, 
Convener of Sub-Committee on Advertising, 
Ottawa Branch. 

Society of Chemical Industry, 
Montreal Section 

A series of monthly meetings with an agenda of scien- 
tific papers and addresses by eminent authorities on the 
subjects dealt with is being held by the Montreal Section 
of the Society of Chemical Industry. 

Among the interesting features of the session's pro- 
gramme is the joint meeting of the Society with 
The Engineering Institute of Canada and the Canadian 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. This meeting 
is to be held on January 20 at the Queen's Hotel, 
preceded by the usual dinner. The papers at this joint 
meeting will include 'Administration of the Explosives 
Act in Canada," by Lt.-Col. G. Ogilvie, chief inspector 
of explosives, and "The Electric Steam Generator, its 
Possibilities and Limitations," by F.T. Kaelin, M.E.I.C, 
chief engineer of the Shawiniganj Water and Power 
Company. 



What is also considered as an important move for- 
ward is the formation of an Engineering Group in the 
Society of Chemical Industry, which will consist of mem- 
bers of sections in Canada and the United States. This group 
is now being organized and when flourishing will form a 
valuable meeting ground for the exchange of ideas and 
discussion of problems where engineering and scientific 
developments require a closer co-operation. 

Since the convention of August last when the Society 
of Chemical Industry, (which has its headquarters in 
London, Eng, with Sections in all parts of the world), 
held its annual meeting in Canada for the first time, 
and honoured Canada by appointing a Canadian President 
in the person of Dr. R. F. Ruttan, of McGill University, 
the members of the Montreal Section have been most 
active, as the programme for the Session 1921-22 will show. 

The first meeting was held on Nov. 18, at which 
Prof. R. de L. French M.E.I.C. of McGill University, 
gave a paper dealing with the carbonization of Western 
Lignite. This address was accompanied by illustrated 
lantern slides, and Professor French described in detail 
the efforts that are being exerted to convert this valuable 
material into economic form. He described the difficulties 
which had to be overcome owing to the friable nature 
of this special lignite, and with illustrations showed 
how these had been surmounted and a carbonized product, 
suitable for compression into high grade scientific briquettes, 
secured. This new industry opens up considerable prospects 
of development, nor only from the fuel standpoint, but 
the utilization of the resulting tar and the production 
of by products of considerable value. This is all matter 
for future research in the laboratory, and may lead to 
developments of the utmost importance to Canadian 
Industry. 

Another paper, given by E. Levitt, described a method 
for the decomposition of Clays and Feldspars. This 
method possesses the merit of newness, and the lecturer 
claimed that a high yield of calcined alumina of extreme 
purity is obtained, and that the by-products are directly 
useable, or enter again into the cycle of manufacture with 
almost negligible percentage of loss. The process promises 
well, and should it be adopted on a manufacturing 
scale would obviate the importation of water glass and 
aluminum sulphate, both of which substances are used 
in large amounts in Canada. 

The next meeting was held on December 16 in the 
Physics Building, McGill University, when Prof. Eve of 
the University, spoke on Wireless Telephony. A demon- 
stration was arranged by the Marconi Company the 
wireless telephone being explained by D. R. P. Coates. 

On February 20th a lecture will be given on "Chemis- 
try and the Motion Picture" by C. E. Kenneth Mees, 
D.Sc, and on March 17th the paper will be "Water 
Supply Purification" by Jas. O. Meadows. 

Canadian Sitka Spruce 

The Dominion Forestry Branch has just issued a 
bulletin entitled "Canadian Sitka Spruce" —Its Mechani- 
cal and Physical Properties "which was prepared by Loren 
L. Brown, A.M.E.I.C, recently superintendent of the 
Forest Product Laboratories of Canada at Vancouver, 
B.C., and now British Columbia lumber commissioner 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



27 



for Eastern Canada with headquarters at No. 1 Adelaide 
St., East, Toronto. This bulletin should be of interest 
to all users of softwoods, as Sitka Spruce posesses charac- 
teristics which make it valuable not only in building 
construction, but also to the factory trade. It can be 
obtained on application to the Director of Forestry, 
Department of the Interior, Ottawa. 



EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 



Situations Wanted 

Electrical Engineer 

An apprentice electrical engineer finishing term with 
Canadian General Electric Company, seeks employment 
in Montreal. Box 86-P. 

Electrical Engineer 

Graduate B.Sc. in electrical engineering, McGill 
University, 1921, desires position in electrical engineering 
work. Practical experience in electrical testing. Summer 
with Northern Electric Company, valuation with 
Dr. Herdt. References furnished on request. Box No. 88-P. 

Mechanical Engineer 

Engineer, Jr.E.I.C, age 23. Six months experience 
mechanical drafting, designing and engineering, including 
supervision over manufacture of special machinery, design 
of tools, jigs and attachments for the manufacture of 
iron working machine tools. Improvement of lathes, 
shapers, drills, grinders, pipe threading machines, tumbling 
mills and a thorough knowledge of hydraulic pumps. 
Desires change. Salary expected $160.00 per month. 
Apply Box 87-P. 

Situations Vacant 

Assistant Mining Engineer 

3442. An Assistant Mining Engineer, Mining Lands 
and Yukon Branch, Department of the Interior at Calgary, 
Alta., at an initial salary of $2,100 per annum, which will 
be increased upon recommendation for efficient service 
at the rate of $120 per annum, until a maximum of 
$2,580 has been reached. This initial salary will be 
supplemented by whatever bonus is provided by law. 

Duties. — To assist in making examinations of mineral 
deposits; in some cases to have charge of mining survey 
parties; to test mineral samples; to inspect refining mills, 
shops and plants which are engaged in concentrating, 
refining, or otherwise preparing mineral products; and 
to perform other related work as required. 

Application forms properly filled in must be filed in 
the office of the Civil Service Commission not later than 
January 12, 1922. Application forms may be obtained 
from the office of the Employment Service of Canada 
or from the Secretary of the Civil Service Commission 



Members Exchange 

Offices to Rent 

One or two very desirable offices are available for 
consulting engineers. In connection with the rental of 
these offices, telephone, stenographic and typewriter 
services are available, the telephone service being placed 
on the firm's exchange. These offices are also centrally 
located. Apply Box 19-A. 

Imperial Oil Ltd. Coal Handling 
Plant at Sarnia 

The oil refinery at Sarnia of the Imperial Oil Co. 
Limited, of which Thos. Montgomery is chief engineer, is 
the largest in Canada, and the consumption of coal in 
their water hogs and stills approximates 200,000 tons 
annually. 

The coal is received at the dock in steamers specially 
constructed for this purpose, and carrying cargoes of 
6,000 tons. This coal is taken from the hold of the 
steamer by movable towers, each equipped with an 
automatic grab bucket having a capacity of about 
3,000 lbs. The hoisting of these buckets is accomplished 
by direct acting steam engines, one in each tower, and 
the operation of hoisting in each tower is accomplished 
by one man only. The coal is elevated a distance of 
about 50 ft. and discharges into cable cars running on 
an elevated trestle for carrying the coal across the rail- 
road tracks and public street into the Imperial Oil yard, 
where the coal is discharged into a large pocket for 
distribution to the various portions of the plant by 
means of auto trucks. 




By Order of the Commission. 



W. FORAN, Secretary. 



The photograph shows the two unloading towers in 
operation; each tower has an unloading capacity of 250 
tons per hour, giving a total of 500 tons for the two towers. 

The present plant is laid out so that eventually the 
cable road conveying system can be extended a distance 
of about half a mile, so as to deliver coal direct to the 
various stills and power plants and also to the storage pile. 
The complete plant was designed, manufactured and 
constructed by the Canadian Mead-Morrison Company 
Limited. 



28 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



British Industries Fair 

The eighth annual British IndustriesFairwhichembra- 
ces a large number of the most important lines of British 
trade, will be held in London and Birmingham from 27th 
February to 10 March. This is purely a trade fair where 
buyer and seller meet, not an exhibition. This Fair, 
whether regarded from the point of view of size, diversity 
of products shown or resultant business, now surpasses in 
importance and value to the world's markets any other 
trade fair or similar purpose. A visit to the Fair will 
convince overseas buyers that enormous strides have been 
made in Britain's post war production. A considerable 
number of Canadian buyers are making arrangements to 
attend. Admittance is restricted to trade buyers on 
invitation of the British Government and business is not 
impeded by crowds of sightseers. 

While participation in the Fair is confined to manu- 
facturers in the British Empire as exhibitors, many over- 
seas buyers will undoubtedly continue to utilize the servi- 
ces of merchant houses who fill so important a role in the 
export trade of the United Kingdom. From the buyers' 
point of view, however, the Fair has the great advantage 
of personal contact with the actual producer. 

The British Trade Commissioners in Canada will be 
pleased to give full particulars and to issue invitation 
cards to Canadian buyers who propose to visit the Fair 
at their following addresses :- 

248 St. James Street, Montreal, 

260 Confederation Life Building, Toronto, 

610 Electric Railway Chambers, Winnipeg. 



OBITUARIES 



f 

i 



A. M. Phillips, A.M.E.I.C. 

A. M. Phillips, A.M.E.I.C, died on November 15th 
in Kamloops, B.C., after a short illness from blood 
poisoning contracted through driving a splinter into his 
left thumb. He was born in August 1883 at Valley- 
field, Que., and entered the Royal Military College at 
Kingston in 1901 graduating in 1904. On graduation Mr. 
Phillips entered the service of the Grand Trunk Pacific, 
serving for one year as instrument man in Northern Quebec ; 
for two years subsequently he was resident engineer on 
the Napierville Junction Railway. In 19 10 Mr. Phillips was 
appointed resident of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway 
at Kenora, Ont; in 1911 to 1917 he was resident engineer 
with the Canadian Northern Railway at Kamloops, and 
in 1918 he was appointed assistant engineer, Dominior 
Water Power Branch in the same city. Mr. Phillips wa? 
elected an Associate Member on April 9th, 1910. 

J. Emile Girard, Q.L.S., A.M.E.I.C. 

J. Emile Girard, Q.L.S., A.M.E.I.C, died suddenly, 
on July 14th 1921, while he was aboard the S.S. Cape 
Diamond, on a vacation trip to the Saguenay. He was 
born on the 2nd. of December 1867 at Becancour, county 
of Nicolet, P.Q., of Leger Girard and Eugenie LeBlanc. 
After attending a local academy, he completed his educa- 
tion at the Three Rivers Seminary and studied Land 
Surveying under G. P. Roy, Q.L.S., of Quebec, with 
whom he served during several years, and became a 




J. EMILE GIRARD, Q.L.S., A.M.E.I.C. 

member of the Corporation of Land Surveyors for the 
province of Quebec in 1890. In 1901, Mr. Girard was 
appointed to the Survey Branch of the Department of 
Lands and Forests, Quebec, as assistant to the director 
of surveys. In 1908, he became inspector of surveys 
for the Provincial government and, in 1910, director of 
surveys for the Province of Quebec. He was admitted 
in the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, now The 
Engineering Institute of Canada, as an Associate Member 
in 1905. 

Mr. Girard married Miss Blanche Fafard, ol Quebec, 
in 1914. His residence was Quebec. He was well known 
and esteemed by many engineers and by all the Quebec 
Land Surveyors. 



PERSONALS 



T. H. Byrne, A.M.E.I.C, has been appointed road 
superintendent for Carleton County, Ont. 

W. E. Keyt, A.M.E.I.C, has been transferred by 
the Department of Public Works to Nelson, B.C. 

J. F. F. Mackenzie, Jr.E.I.C, is now with the 
Dominion Bridge Company Limited, at Lachine, Quebec. 

A. G. McLerie, A.M.E.I.C, formerly with the 
Laurentide Co. Ltd., is at present with the Royal Canadian 
Air Force at Camp Borden. 

E. S. Miles, A.M.E.I.C, formally of Matane, Que., 
is now with Doheny, Quinlan & Robertson, Limited, at 
Thorold, Ont. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



29 



L. H. Wheaton, A.M.E.I.C., has been appointed 
Commissioner of the Joint Expenditure Commission to 
the County of Cape Breton. 

A. T. Perrin, A.M.E.I.C., has been appointed plant 
and equipment engineer for the Parker Motor Car Com- 
pany, Limited, at Longue Pointe, Que. 

E. C. Girouard, A.M.E.I.C., has opened an office as 
manufacturers' broker and agent at 224 St. James St., 
Montreal. Mr. Girouard is particularly interested in 
contractors' plant. 

W. D. Coulter, S.E.I.C., formerly with the Farris 
Bridge Company, at Cumberland, Maryland, is now in 
the drafting department of the Lackawanna Bridge 
Company, at Buffalo, N.Y. 

E. L. Miles, M.E.I.C., has received the appointment 
of county engineer, to be combined with his regular 
duties as county road superintendent for the County of 
Victoria, Ontario. Headquarters, Lindsay. 

Captain G. V. Douglas, A.M.E.I.C., has joined 
Sir Edward Shackleton's expedition to the Antarctic and 
sailed South with the exploring party in the "Quest". 
The good wishes of every member of The Institute go 
with Captain Douglas. 

H. R. McClelland, M.E.I.C, has left for an extended 
business tour in Great Britain. Mr. McClelland is an 
active member of the Montreal Branch, and recently 
delivered a very interesting paper to the Branch on 
Shipbuilding. 

Herbert P. Heywood, A.M.E.I.C., is superintending 
construction of the Muddy Run Trunk Sewer, Niagara 
Falls, Ont., as resident engineer. Mr. Heywood designed 
this sewer for James, Proctor, and Redfern, consulting 
engineers, the cost of the work being $250,000. 

J. A. Burnett, A.M.E.I.C., will carry on the business 
of the consulting engineering firm formerly known as 
Smart & Burnett. V.I.Smart, M.E.I.C.has been appointed 
by the Government in connection with appraisal work. 
It is Mr. Burnett's intention to carry on his consulting 
practice, and specialize in appraisal work. 

Charles E. Fraser, M.E.I.C, James H. Brace, 
M.E.I.C, and George C Clarke, M.E.I.C, have issued 
an attractive year-book for 1920 of Fraser, Brace Limited. 
The purpose of the book is to give an idea of the variety 
of the work undertaken by the firm. It is attractively 
printed with many illustrations. 

Donald L. Derrom, M.E.I.C, who has spent the past 
few months in Montreal, and was particularly active as 
having been in charge of the Service Department of the 
McGill Reunion, has accepted a position as mechanical 
engineer with the Dominion Atlantic Railway, with 
headquarters at Kentville, N.S. 

H. R. Safford, D.Sc, M.E.I.C, is to be congratulated 
on the further evidence of his success, as indicated by a 
recent announcement of the President of the Chicago, 
Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company, advising that 
at a meeting of the Board of Directors held on December 
1st, Mr. Safford, assistant to the president, was elected 
vice president to the company. Mr. Safford's friends in 
Canada will be glad to hear of this promotion. 

Geo. B. Mitchell, M.E.I.C, manager of the Founda- 
tion Company at Lima, Peru, has presented to The 
Institute a copy of the Centennial edition of the West 



Coast Leader of Lima, Peru. The Centennial edition 
gives an immense amount of information as to present 
conditions in the republic of Peru and gives an insight 
into the remarkable energy and foresight of Canadian 
British and American firms which have helped to develop 
the resources of the country. 

Geo. W. Craig, M.E.I.C, Chairman of the Calgary 
Branch has just returned from an extended tour through 
the central States, during which he attended two engin- 
eering meetings, giving an outline of the work that The 
Institute is doing for engineers in Canada, especially 
emphasizing the activity of The Institute in legislative 
matters and the individual attention given to members. 
Mr. Craig was gratified to note the interest taken in 
the work of The Engineering Institute by engineers whom 
he met on his visit. 

W. G. Macnaughton, A.M.E.I.C, recently of 
Kapuskasing, Ont., and formerly of Spokane, who has 
for many years been connected with the pulp and paper 
industry as professional engineer, has accepted the 
secretaryship of the Technical Association of the Pulp 
and Paper Industry, with headquarters at 18 East 
Forty-first Street, New York City, succeeding T. J. 
Keenan, who has retired as editor of the paper. Mr. 
Macnaughton will also edit a section of the Paper Trade 
Journal, which is acting as the official organ of the 
Pulp and Paper Association. 







IJH^BmpHb^ 9j| 












-t afei 






.■ 















J. G. SULLIVAN, M.E.I.C. 

President-elect for 1922 



30 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Boyd Candlish, A.M.E.I.C, announces that he has 
just appointed an assistant who will reside permanently 
in Hamilton. Mr. Candlish is chief engineer of the 
Herbert Morris Crane & Hoist Company Limited, of 
Niagara Falls, and is a specialist in lifting machinery. 
Mr. Candlish will continue as heretofore to make frequent 
visits to Hamilton for the purpose of working out problems 
in lifting and transporting, but his assistant, Mr. Fred 
Simpson, is competent to lay out the preliminary lines 
of such studies, and Mr. Candlish's friends will be pleased 
to know if his presence there. 

Horace L. Seymour, C.E. (Toronto), A.M.E.I.C, 
town planning engineer of the firm of Frank Barber and 
Associates Ltd., consulting engineers, Toronto, has been 
retained as city planning consultant to the city of 
Niagara Falls, Ont., in which connection his first work 
will be to consult with Carl Gardner, B.A.Sc, A.M.E.I.C, 
in the preparation of study maps and data, which will 
form the basis of zoning maps and proposed zoning 
ordinances, as well as for other features of a city planning 
scheme. This is a feature of municipal work which has 
been seriously neglected, and the city of Niagara Falls 
is to be commended for its up to date policies which are 
sure to have beneficial results. 

G. T. Clark, M.E.I.C, addressed the Engineering 
Society of the University of Toronto on November 23rd, 
on the organization of engineers in general and The 
Engineering Institute in particular. Mr. Clark first 
spoke of the need for organization in the engineering 
profession, one of the most important of the present day, 
and then dealt with the organization developed by The 
Institute. He traced the growth of the Canadian Society 
of Civil Engineers from the days when the civil engineer 
could handle every branch of the profession to the present 
day when every engineer is perforce a specialist. He 
pointed that the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers 
had kept pace with the changing conditions and had 
been re-organized under its present title with a remark- 
ably flexible constitution. Mr. Clark showed that 
membership was a mutual benefit to The Institute and 
the member in the exchange of ideas and the promotion 
of technical knowledge. In conclusion the splendid work 
oi.The Institute in protecting the public from the impostor 
and in maintaining a high moral code were indicated. 



BRANCH NEWS 



Vancouver Branch 

P. H. Buchan, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary- Treasurer. 

The Annual Meeting of the Branch was held on 
Dec. 21st, when the following matters were disposed of 

Election of new Branch Officers: — 

Chairman, Chas. Brakenridge, M.E.I.C. 

Vice-Chairman, A. C. Eddy, M.E.I.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer, P. H. Buchan, A.M.E.I.C 
930 Birks Building. 

Executive: J. N. Anderson, A.M.E.I.C; Wm. Smaill. 
M.E.I.C; Major-General R. G. Edwardes 
Leckie, C.M.G., A.M.E.I.C. 

The Chairman, Vice-Chairman and Secretary-Treas- 
urer are elected for the year 1922, and the three members 
of the Executive Committee named for the years 1922 
and 1923, there being three members of last year's 
Executive Committee acting for a second term, as provided 
in the By-law. 

The amendments to the by-laws were both carried, 
the first by a majority of 54 to 1, the second by 49 to 3. 

The matter of suggested meeting of Branch Secretaries 
was discussed and was referred to the Executive Com- 
mittee to go into more fully. 

The letter of Council regarding the suggested arrange- 
ments with the B. C Technical Association was read and 
discussed and was also referred to the Executive Com- 
mittee to consider before sending to the B. C Technical 
Association. 

Meeting of Association of Professional Engineers 
of British Columbia. 

The following report has been received from E. A. 
Wheatley, A.M.E.I.C, Registrar of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of the Province of B. C 

The Second Annual General Meeting of the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of the Province of British 




Meeting of Association of Professional Engineers, British Columbia. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



31 



Columbia was held on 3rd December, in the Rose du Barry 
room of the Hotel Vancouver and commenced at 11 
o'clock in the forenoon; after the usual passing and adopt- 
ing of the 1920 minutes, Major W. G. Swan, D.S.O., 
M.E.I.C, chief engineer of the Harbour Commissioners 
and president of the Association during 1921, addressed 
the meeting. During the year the membership of the 
Association had grown to 754 and on account of nine 
resignations and the death of five members, which had 
been a blow to all engineers in the province, the actual 
number at the time was 740. 

The chairman drew attention to the fact that 116 
applications had been unavoidably rejected although the 
Council had been fairly lenient with applicants and had 
made it a point of policy that if an applicant had been 
obtaining his living by carrying out engineering work, 
even if his qualifications did not approach the standard 
desired, he had been granted membership in the Associa- 
tion. Major Swan thought that the Association was 
now on its feet. In the future qualifications would be 
made more stringent and possibly later it would be 
necessary that all applicants should have diplomas or 
college degrees before admission. 

Major Swan referred to the question of joint quarters 
and joint staff with other engineering bodies, which had 
been recommended at the last Annual Meeting, and 
informed the meeting it had been found impossible to 
arrange for a joint staff, but he was very happy to be 
able to report that joint quarters had been arranged; 
and not only with The Engineering Institute of Canada, 
Vancouver Branch, and ours, but also with the British 
Columbia Technical Association, Vancouver Section of 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the 
Institute of Architects and a small Chemical Society, 
which made altogether some six Associations housed 
under one roof. 

The Chairman commented on their indebtedness to 
The Engineering Institute of Canada for allowing their 
library to be opened to all the members of these Associa- 
tions, and drew attention to the need of the appointment 
of various committees, including a legislative committee, 
who should, in the light of past experience go in detail 
through the Act and make recommendations to the 
Council of necessary changes. Also a library committee 
should be considered in the hope that they might finally 
obtain a library which should be up to date and of the 
greatest use to all the engineers, whatever their branch, 
who are members of the Association. 

The result of the ballot was declared as follows: — 
D. O. Lewis, M.E.I.C, President, J. M. Turnbull, Vice- 
President, and G. A. Walkem, M.E.I.C, A. E. Foreman, 
M.E.I.C, J. Muirhead, M.E.I.C, and H. L. Johnston, 
M.E.I.C, members of Council. Major Swan invited the 
new President, Mr. Lewis, to address the meeting. 
Mr. Lewis briefly remarked on the great amount of work 
which was in front of them all and assured the meeting 
that anything in the interest of the engineers appealed 
very greatly to him and he would use his best endeavours 
to carry out their wishes and commands. 

A number of changes of by-laws were introduced 
and passed. It was agreed and arranged that the in- 
coming Council should endeavour to have round table 
conferences with The Engineering Institute of Canada and 



the British Columbia Technical Association, with a view 
to the Associations working together or co-operating in 
the interests of all engineers. This is considered a very 
important step in the right direction. 

One hundred and fifty members were present at the 
meeting, which was marked throughout with a great deal 
of enthusiasm. A vote of thanks was extended to the 
retiring President for the energy, keenness and success 
with which he and the Council had conducted the affairs 
of the Association during 1921, to which Major Swan 
replied that it had been nothing but pleasure to work 
for them inasmuch that all the members of the Council 
had shown such interest in the affairs of engineers. 

In the interval between the morning and afternoon 
sessions, a luncheon was held in the Hotel Dining room, 
and later a group photograph of the members was taken 
on the Court House steps. 

Local News. 

F. J. Whittaker, A. M. E. I. C, municipal engineer for 
South Vancouver has been appointed city engineer of 
Prince Rupert, B.C., and will commence his new duties 
about 15th December. 

The Vancouver Branch has moved to 930 Birks 
Building, where joint quarters are being maintained with 
the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province 
of B. C, the Architectural Institute of B. C, the B. C 
Technical Association, the Vancouver Section of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the 
Chemical Society. 

The suite consists of a general office, board room 
s ^cretaries room and reading room and library. 

Calgary Branch 

Arthur L. Ford, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Floyd K. Beach, A. M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

Meeting of Association of Professional Engineers 

On November 26th, a meeting was held in Calgary 
of the Association of Professional Engineers of Alberta. 
This meeting, while not of members of The Institute as 
such, was attended by many of them who are also members 
of the Association formed as a result of efforts started 
by The Institute to secure legislation. 

Prior to this meeting there may have been a feeling 
that the legislation so far secured is of little practical 
value. At the close of the meeting that feeling had not 
only been dissipated, but all present felt that a real step 
toward the advancement of the profession has been 
achieved in the legislation secured, in its resulting organ- 
ization of engineers of the province practising in all 
branches, and in the raising of ethical standards. 

R. A. Brown, president of the Association opened 
the meeting by a very forceful talk outlining the work 
so far done. He pointed out that whereas the legislation 
secured provided only a protection for the name Profes- 
sional Engineer, subsequent legislation respecting various 
undertakings in the province, such as the Irrigation 
Districts act, have provided that only a Professional 



32 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Engineer may do certain things. Attention was drawn 
to difficulties that have been met in passing on the 
credentials of various applicants for admission to the 
association, due in many cases to indefinite statements 
on the application form. Possibly some applications 
have been rejected that would have been accepted if they 
had been in clearer form, and it is equally possible that 
some had been admitted whose qualifications were not 
as high as they should have been. At all events, legisla- 
tion is admitted to be unjust if it takes away a man's 
livelihood, and if a man has made his living by the 
practice of engineering, we must allow him to continue, 
while restricting the entrance of new men until they 
can show their worth and right to practise. 

The question of dual registration was raised. Should 
engineers be registered in two or more branches of 
engineering? The general feeling was that it was 
probably unwise to recognize legally any but the term 
Professional Engineer. The various branches were 
recognized within the Association for purposes of equal 
representation on the council. In any event, it is unwise 
to make any move toward amendment of the act, and 
those engineers who wish dual registration should receive 
it on proof of being entitled to it. The fact that registra- 
tion is or is not made in a certain branch should have 
no bearing on the rights to discipline members for practise 
that shall endanger the public security of life or property. 

The meeting, which was held in the afternoon in 
the Board of Trade rooms, was followed by a banquet 
and musical programme. R. A. Brown presided through- 
out and proved himself a most able chairman, bringing 
several delicate situations to a point of agreement. 

Engineers and the Law 

When a married man loses his own money he has 
himself to blame and his wife to blame him, but if an 
engineer causes clients to lose their money he has not 
only the losers to blame him, but he may make himself 
amenable to the law. 

When dealing with companies and corporations, the 
engineer should know the ground upon which they stand 
before risking much of his own time and talent or before 
allowing a client to risk his money. It would appear 
that the only competent authority to pass on the rights 
of a company to contract, is a lawyer well versed in 
corporation law. 

This very briefly is the meat that engineers can 
draw from a very able talk given by Alexander Hannah, 
barrister, of the firm of Lougheed, Bennett, and Company, 
to the Calgary Branch on December 2nd. In opening 
his talk, Mr. Hannah remarked that the subject he was 
to cover in an evening is one to which twenty or more 
lectures are assigned in a law school, and on which many 
lengthy volumes have been written, so that only salient 
features could be outlined. The reviewer is very diffident, 
being an engineer, in reporting Mr. Hannah's talk, which 
was so full of meaning as to leave one with the impression 
that hardly a phrase could be taken away from it without 
disturbing the meaning of the whole. 

A corporation is regarded as a legal person. Since 
the fiction is admitted, the powers which it possesses 
must be fixed in some manner by law. Corporations 
may be classified as to size; the words trust, corporation, 



and company being variously used. Ordinarily a con- 
cern such as the Canadian Pacific Railway or the City 
of Calgary being entitled to the name of corporation, 
while the word company usually refers to a smaller 
concern. 

Again, they may be classified as to the origin of their 
authority to do business. A Royal Charter endows the 
concern with the furthest reaching powers. Incorporation 
may also be obtained from the Dominion or the Provincial 
government by letters patent or by memorandum of 
association, or by an act of parliament (or act of 
legislature). 

The Hudson's Bay Company is an outstanding 
example of incorporation by Royal Charter. Its powers 
cannot easily be questioned anywhere within the empire. 
The case of the Bonanza Creek Company was cited. 
In that case there was an association authorized to do 
business in Ontario, which went into the Yukon. Its 
right to hold mining lands in the Yukon was questioned 
and it took its case to the Privy Council. That body 
rested its decision on the form of incorporation which 
had been obtained from the Lieutenant Governor of 
Ontario under the great seal of that province. The ruling 
was that the company had rights flowing from the crown 
and were entitled to do business elsewhere than in Ontario. 

Public service corporations, such as the City of 
Calgary, the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Gas Com- 
pany, etc., require the right of expropriation. This right 
can be granted only by an act of parliament, so that in 
dealing with a company that may need this right, it is 
necessary that it be incorporated by an act that the act 
specify the right. 

Further the speaker pointed out that, if a company 
is not incorporated in the province in which it is doing 
business, it is necessary to investigate and ascertain that 
it has obtained rights to do business in the province, as 
otherwise money might be tied up indefinitely while the 
courts thresh out its rights. 

A controversial subject is entered when discussing the 
merits of letters patent as against the merits of registration 
by memorandum and articles of association. Mr. Hannah 
stated there is much to be said in favour of registration 
of the regulations of a company in that for a small fee 
anyone could obtain from the provincial registrar full 
details of the powers of a company. In the case of 
letters patent, a company is regulated by its by-laws, and 
by-laws may be written and amended by the directors 
of the company. Unscrupulous directors might do many 
things harmful to the stock holders or to persons doing 
business with the company. 

Mr. Hannah mentioned that articles of association 
may be written out in full, outlining all powers as desired, 
or they might be in a short form with reference to 
"Table A", an Alberta form which is now very antiquated. 
It provides, for example, that the office of a director shall 
ipso facto be vacated if he accept a contract or office of 
profit to himself from his company 

A more sensible by-law or rule is that a director 
must declare his interest at a meeting of directors, and 
having so declared his interest, he is free to contract 
as an individual. 

Contracts may be signed by authorized directors of a 
company without the seal of the company but in such 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



33 



cases as an individual would use a seal, the seal of the 
company is affixed. The signature of one or more 
directors of the company then becomes merely a witness 
to the fact that the seal of the company was purposely 
and knowingly placed. Mr. Hannah then outlined 
where the seal of an individual or company is required. 

Companies are sometimes looked on as a means of 
losing money quickly. Probably a lack of knowledge of 
what they can and cannot do would save many investors 
from losing their money. For example, in 1914 many 
people lost money in the oil boom who should not have 
done so had they inquired into their rights. A minimum 
suscription clause, for example, actually existed in some 
cases, and though the minimum subscription was not 
obtained the money actually subscribed was not returned. 

In considering Mr. Hannah's talk as a whole, it was 
an impressive exposition of the value a lawyer has in 
any organization scheme of which a company is one 
factor. 

Local News 

Captain Hobart R. Carscallen, M.C., A.M.E.I.C, 

has been promoted to the position of office engineer in 
the irrigation division of the reclamation service at 
Calgary, and has removed from Ottawa where he has 
resided since returning from overseas. Captain Carscallen 
lost _ a leg while serving in France with the Canadian 
Engineers. This disability combined with his experience 
in irrigation work prior to going overseas and his genial 
disposition has made his promotion very acceptable to 
those who know him and have to work with him. 

Angus Smith, M.E.I.C., has just been elected city 
commissioner for Calgary. He appealed to the electors 
on his record as city engineer for Victoria, Regina and 
Prince Albert, and defeated the present incumbent of 
the office by a small majority in the face of opposition 
by both newspapers. As he was comparatively unknown 
to the majority of electors, his success may be taken as 
a compliment to the profession as well as to himself. 

Winnipeg Branch 

Geo. L. Guy, M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
E. V. Caton, A.M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

At a meeting of the Branch which was held on the 
1st December, E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, M.E.I.C., in the 
chair, a series of films illustrating the paper making 
industry was shown. 

D. A. Ross, M.E.I.C., read a short synopsis of the 
various methods of manufacturing wood pulp and paper, 
which was listened to with considerable interest by the 
members. The growing interest which is being taken in 
the paper industry in the West and the prospects of the 
installation of pulp mills in the Winnipeg district resulted 
in a large attendance. 

Local News 

J. G. Sullivan, M.E.I.C., was re-elected for alderman 
at the recent municipal elections. 

Foundations In and Around Winnipeg 

At a regular meeting of the Branch, held in the 
Engineering Buildings, Manitoba University, on the 9th. 



December, E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, M.E.I.C., in the chair, 
a paper on "Foundations In and Around Winnipeg" was 
presented by Harold Edwards, M.E.I.C., this paper being 
a summary of all information collected by a large Com- 
mittee which has been working on the subject for some 
time. 

The paper was introduced by a short description of 
the geological history and formation in and around 
Winnipeg, given by P. Burke Gaffney, M.E.I.C. 

Mr. Edwards opened his address by emphasizing the 
very contradictory information the Committee has re- 
ceived and emphasized the necessity for more careful 
observations by the members and those interested to 
insure accurate information being obtained. He pointed 
out the condition of rock in the Winnipeg district, in 
which there appeared to be no regularity of elevation 
which could be relied upon, nor did there seem to be 
any general trend for the slope of the rock in any direction. 
Borings within short distances of each other showed 
considerable differences in the elevation of the rock and 
from a large number of results which have been obtained, 
spread over practically the whole Winnipeg area, there 
does not seem to be any definite line of rock elevation 
in the district. The usual covering over the rock, after 
the first foot or so of mould, was clay; boulders, hard 
pan, and gravel was found immediately over the rock, 
but in many cases exceptions to this were found, such as 
quicksand, soft blue clay under the hard pan and in 
one case a soft mushy clay immediately over the hard 
pan. The clay covering over the hard pan also varied 
greatly from a stiff yellow clay to a soft blue clay and in 
many cases a poor marie was found. The rock itself 
varied in places; in one case the layers were very soft 
and easily broken with a hammer. In many cases before 
reaching the true rock a layer of soft broken rock was 
found. In some cases layers of clay were found under 
the rock. Another point which required careful invest- 
igation was the water level under the soil. This had 
been found to vary from place to place and as a matter 
of fact several authentic cases were given where the water 
level within a short distance had varied considerably at 
the same time. It was also found that the water level 
varied from time to time and evidence pointed to this 
being somewhat dependent upon the state of Lake 
Winnipeg, although it was not sufficiently proved to be 
accepted without further investigation. 

The speaker emphasized the necessity in all founda- 
tions for uniformity of loading. He suggested that a load 
of 4,000 lbs. per square foot (live and dead) should not be 
exceeded until some definite information had been obtain- 
ed, as investigations show that buildings which had 
exceeded this loading had shown signs of trouble. Against 
this, however, he pointed out that buildings having a 
load of 7,000 lbs. per square foot were still in perfect 
condition. 

The speaker concluded with impressing upon the 
members the necessity for co-operation from everybody 
in this investigation and requested that the Committee 
be notified of any condition which appeared to be unusual 
when foundations were being excavated or in borings 
being made in the district. He also emphasized the neces- 
sity for careful watching the question of water level in 



34 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



the soil, as in his opinion this was one of the most im- 
portant matters which affected the stability of foundations 
built on the Winnipeg clay. 

Upon a motion before the Branch, the standing 
Committee on Foundations was reappointed to continue 
these investigations and the meeting concluded with a 
hearty vote of thanks to the speakers. 

The meeting was largely attended and a live discussion 
took place, many interesting points being brought out 

Lethbridge Branch 

C M. Arnold, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

On December 3rd the Corporate Members of The 
Engineering Institute resident in Lethbridge held an or- 
ganization meeting at which the Lethbridge Branch was 
brought into being. The following officers were elected 
to serve until the regular Annual Meeting of the Branch 
in March : Chairman, Sam G. Porter, M.E.I.C.; Secretary- 
Treasurer, C. M. Arnold, M.E.I.C.; Executive Committee, 
G.N. Houston, M.E.I.C, CD. MacKintosh, A.M.E.I.C, 
H.W. Meech, A.M.E.I.C. 

Following the enthusiastic preliminary meetings which 
have been held in Lethbridge, it is expected that the new 
Branch will quickly blossom into one of the most active 
in The Institute. 

Border Cities Branch 

J. Clark Keith, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The annual meeting of the Branch was held in the 
Cadillac Cafe, Friday evening, December 9th. 

The reports of the officers and committees for 1921 
were received, and on motion of M. E. Brian, A.M.E.I.C, 
seconded by H. C McMordie, A.M.E.I.C, the reports 
were adopted. 

The meeting then prodeeced to the election of officers 
for the year 1922. The following officers were elected: 

Chairman Geo. F. Porter, L.L.D. M.E.I.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer: J. Clark Keith, A.M.E.I.C. 
Executive Committee: A. J. M. Bowman, A. M. E. I. C 
L. M. Allan, A. M. E. I. C 
H. C McMordie, A.M.E.I.C 

Niagara Peninsula Branch 

R. P. Johnson, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
G. R. Taylor, A.M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

Power Development at Niagara Falls 

About 125 members and friends sat down to dinner 
at the Lafayette Hotel on the evening of December 6th 
with F. S. Lazier, M.E.I.C, Branch Vice-Chairman in the 
chair. After dinner, J. L. Harper, chief engineer of the 
Niagara Falls Power Company, gave a very interesting 
illustrated address on Niagara Falls, the problems of 
power development there and the particular work of his 
own company. Mr. Harper outlined the various stages 
in the power development of the Falls from 14,000 H.P. 
twenty years ago to the 1,000,000 H.P. of the present 
day and he argued for a still larger development, outlining 
a plan whereby 60% of the water could be utilized without 
affecting the scenic effects. 



Mr. Harper gave some very interesting information 
in regard to the 32 foot pressure tunnel his company has 
now under construction for the supply of water power 
for their 70,000 H.P. generators which will bring 
their total output up to 400,000 H.P. when they will be 
getting twenty horse power per cubic foot of water used 
instead of ten as in some of their old plants. He stated 
that in past years by better design of tail races and draft 
tubes a gain of 5% in efficiency had been effected. 

Among other interesting items Mr. Harper mentioned 
that their transmission cable to the Aluminium Company 
had an area of 144 square inches and was possibly the 
largest in existence. 

Two moving picture reels were shown, one illustrating 
the scenic beauties of the Falls and the other the import- 
ance of the industries at Niagara Falls utilizing power, 
particular stress being laid on the abrasive industries, 
the necessity for a large supply of electric power for 
their furnaces and their great importance in the whole 
industrial life of the country. 

A very hearty vote of thanks was extended to 
Mr. Harper for his kindness in coming to address the 
Branch and for his most interesting lecture. 

Hamilton Branch 

W. F. McLaren, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Annual Banquet of the Branch was held in the 
Royal Connaught Hotel, on 24th November, 1921, at 6.30 
p.m., with E.H. Darling, M.E.I.C. presiding. Brig.- 
Gen. C.H. Mitchell, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., Dean of the 
Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University 
of Toronto, was guest of honour, and Messrs Geo. C 
Martin, Chamber of Commerce, and F.R. Close, Board 
of Education, were also invited. Musical selections were 
rendered during the evening and songs sung by the mem- 
bers. 

Mr. Darling introduced Mr. Martin who outlined 
some of the activities of the Chamber of Commerce, many 
of which dealt with engineering problems. He said that 
engineers of high technical training should devote some of 
their talents to municipal affairs and hoped that many 
would become members of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Mr. Close described some of the difficulties of the 
board of education caused by the rapid growth of the city 
requiring new schools with all the latest appliances for 
ventilation demanding the highest skill of the architect. 

J. W. Tyrrell, M.E.I.C, one of the earliest 
graduates of the Faculty of Applied Science of Toronto, 
then introduced Brig.-Gen.CH. Mitchell, CB..CM.G. etc; 
who said that in Mr. Tyrrell's time there were 3 graduates 
in Civil Engineering while now there are about 57 varie- 
ties of engineers: whereas Civil used to take first place in 
point of numbers, now it was down to fourth place. There 
are over 800 students taking engineering courses. They 
are divided up as follows :- 

Electrical Engineering 290 

Chemical 175 

Mechanical 160 

Civil " 130 

Mining " 55 

Architectural " 32 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



35 



Formerly, civil engineers were engaged on large 
construction work, but now we are in an industrial period 
requiring specialists in the scientific technicalities of 
the various branches of manufacturing. 

The Engineering Institute combines all branches 
and extends from coast to coast. It is a sign of the times 
that all branches of engineers are getting together. Can- 
ada is essentially an agricultural country and always will 
be; but we must have transportation, shipping, including 
docks and harbours, canals, electric railways, aerial naviga- 
tion, highways, water supply, sewage disposal, bridges, 
town planning architecture, mining as in Labrador and 
Northern Ontario and other parts. Then there are the 
great basic manufactures, iron and steel, milling, wood, 
cement and clay products and clothing. All these will 
require engineering ability more and more as time goes 
on. Plants employed on war work are being adapted 
to peace industries, as at Shawinigan where acetone is 
giving place to acetylene. In Saskatchewan they are 
now making Epsom salts and similar chemicals in place 
of explosives. These chemical industries will require 
chemical engineers. When we consider all these possibili- 
ties, we realize the complexity of engineering in its 
broader sense. 

We engineers are not taking enough part in the 
affairs of the country. We are assistants to those who are 
running things, but we are not running things ourselves. 
Engineers, educated in highly endowed universities, owe 
it as a duty to place their special knowledge at the service 
of the community. They should take a more active 
interest in politics by serving on municipal boards and 
joining the Chamber of Commerce in their localities — ■ 
Don't ask "What do I get out of it?," for you will get 
out all that you put in. 

The vote of thanks was moved by H. U. Hart, 
M.E.I.C., chief engineer and general manager of the Can- 
adian Westinghouse Co., and was carried amid loud 
applause, thus closing a most successful gathering at 
which over 100 engineers were present, including repre- 
sentatives from Brantford, Simcoe, and Dundas. 

Local News 

It will be noted that Mr. Hart, having resigned the 
Chairmanship of the branch some weeks ago, owing to 
pressure of work, E. H. Darling, M.E.I.C., consulting 
engineer, had been chosen by the executive to fill the 
vacancy. The cigars supplied for the dinner by Mr. 
Darling were greatly appreciated. 

Toronto Branch 

F. B. Goedike, M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
C. R. Young, M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

Electricity Applied to Railway Signalling 

The development of railway signalling through the 
application of electricity was discussed in a comprehensive 
manner at the meeting of the Branch on November 24 
by C. H. Tillett, signal engineer for the Grand Trunk 
Railway. Mr. Tillett described the methods of signalling 
from the elementary device of the banner and lantern to 
the elaborate block and interlocking signalling installa- 
tions now being used on first-class lines. The address 
was fully illustrated by lantern slides. 



Social Service 

At the meeting held on December 1st, Professor 
J. A. Dale, of the Social Service Department of the 
University of Toronto, addressed the Branch on "What 
Constitutes Social Service". According to the speaker's 
definition, social service consists of "the modern practice 
of the principles of the Good Samaritan worked out in 
a scientific way, as a result of centuries of experience and 
study". 

In the discussion which followed the address, various 
speakers expressed their interest in the application of the 
principles of social service to industry and the problem 
of employment. 

The report of the Committee on Sociology was 
submitted by its chairman, T. L. Crossley, M.E.I.C., 
who also presided at the meeting. 

At the meeting of the executive held on the same 
evening, Willis Chipman, M.E.I.C., was named as the 
Branch representative on the Provincial Division. 

Toronto Park System 

The park system of Toronto was interestingly 
described and illustrated with an excellent collection of 
lantern slides by Chas. E. Chambers, commissioner of 
parks, Toronto, at the meeting on December 8th. 

J. M. Oxley, M.E.I.C, Wm. Storrie, M.E.I.C, G. G. 
Powell, M.E.I.C, G. W. Winckler, M.E.I.C, and others 
took part in the discussion. 

Street Illumination 

A. G. Lang, of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission, 
gave an address on street illumination, illustrated by 
lantern slides, at the meeting on December 15th. R. O. 
Wynne-Roberts, M.E.I.C, G. W. Winkler, M.E.I.C, 
A. C Oxley, A.M.E.I.C, and others took part in the 
discussion. 

A resolution was carried by the meeting instructing 
the executive of the Branch to request the city authorities 
to have all street names illuminated. 

At the meeting of the executive held on this date, 
G. T. Clark, M.E.I.C, Wm. Storrie, M.E.I.C, and H. J. 
Lamb, M.E.I.C, were appointed representatives to attend 
the meeting of the Provincial Division executive in 
Toronto on December 17th. 

Students' Night, Toronto Branch 

On November the twenty-eighth the Student Members 
of the Toronto Branch held a very successful meeting 
in Hart House at which about one hundred persons were 
present. Papers were presented by four undergraduates 
in a very creditable manner. A great deal of credit is 
due A. W. McQueen S.E.I.C, and A. M. Reid, S.E.I.C, 
for the organization and management of the meeting. 

Mr. Reid in opening the meeting expressed the 
appreciation of the Student Members to the Toronto 
Branch of the E. I. C. and especially to Messrs G. J. 
Clark and R. O. Wynne-Roberts for their invaluable 
assistance. 

The first paper on Railway Electrification was given 
by Harold S. Weldon, S.E.I.C, The history of the 
electric locomotive was traced, noting the outstanding 



36 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



points in its development, including increased ventilation, 
magnetic blow-out type of controller interpole, with the 
consequent increased range of commutation, and also the 
improved mechanical construction of the motors. The 
advantages of railway electrification such as improved 
service, increased speed, and lower maintenance costs were 
reviewed. Mention was also made of the different systems 
of electrification, and of the automatic sub-stations now 
in use. 

R. I. Wynne-Roberts S.E.I.C., then spoke on "Waste 
and its Possibilities" He indicated the origin of waste 
and defined his subject as "Waste is simply raw material 
in the wrong place". The speaker developing this defini- 
tion, pointed out the interesting commercial evolution 
of waste to a product of value, and emphasized the import- 
ant bearing the exploitation of waste products has upon 
the wealth of the nation. He illustrated his remarks 
by allusion to the various successful applications that 
have already been made in the world of industry. In his 
opinion the future of the waste disposal problem lies in- 
the full scientific utlization of waste and the establish 
ment of a recognized market, to give all waste material 
definite accepted value; 

The address by W. J. McLelland S.E.I.C., on water 
softening by the zeolite process proved very interesting. 
Mr. McLelland has had considerable experience both in 
installing and selling "Permutit" softeners so he was very 
conversant with his subject. 

The outstanding points of this method of softening 
water, impressed upon all present, were the simplicity 
of operation, the thoroughness with which the "Permutit" 
removed the hardness-as demonstrated by a small work- 
ing model-and the little care such a method required. 

When Mr. McLelland had finished, the subject was 
left open for discussion, whereupon several interesting 
and instructive points were raised concerning the method 
of operation of this type of softener. 

In presenting the paper on Unemployment, Mr. 
A. W. McQueen defined his subject as "involuntary idle- 
ness in the sphere of work for wages." He then went on 
to state that any attempt to solve the problem of un- 
employment must be preceded by a through study of the 
whole subject matter of economics. Western industrialism, 
the speaker continued, had been built up on two main 
ideas. First, the production of material wealth and the 
resultant commodities exchanged in free competition and 
second, that services were also a commodity to be exchang- 
ed in free competition. Unemployment is one of the 
evils resulting from hindering this free play of competitive 
forces and is caused wholley by maladjustment between 
wage rates and the demand for labour. 

In the discussion which ensued besides several students 
the following took part: G. T. Clark, M.E.I.C.; R.O. 
Wynne-Roberts, M.E.I.C.; Professors P. Gillespie, M.E.I. 
C.; C. R. Young M.E.I.C; J. R. Cockburn, M.E.I.C. 

A. M. Reid, S.E.I.C., presided at the meeting. 

Peterborough Branch 

D. L. McLaren, A. M.E.I.C, Secretary. 
The City of Peterboro has for a number of years 
been considering the installation of a sewage disposal 
plant. A difference of opinion as regards the system 



best suited to the needs of the City existed between the 
city engineer and the Ontario Board of Health. 

In view of the criticism directed towards the city 
engineer by a representative of the latter organization 
at a meeting of the city council, a resolution was passed 
by the executive of the local Branch at a meeting held 
on December 5th, and the following is a copy of same:— 

"Resolved, that while recognizing that the system 
of sewage disposal best suited to the needs of the City 
of Peterborough is a question of debate, we, the executive 
of the Peterboro Branch of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada hereby express our confidence in Roy H. Parsons, 
M.E.I.C, city engineer, Peterborough, knowing that he 
will be governed in advice to the city by scientific and 
economic principles only, and that a copy of this resolu- 
tion be sent to the city clerk." 

Automatic Stations 

On Thursday Dec. 8th, G. R. Langley, M.E.I.C, 
switchboard engineer, for the Canadian General Electric 
Co., Ltd., gave an address to the local Branch on "Auto- 
matic Stations". The speaker dealt with automatic 
stations both of the railway and hydro-electric type and 
showed conclusively that the equipment for such stations 
is not complex as commonly believed, but perfectly 
standard in every respect. 

Kingston Branch 

L. T. Rutledge,M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Life of Sir Sandford Fleming 

A regular meeting of the Branch was held in Convo- 
cation Hall, Queen's University, on November 22nd. at 
which Professor Peter Gillespie, M.E.I.C. of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto gave a very interesting address illustrated 
with lantern slides on the life and career of Sir Sandford 
Fleming, an eminent engineer and a late chancellor of 
Queen's University. 

Prof. Gillespie reviewed many of the details of the 
early life and education of Sandford Fleming. He then 
dwelt at length on the pioneer work done by him along 
with other noted men in the development of the Great 
West at the time when the Canadian Pacific Railway was 
being surveyed and afterwards constructed. The speaker 
enumerated many instances of hardship and privation met 
with in the mountain fastness where the snow was so deep 
and the cold so intense. Sir Sandford laboured with untir- 
ing energy as a chief engineer during the years of the con- 
struction of the railway roadbed and it was interesting to 
note that he was present at the ceremony of driving the 
last spike on the mountain division. The picture which 
illustrated this ceremony showed Sir Sandford standing 
beside two honored empire-builders known to us as Sir 
William Van Home and as Lord Strathcona. 

The strong personality, the steadfastness of purpose, 
the adherence to principles of right, the honesty, integrity 
and the high moral character of the man were character- 
istics well brought out and illustrated by the speaker. 
The impression left on the mind of every person was that 
Sir Sandford Fleming's name occupies a high position in 
the list of those great men who have been the ornaments 
and benefactors of the Canadian race. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



37 



Iron Ores of Canada 

The next meeting of the Branch was held on December 
13th., at which meeting Prof. Stanley Graham, professor 
of mining engineering, Queen's University, gave a very 
instructive paper on the "Iron Ores of Canada". Prof. 
Graham treated the subject in a logical order as is revealed 
by the following synopsis :- 

1. History of the development of iron mining in 
Canada with statistics and comparisons with other iron 
ore producing countries. 

2. Iron ore and its impurities. The conditions effect- 
ing the value of it as a marketable product. 

3. Value of Canadian ores in comparison with our 
U. S. competitors. 

4. Treatment of low grade ores to make them market- 
able. 

5. Concluding discussion on the probable future of 
the Canadian iron ore industry with suggestions as to 
means that might be used to stimulate the industry. 

The speaker explained in the first place, the great and 
vital importance of the iron industry in any country. 
Then he showed how Canada had enormous iron ore 
resources widely scattered from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
But though Canada has many ore beds and mines such 
as the Helen mine that produce in their natural state 
ores that are marketable, nevertheless, on the whole most 
of the ores require beneficiating before the furnace people 
will purchase them. Up to the present it has been poss- 
ible to meet the demand with rich ores in the natural 
state and most of this ore has come from the United 
States Lake Superior district. 

Prof. Graham, after showing in detail the true state 
of affairs, gave some interesting details as regards benefi- 
ciating iron ore and showed a bright future for Canadian 
ores when ores have to be treated universally. It is known 
that the tonnage of high grade U. S. ores is rapidly decreas- 
ing and consequently the value of U. S. ores is a diminish- 
ing quantity whereas relatively with our industry practi- 
cally at a standstill the value of the Canadian ores is an 
increasing quantity. As soon as the United States com- 
panies have to begin treating their ores and this has 
already begun on a large scale in the Superior district, 
then the Canadian companies will be able to compete 
with their near-ores. Much research work has to be done 
to stimulate the Canadian iron industry and it is quite 
apparent that the Canadian government should assist in 
some measure. Stimulating the iron industry helps many 
other industries and consequently is a general benefit. 

A very hearty vote of thanks was tendered Professor 
Graham for his excellent address. 

Ottawa Branch 

F. C. C. Lynch, Associate E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
The Modern Telephone System 

At an open meeting of the Branch on the evening 
of the 24th November, held in the Victoria Museum, 
N. M. Lash, B.Sc, chief engineer, Bell Telephone Com- 
pany of Canada, Montreal, gave an interesting and 
instructive address on "The Complex Nature of a Modern 



Telephone System". The points covered by the address 
included : — Switchboards, effect of increasing the number 
of lines, importance of planning for the future, long 
distance, ccmplexity of same, replacement of open lines 
by toll cables, transmission, effect on design, repeaters, 
etc. The lecture was illustrated with lantern slides and 
two reels of moving picture films, the first one showing 
the make-up of a telephone system and the other the 
progress of telephone installation, training and working 
of operators, closing with the progress of a call from 
Montreal to Vancouver. A large audience listened 
appreciatively to the lecturer and viewed with approval 
the interesting films. 

The E.I.C. and Its Branches 

The growing importance and usefulness of local 
branches of The Engineering Institute of Canada as 
shown by the dependence, more and more being placed 
on them by municipalities was strongly emphasized in 
an address delivered at the Ottawa Branch, Engineering 
Institute luncheon by J. M. R. Fairbairn, D.Sc, 
M. E.I.C, chief engineer of the C.P.R., and President of 
The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

In opening, Mr. Fairbairn called attention to a recent 
speech of Lord Byng of Vimy, delivered in Toronto, 
in which the Governor General had stated that the 
future of Canada lay more and more with men of science. 
Prof. Macallum had also voiced the same sentiments 
when speaking on China, when he remarked that the 
future of China depended on the scientific education of 
its young men. It was common knowledge to the 
engineer, said Mr. Fairbairn, that the development of 
past ages was due to scientific attainments. People in 
other walks of life were beginning to appreciate this. 

After tracing the development and growth of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada down to the present, with 
its 4,500 members and 20 different Branches from coast 
to coast, Mr. Fairbairn said that with the livened, 
energetic interest that had been developed, there had 
been engendered a keen interest by local Branches in 
civic affairs, that could not help but be of benefit to 
the public. This stimulation of interest in public affairs, 
and the improved ability of members of The Engineering 
Institute Branches to discuss civic matters of interest to 
engineers, were two of the outstanding accomplishments 
of local Branches, which Mr. Fairbairn considered were 
of the greatest importance. 

A number of local Branches had got in touch with 
their municipalities and had been asked by them to 
assist in the solution of problems of interest to the munic- 
ipalities. Another thing, which the speaker had noticed 
as a result of formation of Branches, was that engineers 
were able to get up and express themselves much better. 
Mr. Fairbairn said he had often been impressed by the 
ease with which labour men were able to make speeches 
on any matter, and he thought it was due to the practice 
they obtained in the lodge rooms. In the same way the 
Branches of The Institute should enable the cultivation 
of easy speech by the engineers. The latter often excused 
themselves by saying they were better at doing things 
than at talking. 

The speaker believed that soon the Provincial 
Governments would be asking the advice and assistance 



38 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



of Engineering Institute Branches in the larger centres, 
and the day was perhaps not far distant when even the 
Federal Government could obtain assistance from The 
Engineering Institute headquarters. 

Mr. Fairbairn also stressed the importance of profes- 
sional ethics among engineers, in their relations with one 
another. After all, these consisted only of the exercise 
of true courtesy to one another, one great body boosting 
one another. 

If the thought of Lord Byng was to be fulfilled, each 
engineer must be willing to give his best ungrudgingly, 
realizing that in their attitude to each other, engineers 
could do the most good and be of the greatest value in 
the development of Canada's resources. 

Short addresses were made by J. H. Hunter, 
A.M.E.I.C, Chairman of the Montreal Branch, who said 
"there was nothing engineers could not accomplish", and 
by George Mountain, M.E.I.C, chief engineer of the 
Railway Commission who said he felt sure that The 
Engineering Institute would be invited to give advice 
to the Federal Government on engineering matters. 

The luncheon was presided over by C. P. Edwards, 
M.E.I.C, Chairman of the Ottawa Branch, who referred 
to the healthy state of the Ottawa Branch, which had 
350 members to-day and $1,600 in the treasury. 

Montreal Branch 

J. L. Busfield, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Canadian Authors' Week 

On Thursday November 24th, in recognition of 
Canadian Authors' Week, the usual technical paper was 
abandoned, and the Branch went in for literature with 
historical and reminiscent talks on Canadian and other 
authors. 

Col. George Ham of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
was the speaker of the evening, and the Chairman was 
J. M. R. Fairbairn, M.E.I.C, chief engineer of the C.P.R., 
President of The Institute, who briefly introduced Col. 
Ham. 

Col. Ham's address was in the nature of a humorous 
anthology of Canadian authors and authoresses during 
the past half century, with whom he had been personally 
connected. He began many years back with reminiscences 
of D'Arcy McGee, whom he eulogized as one of the most 
brilliant speakers and writers Canada has ever known. 

From this, Col. Ham proceeded to some sketchy 
reminiscences of his intimacy with Mark Twain and his 
personal associations with such writers as Robert Service, 
Hon. Frank Oliver, "Jack" Cameron the "Kahn", well 
known for many years as a newspaper and magazine 
writer, Augustus Bridle, accused of writing "The Masks 
of Ottawa"; Col. George T. Dennison of Toronto; "Billy" 
Moore of the Canadian Northern, who wrote "The 
Clash"; Hector Charlesworth of Toronto; E. King Dodds, 
H. F. Gadsby, John Munroe, E. W. Thompson and other 
Ottawa press gallery writers; Wilfrid Campbell, Bliss 
Carman, Col. E. J. Chambers, Irvin Cobb, Professor 
Stephen Leacock, Dr. Drummond andjnany others. 



"But make no mistake" said Col. Ham, "we have 
good writers in Montreal, most of whom it has been my 
privilege to know. Such men as Cy. Warman, John 
Murray Gibbon, Hector Garneau, W. D. Lighthall, 
Frank L. Packard, George lies, B. K. Sandwell, William 
Hunt, Arthur Dansereau, John Reid and Martin Griffin, 
whose works for so many years adorned The Montreal 
Gazette, and R. S. White who today yields so trenchant 
a pen on that journal." 

Turning to the women writers of Canada he had 
known, Col. Ham said there was quite a bevy of them, 
from "Kit" of the Toronto Mail and Empire; "Francoise" 
of Montreal; Mrs. Fenwick Williams; "Janey Canuck", 
Nellie McClung and others. 

During the evening a number of recitations from 
the works of Dr. Drummond and Robert Service were 
given by Messrs. J. Bevan Giles, R. Roberts, and C 

Godwin. 

Montreal Aqueduct 

On December 1st, F. Y. Dorrance, A.M.E.I.C, 
division engineer of the Montreal Water Board presented 
the second of the series of papers on the Montreal 
Aqueduct dealing with the engineering features. H. W. 
Fairlie, A.M.E.I.C, presided. 

Einstein's Theory 

On December 8th, Professor Lewis T. Rutledge, 
A.M.E.I.C, of Queen's University, Kingston, gave an 
interesting lecture on Professor Einstein's Theory of 
Relativity and Gravitation. Prof. H. M. MacKay, 
M.E.I.C, presided. Professor Rutledge's address has 
already been published in the Kingston Branch news, 
so it will suffice to say that the address was found of 
absorbing interest. 

Annual Meeting, December 15th, 1921 
The British Government Commercial Intelligence System. 

On December 15th, G. T. Milne, the Senior British 
Trade Commissioner in Canada and Newfoundland, 
addressed the Montreal Branch of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada, taking as his subject "The British 
Government Commercial Intelligence System". 

In outlining the origin of this form of government 
assistance to trade, the lecturer pointed out that, in the 
days when Britain, as the pioneer industrial country of 
the world, held, almost without challenge, the position of 
being practically the only country exporting manufactured 
goods, and when her customers placed their orders through 
London merchants, there was not the same need for a 
government-supported Commercial Intelligence System 
as nowadays when the manufacturers of the United 
Kingdom have to meet the competition of highly developed 
countries, such as the United States and Germany. The 
speaker also thought that the development of a Com- 
mercial Intelligence System by his Government was in 
line with the modern conception of the relation of the 
state to the individual. Formerly, he said, the trader 
exporting to countries overseas considered himself more 
or less self-sufficient, and while this school has still 
exponents, its members are diminishing, and experience 
has shown that even the largest firms of manufacturers 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



39 



find it to their advantage to consult the Department of 
Overseas Trade in London with regard to their export 
trade. 

After briefly explaining the organization of the 
Commercial Intelligence Service, Mr. Milne emphasized 
that it was not the function of a government department 
or its overseas officers to secure orders, but rather to 
indicate where opportunities for doing business occur, 
and by bringing buyer and seller together. His function 
as a Trade Commissioner was to supplement existing 
activities of the ordinary merchant and trader, and in 
no sense to take their place. 

Mr. Milne paid a tribute to the work being done by 
Canadian Trade Commissioners in different parts of the 
world which he had visited, adding that Canada had 
appointed Trade Commissioners before Great Britain had. 
He considered that the explanation of this was to be 
found that, in a new industrial community such as Canada, 
whose traders had not yet established business connections 
in the world's markets, the most convenient method of 
investigating possibilities was by means of a Trade Com- 
missioner knowing what his country could export. In 
countries where Canada is not represented by a Trade 
Commissioner, Canadian importers and exporters may 
utilize the services of British Consuls. These services, 
which are being made use of extensively, do not cost 
the Canadian taxpayer a single cent. 

Before concluding, Mr. Milne referred to the forth- 
coming Eighth Annual British Industries Fair, which is 
organized by his Department in London, and mentioned 
that these Fairs has been instrumental in securing orders 
for British manufacturers running to millions sterling. 
Buyers flock to this Fair from all parts of the civilized 
world, and as showing its extent, Mr. Milne mentioned 
that the alley-ways in the Fair Building, occupied by 
exhibitors, extend to some miles in length. Wide publicity 
for the Fair has been obtained throughout the Dominion, 
and it is hoped that a large number of buyers representing 
Canadian importers will visit the Fair. 

Time did not permit of more than a passing reference 
to the Export Credit Scheme devised by the British 
Government with the view of helping Britain's export 
trade. Under this scheme twenty-six millions sterling 
has been ear-marked for this purpose. Although origin- 
ally devised with the view of assisting in the rehabilitation 
of Central Europe, the scheme, as now amended, applies 
to the whole world. 

Mr. Milne extended an invitation to the members 
of The Institute to make use of the facilities of the Trade 
Commissioners' offices in all matters regarding trade with 
the United Kingdom. 

The Annual Meeting was opened with the Chairman, 
J. H. Hunter, M.E.I.C., presiding, and the Secretary 
announced the election of the following officers: — 

Chairman, J. A. Duchastel de Montrouge, M.E.I.C. 

Vice-Chairman, John T. Farmer, M.E.I.C. 

Committeemen, R. Bickerdike, M.E.I.C, C. J. 
DesBaillets, M.E.I.C, P. B. Motley, M.E.I.C. 

A brief discussion was held on Branch Finances, 
and it was decided to ask every Member of the Branch 
to make a voluntary subscription, not exceeding $5.00 



per member in order that the activities of the Branch 
may be carried on, and also a reserve fund built up. 

Following the business session, a musical programme 
was provided, with Chas. M. McKergow, A.M.E.I.C, 
acting as master of ceremonies. Messrs. Busfield and 
Swan contributed vocal numbers, and Mr. Lamontagne 
gave a cello solo, which was greeted with very hearty 
applause. Light refreshments were served during the 
evening. 

J. A. Duchastel de Montrouge, M.E.I.C, the new 
Chairman of the Montreal Branch of The Institute was 
born in New York in 1878, his father being the French 
Consul at that place. He was educated at Public Schools 
in Quebec, Amsterdam, Paris, Rheims, and entered the 
Ecole Polytechnique, (Laval University) in 1897, obtaining 
the Degree of Bachelor of Applied Science in 1901. For 
a few years Mr. Duchastel was connected with, first, 
Phoenix Bridge & Iron Works, the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, and Messrs. George and Vautelet. In 1906 he 
became city engineer of Outremont and from 1918 to 
date he has occupied the position of city engineer and 
manager of the City of Outremont. 

Mr. Duchastel has been very active in The Engineering 
Institute of Canada, becoming a Student Member in 1899, 
an Associate Member in 1904, and a Member in 1912. 
He is also known as the president of the Automobile 
Club of Canada, vice-president of the American Road 
Builders Association, director and past president of the 
Canadian Good Roads Association. He is a Member of 
the Engineers' Club, of the Montreal Board of" Trade, 
and the Chambre de Commerce Francaise. 

John T. Farmer, M.E.I.C, the newly elected Vice- 
Chairman, was born in Liverpool, England, in 1874. 
He took the degree of B.Sc. and M.Sc, from Liverpool 
University in 1894, and was awarded the Exhibition 
of 1891 Scholarship for research entitling him to study 
abroad for two years. These years were spent at McGill 
where he graduated with the degree of M.Sc. in 1897, 
and later, in 1894, he was awarded the degree of Doctor 
of Science. 

Mr. Farmer spent a number of years in the States 
with the Crosby Steam Gauge and Valve Company, 
the Ball and Wood Company of Elizabeth, New Jersey, 
Watts Campbell Company, Newark, New Jersey, and the 
Green's Economizer Company of New York, while since 
1905 he has been the local Sales Engineer and Represent- 
ative of a number of engineering firms in Montreal, 
including Glenfield and Kennedy Limited of Kilmarnock, 
Drysdale and Company of Glasgow, the Combustion 
Engineering Corporation of New York, also district 
manager of Green's Economizer Company of Canada. 

Mr. Farmer was awarded the Gzowski Medal of 
The Engineering Institute for his work on impulse water 
wheels in 1898, and has been consulting engineer connected 
with a number of hydraulic installations. 

C J. DesBaillets, M.E.I.C, is a native of Geneva, 
Switzerland, and is a graduate of the University of West 
Switzerland. He came to Montreal in 1904, since when 
he has been connected with the Shawinigan Water- and 
Power Company, the Structural Steel Company, the 



40 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Canada Paper Company, and the Canadian Westinghouse 
Company. In 1917 he was appointed manager and chief 
engineer of public utilities for the Corporation of Sher- 
brooke. In May 1920, Mr. DesBaillets joined the 
Montreal Water Board as engineer in charge, and has 
since that time been intimately connected with the 
carrying out of the Montreal Aqueduct. He became an 
Associate Member of The Engineering Institute in 1917 
and a Member in 1920. 

P. B. Motley, M.E.I. C, was born in India in 1871, 
and obtained his engineering education at the School of 
Practical Engineering in London, England. He has been 
continuously in the service of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway since 1892, commencing as a draughtsman under 
the late P. A. Peterson, and later occupying position of 
engineer in charge of bridge construction, assistant 
engineer in charge of design of bridge renewals, and 
at the present date, engineer of bridges. Mr. Motley 
became an Associate Member of The Engineering Institute 
in 1898, and a Member in 1905. 

Robert Bickerdike, M.E.I.C, is a graduate of McGill 
University, and has spent a number of years on Railway 
construction work, and with the Department of Public 
Works on hydrographic surveys. From 1908 he was 
connected with the Transcontinental and Canada Central 
Railways. From 1912 until this year he was with J. H. 
Hunter and the Canada Starch Company in various 
capacities, except during the war. He went overseas 
with the 87th Battalion and returned with the rank of 
Lieutenant-Colonel. He was awarded the D.S.O. and 
Bar. At the present time he is in private practice. 



St. John Branch 

Harry F. Bennett, A. M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Musquash Power Development 

The members of the Branch had a splendid opportun- 
ity of seeing the works at the Musquash Power Develop- 
ment on Saturday, Dec. 10th, when they were the guests 
of the New Brunswick Contracting and Building Co., 
Ltd., general contractors on the concrete and earthwork 
sections, at luncheon, and afterwards visiting the various 
works under the direction of Herbert Phillips, M.E.I.C, 
managing director of the company, and S. R. Weston, 
A.M.E.I.C, asst. chief engineer of the Power Commission. 
The thirty-five members who motored down from the 
city, thoroughly enjoyed the splendid luncheon, and were 
impressed with the various works carried out under the 
direction of C. O. Foss, M.E.I.C, chief engineer of the 
N. B. Electric Power Commission. 

The Musquash River, at the point of development, 
is 13 miles West of the city of St. John; it has a total 
watershed above the main dams of about 350 sq. miles, 
and the turbines are designed for a maximum load of 
11,100 H.P. The river itself is small but the numerous 
lakes in the system, assisted by the increased pondage, 
will give sufficient water to keep the plant in continuous 
operation. The water is carried to the power house by 
an 8-foot wood stave pipe, 7,400 feet long from the main 



dam on the West Branch, and by a 10-foot wood stave 
pipe, 3,000 feet long from the main dam on the East 
Branch, the static head in the former being 128.5 feet 
and in the later, 103.5 ft. 







St. John Branch Christmas Card. 



yy Chairman. 



The main dams are of concrete, with earth sections 
with a concrete core wall. Smaller earth dams are 
constructed to retain the fiowage. On the upper stretches 
of the river, timber and earth dams have been constructed 
to increase the storage capacities of the larger lakes. 
The two intake houses and the power house are of con- 
crete construction, the power house being located at the 
head of tide water. The turbines consist of two vertical 
turbines of 3,670 H.P. and one of 3,760 H.P., the 
generators consist of three 2,900 K.V.A. units. 

The power will be delivered at a sub-station on the 
outskirts of the city of St. John. Steel towers have been 
erected on concrete foundations to carry the aluminum 
transmission cables, the longer spans of the cable are 
steel reinforced. 

The first field work on this project was done in 
July 1920, the first contract let Nov. 9th, 1920, and at 
present, 95% of the work is completed. Surveys for a 
transmission line are now being made to Moncton, 90 
miles east of St. John. 

The contractors for the various works are as follows : — 
Earthwork and concrete : — The New Brunswick Contract- 
ing and Building Co., Ltd. 
Wood stave pipe line:— The Pacific Coast Pipe Co. 
Hydraulic installations:— S. Morgan Smith Co. 
Electric installations: — The Can. Gen. Electric Co. 
Transmission line — clearing right of way : — The Maritime 

Construction Co. 
Towers and erection: — The Canadian Bridge Co. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Branch was held 
on Dec. 15th. A resolution was adopted endorsing the 
proposed meeting of the Branch Secretaries in January. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



41 



The Chairman, F. P. Vaughan, M.E.I.C., explained 
to the meeting that the Mayor of St. John had asked 
three members of The Institute, Messrs. C. C. Kirby, 
M.E.I.C, W. G. Chace, M.E.I.C., and G. G. Hare, 
M.E.I.C., to report on the distribution of the power 
available from Musquash. Their report had been publish- 
ed and considerable discussion had taken place. He felt 
that it was up to the city to find a market for the power 
which had been brought to our doors by the Power 
Commission and was offered to the city at 1.2 cents per 
K.W.H. 

W. G. Chace, M.E.I.C, then addressed the meeting 
and explained the various options which offered for the 
disposal of this available power. He explained, that, 
with the exception of the several large users, the N. B. 
Power Company was supplying the city's electricity, as 
well as gas, and operating the electric railway. The 
charges for power were high, but various audits had 
shown that the profits were small. The committee, of 
which he was a member, recommended that the city and 
power company might unite in a contract with the 
Power Commission, the energy being purchased for 
distribution by the company. He felt that this could 
be done in such a way as to give the citizens the benefit 
of any economy. 

C. O. Foss, M.E.I.C, then explained the policy of 
the Power Commission in the matter. They were willing 
to sell their power at cost, the 1.2 cents per K.W.H. was 
a maximum price and if it were possible it would be 
reduced. The commission had spent considerable money 
on these projects and were ready to go further in the 
development of power. They want the power distributed 
to the advantage of the citizens and prefer selling to 
Municipalities. 

Considerable discussion took place after the addresses, 
opinions differing as to the best method of distribution. 
Since this meeting the power question has received 
considerable attention and is being seriously debated 
by the citizens at large. 

Moncton Branch 

M. J. Murphy, A. M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Natural Gas 

The regular monthly meeting of Moncton Branch 
was held in the Supreme Court Chambers, Moncton, 
Wednesday evening, November 23rd. J. D. McBeath, 
M.E.I.C, Chairman of the Moncton Branch and asst. 
city engineer presided. The speaker of the evening was 
Dr. J. A. L. Henderson of London, England, president 
of the N.B. Gas and Oilfields, Ltd. 

In beginning his address, Dr. Henderson told of the 
difficulty of classification of natural gases. Bituminous 
materials are divided into three great classes, pure 
bitumens, pyro-bitumens and artificial bitumens. In the 
pure bitumens are included all from gaseous to solid. 
Besides what is known commercially as "natural gas" i.e. 
petroleum gas, there are other gases in nature as for 
example natural coal gas and gases associated with 
igneous rocks in volcanic areas and steam. 

Natural gas is used for domestic purposes for light, 
and for heating purposes, cooking, hot water and individual 



stoves, but should not be used for general house heating. 
It is used for industrial purposes for gas engines and 
boilers. It is now considered unwise from the national 
standpoint and for the consumer's own benefit to use it 
for heating of houses, on account of waste. Use under 
boilers is extremely wasteful. Four to five times the 
amount of gas is consumed to get the same relative 
efficiency. For smelting, baking bricks and tiles, and for 
the production of lamp black it should not be used, 
although in the United States 51,000,000 lbs. of lamp 
black was produced in 1920 from natural gas, chiefly in 
districts where the gas is so distant it cannot be used for 
any other purpose. 

Speaking of the waste of natural gas, Dr. Henderson 
stated that it is estimated that in 1920 in the United 
States the waste was at the rate of 800 billion cubic feet 
per annum the equivalent of 20 million tons of high grade 
gasoline. This waste is incurred in production, distribu- 
tion and in mis use. 

Figures for 1911 show that 11,132,642 acres are held 
in the United States for exploitation purposes while 1918 
figures give over 14 million acres. The acreage held for 
petroleum exploitations purposes in 1911 was over 8 
million acres. On an equivalent basis of gasoline at 
20 cents per gallon the natural gas would exceed the 
petroleum in value by 40 to 50 per cent. 

The relative value of natural gas to a nation as 
compared with petroleum from the standpoint of value 
in quantity and area is equal if it does not exceed that 
of petroleum. Its drawback is that it can be used at 
present only in the country in which it is found. Pipe 
lines of 400 to 500 miles in length are probably the extreme 
limit of distance to which it can be conveyed. Natural 
gas is at the mercy of the country within which it is 
found. The community should interest itself in con- 
trolling the use of it not only for its own benefit but also 
for the use of posterity. 

Over 95 per cent, of the known natural gas is produced 
in the United States. Canada comes next with 2 per cent; 
Russia, Galicia, Roumania and Italy follow consecutively. 
Natural gas is chiefly found in sedimentary rock mostly 
sandstone and limestone. It has been accumulated from 
the earliest time to now from the carboniferous rock 
period downwards. The largest initial flows of gas were 
found in Louisiana running from 40 to 75 million cubic 
feet and in California where a flow of 100 million a feet 
was struck, the pressures varying from 1500 to 2000 lbs. 
per square inch. The deepest well from a productive 
standpoint is the Liganier well near Pittsburg. It is 
over 6000 feet deep, averages 500,000 cubic feet and the 
pressure is too great to measure. The deepest well in 
the world is the Lake well in West Virginia, sunk in 1919 
at a cost of $150,000. This went to a depth of 7,579 
feet at which depth a temperature of 168 degrees Fahren- 
heit was encountered. This well failed to produce profit- 
able gas. 

After tracing briefly the early history of natural gas 
during which he stated that the Chinese and Phoenicians 
and Fire-worshipers along the Caspian Sea and others 
cognizant of it, the speaker said the present commercial 
development dated back only about 40 years. Canadian 
production commercially began in 1890 with a value of 



42 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



$150,000. In 1910 the value had increased to $1,491,249. 
Since then there has been large expansion in Alberta and 
New Brunswick. One company alone in Alberta sold 
almost four billion cu. ft. yearly over more than 8 years. 

In speaking of our Canadian fields in particular. 
Dr. Henderson dwelt on the need for conservation. The 
average life of a gas well is ten years and after the present 
supply is depleted there is no renewal to the wells. Some 
of the causes of uncurbed use of it, are too much use for 
industrial purposes and too low a price. 

Dr. Henderson stated he was formerly of the opinion 
that government control of the natural gas resources was 
preferable but is now of the opinion, because of danger 
of depletion of the fields, that private ownership under 
regulation is better. To replace the 660 billion cubic 
feet of natural gas used in the United States in 1920 
would require an expenditure of $1,200,000,000 for other 
fuels. 

In closing, the chairman tendered Dr. Henderson a 
hearty vote of thanks for the clear and concise manner 
in which he presented such an excellent address on so 
intricate a subject. 

Cape Breton Branch 

Kenneth G. Cameron, A.M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
Low Carbon Steels 

A regular monthly meeting was held December 9th, 
in the Branch rooms at Sydney, there being about thirty 
members present when the meeting was called to order 
by the Chairman, C. M. Odell, M.E.I.C. The business 
of the evening was a paper by W. S. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C., 
on "Some interesting features relative to the properties, 
heat-treatment, and working of low carbon steels". 

Mr. Wilson in opening, emphasized the fact that the 
breadth of his subject was such that he could only select 
a few of the more interesting characteristics, dealing with 
these from the viewpoint of our local problems, rather 
than from a highly technical attitude. 

We might consider, he said, that modern civilization 
had its beginning with the intensive manufacture of steel, 
and it is certain that all our scientific discoveries can only 
be turned to public service and profit through the develop- 
ment of materials of engineering which will stand up to 
test, — we can see therefore the necessity of thoroughly 
acquainting ourselves with the properties and possibilities 
of those materials we have. 

Dealing briefly with the microstructure resulting from 
the natural cooling of molten steel, Mr. Wilson illustrated 
the different characteristics of the constituents by an 
excellent microphotograph, — 1000 diam. magnification,— 
of a piece of steel the surface of which had been scratched 
by a needle, the varying width and depth of the scratch 
showing clearly the difference between the soft and hard 
parts. 

Mr. Wilson then gave some details of a recent dis- 
covery, in which the treatment of microscopic specimens 
by a new reagent deposits a thin film of copper on the 
purer steel as opposed to those portions containing 
segregated phosphorus, thus developing a pattern corres- 



ponding to the distribution of the phosphoric areas. 
Successive illustrations of an ingot, bloom, billet and bar 
treated in this manner, showed very clearly the effects 
of rolling and work done upon the steel. By means of 
this method of microscopic examination of steel, it is also 
possible to determine whether a failure is due to bad 
design or defective material. 

An illustration of an ingot in which pieces of high 
manganese steel had been embedded regularly, and which 
was then drawn down in a hydraulic press, showed the 
irregularities resulting from this type of working as 
compared with that of a rolling mill. 

Mr. Wilson then followed through the changes known 
to take place during the heating of steel, and the widely 
differing results obtainable by varying the heat-treatment, 
and dealt in particular with the results which might be 
expected from the recent installation by the Dominion 
Iron and Steel Co. of a rail bloom reheating furnace. 
He also emphasized the fact that properly heat treated 
carbon steels were taking the place of the more expensive 
alloy steels which came into use so largely a few years ago. 
The following table is an illustration of what we can do 
with our own home product, properly heat treated:— 





.8% carbon 


1.11% vanadium 




Steel, 


Steel, 




heat treated. 


as rolled. 


Elastic limit 


139,000 lbs. 


121,000 lbs. 


Breaking stress 


178,000 lbs. 


172,500 lbs. 


Elongation in 2". . . . 


14% 


10% 


Reduction in area . . . 


43% 


17.6% 



At the close of the paper considerable discussion took 
place, the subject being of strong local interest, — and at 
its conclusion, Mr. Wilson was accorded a very hearty 
vote of thanks. 

Halifax Branch 

O. S. Cox, A. M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Town Planning 

The regular monthly meeting of the Branch was held 
at the Green Lantern, December 19th. Attendance, 42. 
C. E. W. Dodwell, M.E.I.C, Chairman of the Branch, 
presiding. Supper was served at 6.30 P.M., after which 
the meeting was called to order. H. W. Johnson then 
presented a very valuable paper on Town Planning. 
Mr. Johnson explained that the subject was too large to 
attempt to cover it fully in one evening. He touched on 
several phases of the subject, however, and many interest- 
ing features were brought out. 

The following is an incomplete resume of some of 
the points made by Mr. Johnson: — 

A Town Planning Scheme is a means of providing 
for convenience, safety, service, contentment, health and 
progress. Intelligent planning saves the expenditure of 
large sums of money in spasmodic and costly attempts 
to keep pace with the growth of a city. Growth means 
expansion, change and new conditions. A town and its 
urban areas should be planned to provide for such future 
expansion. Transportation must be rapid and convenient 
and street systems must be provided to give a maximum 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



43 



of ease and rapidity of movement. Street requirements 
are constantly changing, since growth brings increased 
traffic with increased freight tonnage. The rectangular 
layout of streets is the most common and has the advan- 
tage of economy and simplicity but has the disadvantage 
that the best grades cannot be obtained and it does not 
admit light and air freely. The diagonal or radiating 
system gives convenient, quick access from distant points 
to centre of the city but has the disadvantage of causing 
oblique street angles and loss of area. 

Town Planning is comparatively modern and the 
majority of cities have grown up without any precon- 
ceived plan or layout and are unable to adequately cope 
with rapid growth and changing conditions. Many cities 
have adopted town planning in later years and while not 
getting the full benefit possible, are able to correct many 
existing evils and to provide for further growth and 
expansion. Halifax and Baltimore are examples of cities 
which have taken advantage of great civic disasters to 
introduce town planning for rebuilding devastated areas. 
In the case of Halifax, the area devastated by the explosion 
in 1917, which previously had a rectangular system of 
narrow streets, with grades of from 13 to 20%, has been 
rebuilt with wide streets, boulevards, parks and a modern 
aesthetic type of buildings. The maximum street grade 
in the rebuilt district is 5%. 

A zoning law is a power whereby a city controls the 
character, use, height, location, etc., of its buildings. It 
provides districts for offensive industries; it segregates 
business and residential areas, regulates the location of 
homes at convenient distances from work, allows for a 
proper and sanitary admission of light and air and tends 
to make for better health, greater happiness and for the 
general betterment of the whole community. From the 
restrictions provided by a zoning law, values become 
stabilized and in consequence, investments give a more 
stable and more certain return. 

The paper was followed by a good discussion by 
various members and guests of the Branch. 

Mr. Murdoch extended an invitation to the Branch 
to attend the regular monthly meeting of the N. S. 
Electrical Association which was then in session in the 
adjoining room. Our meeting adjourned at 9.00 P.M., 
and gratefully accepted this kind invitation. A very 
pleasant hour was spent with the Electrical Association, 
who provided a very interesting programme of music 
and motion pictures. 

Halifax Branch 

Programme for the Season 1921-1922 

October 

Reconstruction in France after the War. 
Prof. F. H. Sexton, 
Principal of N.S. Technical College. 
November 
Tramway Engineering". 

By I. P. MacNab, M.E.I.C. 
December 
Town Planning. 

H. W. Johnson, 
Assistant City Engineer. 



January 

Some Problems met with in Local Building Construction. 

C. St. J. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C. 

February 

A Lump of Coal. 

K. L. Dawson, A.M.E.I.C. 

March 

Engineering Underground in France. 

R. R. Murray, A.M.E.I.C. 

April 

Some Problems met with in Surveying. 

H. B. Pickings, A.M.E.I.C. 

May 

The Work of the Municipal Engineer. 

F. W. W. Doane, M.E.I.C. 

In addition to the above, there are several interesting 
papers in view, with uncertain dates. 

Members will receive timely notice of each meeting. 
Town Planning Notes and Comments 

H. L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C. 

NOTE: — In order to make this column of wide 
interest to members of The Institute, personals and 
items of town planning interest will be appreciated. 
Address: H. L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C, 40 Jarvis 
Street, Toronto. 

Short Course in Civics and Town Planning 

The two weeks Extension Course in Civics and Town 
Planning at Toronto University during January is an 
interesting experiment. It presents several unique features, 
that might well be reviewed at some length in this column. 

The course is open to the public as well as students, 
at a purely nominal fee. It is expected to fill, in some 
measure at least, a long felt want. Some day, and 
probably some day soon, there will be full and regular 
town planning courses in our Canadian Universities. 
The next generation of town planners will be trained 
and equipped as our engineers and architects now are, 
at our Universities. But at present there are many 
interested in the subject of town planning and municipal 
development, who wish to have their reading intelligently 
directed and stimulated. To those technically interested 
in town planning, the course offers an opportunity for 
mutual betterment. 

The course as announced is to consist principally of 
lectures and discussions and if time permits of work on 
actual problems. Evening discussions of actual or 
theoretical problems may be arranged, if the class so 
desires. Saturday afternoons may be utilized for visits 
to points of interest. Those from localities outside 
Toronto have been invited to bring maps or plans of 
their district, together with particulars of the circum- 
stances surrounding any problem which happens to be 
interesting them. It is hoped that in this way the 
actuality of instruction and discussion may be augmented 



44 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



and solutions of real problems, in some cases, found. 
The lectures have been divided under four general 
headings: — Economic, Sociological, Technical and Ad- 
ministrative, and may be briefly described as follows:— 

Economic 

The economic aspects of urban growth and concen- 
tration with and without civic control, in relation to 
housing, land, agricultural and industrial development, 
taxation, transportation and finance. 

Costs and values in municipal development; examples 
drawn from original investigations in Canada. 

Results of the Ontario Housing Loan Policy. 

Sociological 

The relation of overcrowding and underhealth; 
reactions of housing environment on characted and 
physique, and mortality rates. 

Education and recreation. The interaction of these 
and their place On the plan, whether urban or rural. 

The organized suburb and the satellite town, with 
examples drawn from present-day effort and achievement 
in England. 

The larger aspects and ideals of civics as the gathering 
of knowledge on which a wide plan, town plan, country 
plan, for the improvement of the quality of human living 
can be based. 

The study of one particular community in Ontario. 
Its growth and prospects. Its delimiting conditions and 
its opportunities. The lessons of such a study. 

The History of Toronto as to maps and plans. 

Technical 

Maps and plans and map reading. Canadian maps. 
Varieties of notation in plans of towns. 

Roads and pavements. Location, grades and various 
methods of construction. 

Sewers and drains — How the work under ground, 
without which the modern city would be uninhabitable 
for modern people, is planned and built and how it 
functions. Its effect on the health of communities, with 
statistics compiled from Canadian examples. The ways 
in which the drain and sewer plan guides or should guide 
the general plan of a small subdivision or a great city. 

The original survey and its effect on the town plan. 

Planning for sunlight and for other meteorological 
conditions. 

Zoning, or the segregation of the various districts of 
a town. The Idea. Examples at work. 



Transport to the city and transport within. 
Its means, problems and effects. 

City parks, gardens and open spaces. The proper 
utilization of ravines and bad ground. Treatments for 
boulevard and front lawns and the kind of trees suitable 
to these. 

An account of the Provincial Government's scheme 
for Kapuskasing. The climatic, geographical, social, 
industrial and incidental limitations of the problem 
and its solution. 

Varieties of street sections. Widths and heights. 
Boulevard — terraced street, etc. 

The placing of public buildings and the civic centre 
idea. 

Where the architect comes in. Examples great and 
small of civic architecture and the effects attainable by 
the right architectural treatment of buildings including 
even those not under civic control. 

Administrative 

Civic government under the four headings: 

(a) What is a municipality ? 

(b) The mayor, city council plan. 

(c) The commission form of government. 

(d) The council or commission-manager plan. 
With a discussion of the effects and defects of 

the forms of civic government used in North America. 

The law in Ontario to-day regarding town planning 
and housing. 

Ways and means; or how even under existing laws, 
town planners' ideas may be put into effect. 

The classes will be welcomed and addressed by Sir 
Robert Falconer, president of the University, Brigadier- 
General C. H. Mitchell, M.E.I.C, dean of the Faculty 
of Applied Science and Engineering, and J. P. Hynes, 
A.M.E.LC, president of the Ontario Town Planning and 
Housing Association. 

Prof. Adrian Berrington, Department of Architecture, 
who has been responsible for the preparation of the course> 
each day will lead the classes in general discussion of the 
day's work. Among the seventeen lecturers, University 
professors and external authorities, there are several 
corporate members of the E.I.C., from Ottawa and 
Toronto. 

It is hoped to present as part of this column in 
succeeding months, a review of the lectures. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



45 



Preliminary Notice 

of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



21st December, 1921 

The By-laws now provide that the Council of the Institute shall 
approve, classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer 
from one grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate member 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applica nt and the names of his 
references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility o 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list 
submitted herewith and to report promptly to Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and election of any of the candidates. 
In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known to any 
member, such member is specially invited to make a definite recom- 
mendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
January, 1922. 

Fraser S. Keith, Secretary. 

*The professional requirements are as follows: — 

Every candidate for election as MEMBER must be at least thirty years of age, 
and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least twelve years, 
which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office 
or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by the Council. The 
term of twelve years may, at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years 
in the case of a candidate who has graduated in an engineering course. In every case 
the candidate must have had responsible charge of work for at least five years, and this 
not merely as a skilled workman, but as an engineer qualified to design and direct 
engineering works. 

Every candidate for election as an ASSOCIATE ME MBER must be at least 
twenty-five years of age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering 
for at least six years, which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified 
engineers' office, or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by 
the Council. In every case the candidate must have held a position of professional 
responsibility, in charge of work as principal or assistant, for at least two years. 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, shall be required to pass an examination before a Board of Examiners 
appointed by the Council, on the theory and practice of engineering, and especially 
in one of the following branches at his option, Railway, Municipal, Hydraulic, 
Mechanical, Mining or Electrical Engineering. 

This examination may be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidat. 
has held a position of professional responsibility for five years or more years. 

Every candidate for election as JUNIOR shall be at least twenty-one years oe 
age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least four yearsf 
This period may be reduced to one year, at the discretion of the Council, if the candidate 
is a graduate of some school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not 
Jemain in the class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years. 

Every oandidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the first year in Buch a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in the following subjects, Geography. History 
(that of Canada in particular), Arithmetic, Geometry Euclid (Books I.-IV. and VI), 
Trigonometry> Algebra up to and including quadratic equations. 

Every candidate for election as ASSOCIATE shall be one who by his pursuits 
cientific acquirements, or practical experience is qualified to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names 
of certain members as references does not 
necessarily mean that their applications 
are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 



AINSLIE— CHARLES MILLS, of Poona, India. Born at Mintlaw, Aberdeen- 
shire, Scotland, April 4th, 1886; Assoc. Member, Aberdeen Assn. Civil Engrs.; Educ, 
C.E. course, Gordon Tech. Coll., Aberdeen, 1st class cert., 1902-08, ap'ticeship as 
civil engr.. Great North of Scotland Rly., Aberdeen, 1902-07, and from 1907-11, 



asst. engr. in charge of extension and improvements of rly.; 19 11-14, res. engr., 3 Sec- 
tions, Pembroke North Bay. Ont., C.N.R; 1914-19, Major, Royal Engin., repair, 
constrn. & mtce. of mil. rlys. in France and Belgium. Awarded M.C.; 1919 to date, 
Garrison Engr., Military Works Service, India, in charge of constrn. etc., of military 
cantonments, fortifications, bldgs., streets, water supply etc. 

References: A. F. Stewart, H. K. Wicksteed, G. P. MacLaren, G. L. Ridout, 
H. S. Tawse, H. W. D. Armstrong, A. H. Greenlees. 

ALLEN— GEORGE WILLARD GORDON, of 51 Chebucto Road, Halifax, 
N.S. Born at Yarmouth, N.S. May 30th, 1895; Educ, Diploma, short course, N.S. 
Tech. Coll.; 1914-15, timekeeper, Halifax Ocean Terminals; 1917-19, overseas; 1919, 
location party, C.N.R. ; 1920, track topography, Halifax & North Western; At 
present asst. dftsman., Land Survey Dept., C.N.R. Maritime District. 

Reference: A. C. Brown, J. W. Roland, E. F. Handy, S. B. Wass, D. F. Mac- 
Isaac, J. H. Congdon. 

ANGUS— JOHN VICKERS, of 298 St. James Street, Montreal, Que. Born 
at Stoockfield-on-Tvne, England, March 29th. 1889; Educ, 1905-07, Sheffield Univ. 
1907-10, Durham Univ. 1916, best class, Board of Trade, London; 1905-07, ap'tice- 
ship, Messrs, T. F. Camwell & Sons Ltd., Gen. Elect'l., Contractors; 1907-11, Wall- 
send Slipway & Engr'g. Co. Ltd., Shipbldrs. & Engrs.; 1911-14, asst. supt. engr., 
Ellerman Lines Ltd.; 1914-19, engr. officer in charge of machinery afloat in naval 
reserve and merchant services; 1919-20, efficiency engr., Manchester Steam Users 
Assn.; At present, asst. gen. magr., Armstrong Whitworth of Canada, Ltd. 

References: H. Holgate, J. H. Hunter, R. Bickerdike, A. Surveyer, C. W. Allen, 
R. J. Beausoleil, G. A. Gaherty. 

BARNUM— JOHN BAYLOR, of 472 LaSalle Road, Verdun, Que. Born at 
Birmingham, Ala., Dec 29th, 1889; Educ, I.C.S. Diploma, surveying & mapping. 
1st and 3rd year field work, McGill Univ., 1911 (Jan.-Apr), onsubdivn.,workinSask. 
with J. Pierce, 0,L,S., D,L,S; 1911-15 Farming in Sask.; 1917-19, overseas; 1919(oct. 
andNov.); instr'man., sewer constrn. ,W.S. & R.S. Lea; 1919-20, dftsman., Nor. Elec 
Co. and G.T. Arbitration Board; 1920-21, asst. engr., Riordon Co. Ltd.; 1921 (May- 
Oct.), instr'man. with G. H. Blanchet, D.L.S., Mackenzie River Traverse; Not 
employed at present. 

References: R. S. Lea, A. B. McEwen, J. Ewing, W. A. Grafftey, G. R. Heckle, 
A. R. Henry, G. R. MacLeod. 

BOWNESS— FRANK, of 302 Boswell Avenue, Peterborough, Ont. Born at 
Manchester, England, Oct. 17th, 1884; Educ, 4 years student's mech. engr'g. course; 
10 years elect'l. & mech. dftsman.; 5 years to date, asst. foreman, dfting. dept., Can. 
Gen. Elec Co., Peterborough, Ont. 

References: L. De W. Magie, B. L. Barns, D. L. McLaren, E. R. Shirley, A. B. 
Gates, P. L. Allison, G. R. Langley, V. S. Foster. 

BRADLEY— THOMAS BRISTOL, of Box 1728, Welland, Ont. Born at 
Dunkirk, N.Y., Jan. 25th, 1895; Educ, Matric, St. Andrew's College; 2V 2 years, mtce. 
dept., C.P.R.; 2 years rodman, 2 years instr'man, Welland Ship Canal; 2 years over- 
seas with R.F.C.; At present instr'man., Section No. 5, Welland Ship Canal. 

References: E. P. Johnson, H. W. Bruce, R. C. Morgan, E. P. McAuliffe, H. C. 
Maguire, E. S. Turner. 

BURPEE— FREDERICK DENILLE, of 246 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ont. 
Born at Ottawa, Ont., April 25th, 1876; At present mgr., Ottawa Electric Rly., with 
supervision over all depts. 

References: G. G. Gale, C. P. Edwards, J. E. Brown, J. Murphy, A. A. Dion, 
P. Sherrin. 

CRUMP— HENRY NEVILL, of Regina, Sask. Born at Corfe, Taunton, 
England, June 17th, 1885; Educ, premium ap'tice, London & North Western Rly., 
Crewe, 1904-07; 1908-09, engr'g. inspr., main sewer constrn., London County Council; 
1912-13, rodman, C.P.R., Calgary, Alta.; 1917-19, overseas. Lieut., Can. Rly. 
Troops; July 1921 to date, nstr'man., Dept. Highways, Sask. Prov. Govt. 

References: H. S. Carpenter, H. R. MacKenzie, C. K. Brown, G. R. Taylor, 
G. P. MacLaren, F. L. C. Bond, E. P. Bowden. 

CURTIS— CLAUDE C, of 65 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. Born at Battle 
Creek, Mich., March 27th, 1883; Educ, B.S. (Mech.Engr.i Univ. of Mich. 1907; 
1907, inspecting engr. on constrn. work for Stone & Webster, Engr'g. Corpn.; 1907-12, 
served successively as asst. light & Power supt., light & power supt., gen. supt. and 
mgr., Ponce Railway & Light Co., Ponce, Porto Rico; 1912-13, private secretary 
to Messrs. Russel Robb and H. G. Bradlee, members of firm Stone & Webster, Boston, 
Mass.; 1913-15, supt. Houghton Counity Eletric Light Co., Houghton, Mich., 1915-18, 
supt., light & powerdept.. El Paso Rly. Co., El Paso, Texas; Jan. 1918 to date, mgr., 
Cape Breaton Electric C. Ltd., Sydney, N.S. 

References: G. D. Macdougall, A. P. Theuerkauf, A. W. McMaster, H. Longley, 
K. H. Marsh, R. J. Fisher, C. M. Smyth. 



46 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



CUSHING — ARTHUR GIBB, of 555 Mount Pleasant Ave., Westmount, 
Que. Born at Montreal. Feb. 6th, 1890; Educ., B.Sc., McGill Univ., 1912; 1909-10 
and 1912-14 (314 years), with Illinois TractionSystem.aboutsix mos. each incarshops, 
dfting office, substation dept., powerhouse constrn. work, gas mfg. plant and gas dis- 
tribution dept.; Nov. 1919 to date, asst. supt., gas distribution dept., Montreal Light 
Heat & Power Co. 

References: E. J. Turley, L. A. Kenyon, G. W. Shearer, J. R. Donald, J. C. 
Stewart, R. M. Wilson. 

DAWES— ALBERT, of Sydney Mines, N.S. Born at Sheffield, England, 
April 6th,1875;Educ.,mech., civil and elect'l. engr'g., Sheffield Tech. School, 1892-95. 
Cert. (Honours) in engr'g., City & Guilds of London, Institute. 1895-98, ap'ticeship 
in shops of Earles Shipbldg. & Engr'g. Co., Hull, England; 1898-1900, with Bailey & 
Leetham Co., Engrs. & Ship Owners, Hull, England, 18 mos. at sea as 3rd engr. 
Holder of 2nd class engr's .Board of Trade Cert.; 1900-05, 1 yr. shops, 4 years engr's. 
office. Vickers Sons & Maxim Ltd., Sheffield; 1905-07, dftsman., Cammell Laird Co., 
Sheffield; 1907-10, designer of bridges, steel structures & colliery equipment, Mark- 
ham & Co., Chesterfiled; 1910-11, dftsman., Dom. Iron & Steel Co., Sydney, N.S.; 
1911-15, chief dftsman. and 1915 to date, divn'l. engr., Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co. 
Ltd., Sydney Mines. 

References: T. J. Brown, D. H. McDougall, G. I>. Macdougall, A. P. 
Theuerkauf, C. M. Odell, J. Purves. 

DENNIS— THOMAS CLINTON, of 252 Powell Ave., Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
O'Leary, P.E.I., Nov. 19th, 1886; Educ, B.Sc. McGill Univ. 1910; D.L.S. 1911; 1910 
to date, summers — in charge of field parties for geodetic, boundry & irrig. surveys, 
winters — offices of the geodetic or boundry survey; At present, geodetic engr., geo- 
detic survey of Canada. 

References: N. J. Ogilvie, J. J. McArthur, J. D. Craig, W. M. Tobey, J. W. 
Menzies, A. M. Grant. 

DONALD— ALEXANDER STUART, of Musquash, N.B. Born at Moncton, 
N.B. Jan. 26th, 1885; Educ. private studv; 1904-07, rodman, N.T.C. Rly.; 1907-08, 
instr'man; 1908-12, res. engr., N.T.C. Rly.; 1912-15, res. engr., Dartmouth — 
Deans, Rly.; 1915-19, overseas. C.F.A., Major, D.S.O.; At present, res. engr. in 
charge of concrete and earth dams, etc., N.B. Electric Power Comm. 

References: C. O. Foss, L. H. Wheaton, J. D. McBeath, H. Phillips. 



JACQUES— GILBERT J. P., of 3 Ouelette Ave., Windsor, Ont. Born at 
Windsor, Ont., Oct. 22nd, 1887; Architecture, Pennsylvania Univ., 1909; Designing 
reinforced concrete for Trussed Concrete Co. Ltd., Walkerville, Ont.; Fifteen year? 
to date, private practice, architect and engr., Windsor, Ont. 

References: M. E. Brian, J. J. Newman, A. J. Riddel!, W. J Fletcher. C K lie- 
Coll. 



JOHNSTON— JOHN A. C, of Box 596, Glace Bay, N.S. Born at Glace Bay 
N.S., April 23rd, 1890; Educ, mech. engr'g., I.C.S.; 1907-12, ap'ticeship, gen. mach. 
shops, Dom. Coal Co. and Sydney and LouisburgRlyCo.; 1912todate, dftsman., Dom. 
Coal Co. Ltd. (1915-21, instructorin mech. drawing ami mach. design, evening tech 
classes, N.S. Coal Mining Schools, Glace Bay, X 8 

References: K. H. Marsh, H. C. Chipirmn, A. L. Hay.D. Morrison, .1. R. Morrison 
K. G. Cameron, S. C. Mifflen. 



JONES— LOUIS ELGIN, of 587 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ont. Born at St. 
Thomas, Ont., Nov. 2nd, 1877; Educ, B.A. Univ. of Toronto, 1900. Grad. S.P.S. 
Univ. of Toronto, 1911; 1908-11 (Summers), dfting & instrumentwork on water 
powers & general surveying in northern Ontario; 1911-12. asst. engr., roadway dept., 
City of Vancouver; 1912-13, engr. in charge of estimating, purchasing, planning of 
work, B. C. Granitoid Co. Ltd.; . 13-14, engr. in charge of estimates, tenders on 
contracts, purchasing, planning of constrn. work, Jones Cornell Constrn. Co. Ltd., 
and Marsh Hutton Powers Co. Ltd., allied companies; 1914-19, overseas. Lt.-Col., 
C.M.G., D.S.O. and Bar. Mentioned in despatches 4 times; At present, asst. engr., 
Dept. of Public Highways, Prov. of Ontario. 

References: W. A. McLean, ' i Hogarth, H. T. Routly, A. E Jupp, G. F. Hanning. 



LARD— ERNEST ELLIS, of Newchwang, North China. Born at Ladner, 
B.C., Mar. 2nd, 1893; Educ, 1913-15, McGill Univ.; 1910-13, rodman & instr'man., 
C.N.R.; 1915-19, Lieut., Royal Engrs.; 1919-20, instr'man., Can. Govt. Rlys.; At 
present, asst. engr., Lower Lioo River Conservancy, Newchwang, North China. 

References: W. G. Swan, H. K. Dutcher, W. K. Gwyer. 



DONALD— JOHN CLINTON, of Fernie, B.C. Born at Belleville. Ala. U.S.A. 
Nov. 16th, 1876; 5 years, dfting., designing & constrn. of rly, elect'l. distribution 
systems, Boston Elevated Rly.; 2 years, ap'tice in shop and testing depts., General 
Electric Co.; 1907-09, supt. and elect'l. engr., Southern Light and Traction Co. .Natchez, 
Miss.; 1909-11, constrn.engr., Chattanooga Rly. & Light Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.; 
1911-16, gen-supt. & chief engr., Ashville Power & Light Co., Asheville, N.C.; 1910- 
17, asst. gen. mgr., Ashland (Wis.) Light, Power & Street Rly. Co. & Ironwood & 
Bessemer (Mich.) Rly. & Power Co.; 1918-19, Capt. and Major, U. S. Army; 1919 to 
date, gen. mgr. and chief engr., B.C. and Alta. Power Co. Ltd., Fernie, B.C. 

References: R. S. Trowsdale, E. A. Cleveland, A. Cummings, E. G. Marriott, 
G. P. Napier, G. A. Johnson. 

EISENHAUER— ERLE E., of Gleichen, Alta. Born at Martins River, N.S., 
Nov. 13th, 1894; Educ, B.S.A. Univ. of Sask., 1918, B.S. (C. & I.E.), C.A.C.Colo- 
rado, U.S.A., 1921; Duty of water investigation for Dom. Govt., in charge of Station 
at Coaldale, under irrig. branch, dept. of the interior; At present, instructor in irriga- 
tion work at the prov. schools of agriculture at Raymond & Gleichen, also irrig.- 
expert for the two farms in connection with these schools. 

References: F. H.Peters, V. M. Meek, G. N. Houston, S. G. Porter, A. R. Greig. 



MACNEIL— HECTOR, of Saskatoon, Sask. Born at Washabuck, N.S., May 
1st, 1880; Educ. B.Sc, Mass. Inst, of Tech., 1901; 1901-02, levelman surveys and 
instr'man. constrn., Cape Breton Rly.; 1902-03, instr'man., D.I. &. S.; 1903-04 
transitman and asst. chief of party and 1905-11, chief of partv anddiv. engr., T.C.Rly. 
1911-13, chief of party, G.T.P. andsenior asst., P.W.D.; 1913-14, mtce. of way, G.T.P., 
1915-19, asst. engr., valuation, C.N.R. and G.T.P. and track lifting and relaying for over- 
seas shipment; 1919 to date, dist. engr's. office, C.N.R., Saskatoon. 

References: R.W. Leonard, F. D. Anthony, D. H. McDougall, G. Grant, G. C. 
Dunn, E. P. Goodwin, J. N. deStein, A. Macgillivray. 



MACKENZIE— KENNETH, of Winnipeg, Man. Born at Malagash, N.S., Jan. 
3rd, 1894; Educ, B.Sc, (E.E.) N.S. Tech Coll. 1921; 1912-13, dftsman., and instru- 
mentwork on survey, C.N.R., Alta.; 1921 (June-Sept.), supervision of concrete road 
construction, New Glasgow, N.S.; At present on eng'r staff, publicity dept., Canada 
Cement Co., Winnipeg Man 

References: F. R. Faulkner, I. P. MacNab, W. G. Hardv, H. S. VanScoyoc, 
H. W. Mahon. 



EMMERSON— FRANK HAROLD, of Box 685, St. Catharines, Ont. Born 
at Peterborough, Ont., March 2nd, 1893; Educ, Peterborough Collegiate Institute. 
1910-14, ap'ticeship course in elect'l. dfting., Can. Gen. Elec Co.; 1914, dftsman., 
Can. Gen. Elec. Co.; 1915, dftsman, Wm. Hamilton Co. Ltd.; 1916, dftsman., Can. 
Gen. Elec Co.; 1917-18, overseas; 1919 to date, dftsman. at present ill charge of 
dfting room at section No. 3, Welland Ship Canal, Thorold, Ont. 

References: F. S. Lazier, C. W. West, E. P. Murphy, J. E. Sears, P.P. Westbye, 
M. B. Maclean. 

GRAY— EARL ALEXANDER, 9 Edward Street, London, Ont. Born at Pe- 
trolia, Ont.Jan. 24th, 1892; 1907-09, student and asst. with C.A. Jones, O.L.S.,andC.E., 
Petrolia, Ont.; 1910-12, dftsman. with various firms in U.S.A. nnd res. engr's. office 
C.P.R., London, Ont.; 1913-15, asst. engr., Public Utilities Comm. London, Ont ; 
1915-19, overseas; Aug. 1919 to date, asst. engr., Public Utilities Comm., London, 
Ont. 

References: F. W. Cooper, F. B. Tapley, F. M. Brickenden, W. E. Stephens, 
J. R. Rostron. 



MacLEAN— DUNCAN ANGUS, of Sydney, N.S. Born at North Sydney, 
N.S., Oct 26th, 1883; Educ, I.C.S. and private study; 1903, rodman, Intercolonial 
Rly.; 1905-07, rodman, leveller, etc., T.C.Rly.; 1907-10, inspr. ofpiling, concrete and 
material, T.C.Rly.; 1910-11, asst. supt. of biidge erection, W. P. McNeil Co.; 1912-13, 
asst. constrn. engr., Dom. Iron & Steel Co., Sydney, N.S.; 1914, town engr., Amherst, 
N.S.; 1915-17, highway engr., Cape Breton and Victoria Counties; 1917-20, asst. contrn. 
engr., and 1920-21, constrn. engr., Dom. Iron & Steel Co., Sydney, N.S. 

References: H. Longley, A. W. McMaster, D. F. Maclsaac, K. G. Cameron, 
A. P. Theuerkauf. 



MASSICOTTE— JOSEPH OCTAVE, of 1362 St. Valier St., Montreal, Que. 
Born at Ste Genevieve, Que., Sept. 17th, 1886; Educ, Montreal Technical School, 
8 years gen. elect'l. contractor; 5 years to date, prof, of technology, in charge of elect'l. 
test and laboratory, Montreal Technical School. 

References: W. J. Francis, F. B. Brown, A. Surveyer, J. A. Lefebvre. 



IBBETSON— NEALE ROBERTS, of 104 Hess St., North, Hamilton, Ont. 
Born at Hamilton, Ont., July 5th, 1900; Educ, Hamilton Tech. School; 1916-18, 
dftsman., Hamilton Bridge Co., Hamilton; 1918-19, surveying dfting. etc., Dom. 
Steel Products Co., Brantford, Ont.; 1919 (Jan.-Mar.), dftsman., Hall and Co. Pipe 
Machinery, Brantford; 1919 (Mar.-Sept.), estimator and dftsman., A. Cromar, Brant- 
ford; 1919-20, quantity surveyer, etc, for Archibald & Holmes, Toronto; 1920-21, 
asst. supt. and engr. for Yates Constrn. Co. on Canadian Cottons Bldg., Hamilton; 
1921 (Jan.-May), estimator and secretary, Bowser Constrn. Co.,Hamilton;At present, 
inspr. at Grimsby Arena, Grimsby, Out., for Barber, Wynne-Roberts & Seymour, 
Toronto. Also engr. in charge of labour & constrn., of a reinforced concrete bldg., 
an ice storage bldg., and an alteration to a colds torage bldg. for Growers Cold Storage 
& Ice Co., Grimsby, Ont., Mr. K. Percy Sims, Architect, Montreal. 

References: J. A. McFarlane, C. H. Marrs, C. J. Madgett, A. R. Macpherson, 
W. E. Janney, J. Erskine, F. T. Nichol, A. R. Holmes. 



MAYBEE— ENOS, of 495 Gilmour Street, Peterborough, Ont. Born at Peter- 
borough, Ont., in 1881; 20 years dfting., 10 years to date, foreman dfting dept.. Can. 
Gen. Elec. Co., Peterborough, Ont. 

References: A. B. Gates, B. L. Barns, E. R. Shirley, J. A. G. Goulet, V. S. Foster, 
L. De W. Magie. 



MEWBURN— JOHN STEWART, of R.R. No. 3, Niagara Falls, Ont. Born 
at Stamford, Out., Sept. 6th, 1895; 1912. rodman, Algoma Central & Hudson Bay 
Rly.; 1913-14, rodman with J. C. Street, O.L.S.; 1914-19, overseas. Lieut., C.F.A.; 
1919 to date, 4 mos. rodman, 2 yrs. and 8 mos. imstr'man., Welland Ship Canal. 

References: W. H. Sullivan, J. C. Street, E. P. Johnson, R. C. Morgan, M. B. 
Maclean, O. W. Ross. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



47 



MITCHELL— JOHN CLARENCE, 116 Mill St., London. Ont. Born at 
Kingston, Ont., Sept. 12th, 1894; Educ, B. A. Western Univ., F., 1913. B.A.Sc, 
Univ. Toronto, 1921; 1912 (3 mos.), rodman, etc., Dept. P.W. surveys; 1914 (4 mos.), 
with Frost-Winchester Co. on McCormick Mfg. Co's. new plant in London; 1913 
(8 mos.), asst. (Articled pupil) to D.L.S. Sask.; 1915 (314 mos.), inspr., Egerton 
St., combination sewer. City of London; 4 mos. with Jas. A. Bell & Son, St. Thomas, 
Ont.; 3 mos. with Webster Constrn. Co., London, Ont.; 1915-19, overseas. C.F.A. 
Awarded M.C.; At present, acting sec.-treas., Webster Constrn. Co. Ltd., London, 
Ont. 

References: J. A. Bell, F. A. Bell, H. B. R. Craig, G. C. Wright, W. J. Forbes- 
Mitchell, C. R. Young. 

MUSGRAVE— WILLIAM BURNTHORNE, of Chippawa, Ont. Born at 
Halifax, N.S., Dec. 23rd, 1890; Educ, B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1920; 1913-12, on bldg. 
constrn., The Rhodes Curry Co., Amherst, N.S.; 1914 (summer), instrument work 
etc., The Minto Coal Co., Minto, N.B.; 1915 (summer), rodman and recorder, Geol. 
Surveys; 1915-19, overseas, C.F.A. ; 1919-20 (summers), asst. on geol. surveys; At 
present, office, engr., divn. No. 1, Chippawa-Queenston Power Dev., H. E. P. C. 
of Ont. 

References: F. W. Clark, A. C. D. Blanchard, W. P. Wilgar, A. Macphail, W. L. 
Malcolm, W. S. Orr, K. C. Fellowes. 

NIXON— WILLIAM HERBERT, of 50 Ah in Avenue, Toronto, Ont. Born 
at Toronto, Ont.; Oct. 31st, 1894; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1921; 1919 (Aug. 
and Sept.), material clerk and timekeeper, Toronto, Hbr. Coram.; 1920 (May-Sept.), 
dftsman., E. A. James & Co., Consltg. Engrs., Toronto; April 1921 to date, res. engr., 
Toronto and York Comm'n., Toronto. 

References: J. R. Wainwright, P.Gillespie, C.R.Young, W.J Smither, E. A. 
James, W. B. Redfern, E. M. Proctor. 

RHODES— GODFREY DEAN, of Nairobi, King's Colony, East Africa. Born 
at Victoria, B.C., July 18th, 1886; Educ, Grad. R.M.C., Kingston, 1907, 2 years 
course, military engr'g., Chatham; 1909-10, London & South Western Rly. Work- 
shops; 1910-11, workshops, North Western Rlys., India; 1911-14, asst. -engr., North 
Western Rly., India; 1914-19, war service, director of rlys., France, Salonika, etc., 
Major, Awarded D.S.O., C.B.E., Legion of Honour, etc; 1920 to date, chief engr., 
Uganda Rly., Nairobi, East Africa, Major, Royal Engrs. 

References: W. B. Lindsay, C. J. Amu rong, A. E. Doucet, W. P. Anderson 
J. B. Cochrane, W. B. Dawson, A. E. Hodgins, (i. B. Hughes, D. Lyell. 

SHELTON— JAMES FREDERICK, of Ormond St., Thorold, Ont. Born 
at St. Helen's, Lancashire, England, April 26th, 1895; Educ, Oxford and Junior Exam. 
1911. 2nd session engr'g. student, Univ. of Liverpool, 1919-20; 1912-14, rodman 
and levelman, C.P.R., Bassano-Empress Rly.; 1915-19, overseas. Royal Engrs, 
company surveyor and dftsman.; May 1921 to date, dftsman., Welland Ship Canal 
Thorold, Ont. 

References: F. S. Lazier, C. Vi West, E. 1'. Murphy, A. W. L. Butler, E. S. 
Miles, D. A. Livingston. 

SMITH— KENNETH HUTCHINSON, of Finchfield Road, Wolverhampton, 
England. Born at Toronto, Ont., Oct. 24th, 1885; Educ, 1902-03, McGill Univ.; 
1903-04, reconn. surveys, water works, etc, dftsman. with city engr., London, Ont ■ 
1904-06, dftsman and instr'man., 1906-10, res. engr., G.T.P.; 1910-11, munic engr ' 
Vancouver, B.C.; 1911-13, land development, Fort George; 1913-14, govt, land surveys 
and townsite, Prince George; 1914-19, overseas. Major, Royal Engrs., Mentioned 
in despatches; At present, private practice, engr. and contractor, design and constrn 
of bldgs., Wolverhampton, England. 

„ References: A. H. Smith, J. D. Barnett, H. B. R. Craig, W. J. Forbes- Mitchell, 
H. A. Brazier, C. H. Mathewson, B. E. Barnhill, R. S. McCormick. 



URE— WILFRED GORDON, of Woodstock, Ont. Born at Woodstock, Ont., 
Oct. 2nd, 1891; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1913; O.L.S. 1920; asst. on gen . mu- 
nic and drainage engr'g. work with F. J. Ure, Woodstock, Ont. during vacations; 
1913-14, dftsman and timekeeper, Wells & Gray Ltd. Engrs. and Contractors, Toronto 
and Windsor, Ont.; 1914-15, asst. to A.B. Manson, City Engr., Stratford, Ont.; 1915- 
19, general contracting engr., Wells & Gray Ltd., Toronto; April 1919 to date, member 
of firm, F. J. Ure & Son, Civil Engrs. and Surveyers, Woodstock, Ont. 

References: P. Gillespie, F. A. Dallyn, C. R. Young, A. H. Harkness, G. C. 
Hoshal, A. B. Manson, F. J. Ure. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBER TO THAT 
OF MEMBER 

BURNETT— JAMES AUBREY, 513 New Birks Building, Montreal, Que. 
Born at Montreal, Sept. 14th, 1873; Educ, Fettes College School, Montreal, 1890-91, 
1893-97, dftsman Royal Electric Co.; 1898, meter dept., Can. Gen. Elec. Co.; 1899- 
1900, dftsman.. Royal Electric Co.; 1902, constrn. of large sub-station for M.L.H. 
& P. Co., on Wellington St., Montreal; 1908-10, constrn. of Montreal & Southern 
Counties Rly.; 1912-13, install'n. of elect'l. equipment on Black Rock (Buffalo) swing 
span; 1920-21, appraisal of all elect'l. equipment on Grand Trunk System for govt, 
arbitration; At present, consltg. and appraisal engr., Smart & Burnett, Montreal, 
Que. 

References: A. Surveyer, J. T. Farmer, K. B. Thornton, H. Holgate, J. H. Hunter, 
C. Thompson. 

MACPHAII JOHN GOODWILL, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Orwell, P.E.I., 

Dec 18th, 1877; Educ, B.A. 1903, B.Sc, (C.E.) 1905, Queen's Univ.; 1903 (summer), 
on munic. water supply with Moore & Gowing, Boston; 1904 (summer), Ontario 
Power Co. on hydro-elec development; 1905-08, engr. on comm'r. of lights staff, 
Marine Dept., Ottawa; 1908-11, acting comm'r .of lights, and 1911 to date, comm'r. 
of lights, Marine Dept., Ottawa. 

References: G. J. Desbarats, G. R. MacLeod, A. Macphail, T. S. Scott, W. P. 
Wilgar, V. F. W. Forneret, C. P. Edwards, B. H. Fraser, L. E. Cote. 

O'BRIEN— DOMINIC EDWARD, of 143 Ontario Street, St. Catherines, Ont. 
Born at Merrickville, Ont., Aug. 5th, 1882; Educ, C.E. Univ. of Toronto, 1905; 1903 
(summer) levelman, Locomotive & Machine Works, Montreal; 1904 (summer), asst. 
to town engr., Cornwall, Ont; 1905, transitman, T.C.Rly. ; 1906, transitman, C.P.R., 
1907-08, res. engr., water & sewers, Dalhousie, N.B.; 1909-13, res. engr., T. C. PJy. 
dist. E., Nipigon, Ont.; 1913-18, asst. engr., Welland Ship Canal; 1918-21, chief engr, 
Halifax Shipyards, Ltd., Halifax, N.S.; April 1921 to date, senior asst. engr., Welland 
Ship Canal, St. Catharines, Ont. 

References: A. J. Grant, W. H. Sullivan, F. E. Sterns, F. W. W. Doane, J. H. 
Holliday, E. A. Forward, M. J. Haney, C.B. Brown, W.A. Duff, J.L. Weller, C. E. W. 
Dodwell, H. S. Johnston. 

WATSON— GEORGE LINTON, of 16 East 41st Street, New York, N. Y. 
Born at Camden, N.J., Dec. 13th, 1879: Educ, 2 years special tuition in engr'g.; 
1898, student with and asst. to Prof. John Willis, Consltg. Geologist;1901-04, associated 
with Arthur Donnelly, C.E. in development of coal properties, sewer and water design 
and constrn. in Ohio, West Virginia and Penna,; 1903, asst. supt., night supt. and later 
managing engr., Vinton Colliery Co.; 1905-08, private practice, Watson & Szlapka, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; 1909, res. engr., millandhydro elec. development at Narrows, Pa. 
Advisory engr. on constrn. Bronx Valley Trunk Sewer; 1909-17, private practice; 
1917-19, overseas. U.S. Engrs., Lt.-Col.; 1919, special duty for U. S. Govt. Panama 
Canal Dept.; 192Q to date, member board of consltg. engrs., New York State Bridge 
& Tunnel Comm., New Jersey Bridge & Tunnel Coinm., City of Clifton, N.J City 
of Saltaire, N.Y. 

References: J. V. Davies, R.S. Buck. G.W. Fuller, F.A Snyder, G.A. Johnson, 
R. Hering, J. Forgie. 



. STEVENSON— RAYMOND ROBERT, of Thorold, Out. Born at Frede- 
ricton, N.B Jan. 22nd, 1890; Educ, B.Sc, Univ. of N.B., 1910; Various positions 
as rodman, levelman, and transitman during college vacations; 1910-12, levelman and 
transitman on location, C.N.R., Sudbury-Port Arthur; 1912-15, on engr'g. staff of 
Mount Royal Tunnel, in charge of field party on surveying and constrn.; 1919-21, 
on engrg. staff, International Waterways with Rlys and Canals Dept., asassst. engr ■ 
At present, junior engr., Welland Ship Canal, Thorold, Ont. 



References: F. S. Lazier, 
Daubney. 



E. P. Murphy, C. W. West, D. W. McLachlan, C. B. 



WRIGHT— GEORGE CLARK, of London, Out. Born at Kingston, Ont., April 
17th, 1885; Educ, B. Sc, (C.E.), Queen's Univ., 1907; 1903-05, G.T.R. and T.N.O 
Rlys. surveys; 1907, instr'man., T. & N.O. Rly.; 1909, articled pupil, to F. F. Miller 
O.L.S. ; 1908-09, asst. engr. to H. B. R. Craig, City Engr., Kingston, Ont.; 1909-18, 
member of firm, Campbell & Wright, Surveyors & Engrs., Kingston Ont.; 1912 to 
date, engr. and vice-pres., Kingston Construction Co. Ltd., of Kingston and London, 
Ont Consltg. engr. in general practice. 

References: H. B. R. Craig, H.A. Brazier, F.F. Miller, W.L. Malcolm, A. Mac- 
phail, D. S. Ellis. 



ST. LAURENT— JOSEPH EMILE of Winnipeg, Man. Born at St. Auaclet, 
Que., Sept. 24th, 1885; Educ, C. E. Ecole Poly., Montreal, 1909. Q.L.S.; 1906-08 
(summers), student on constrn. work; 1909 to date, with Dom. Public Works Dept 
as follows — 1909-11, asst. engr., 1911-15, senior asst., 1915 to date (with exception 
of 7 mos., Lieut., Can. Engrs. dist engr. 

^ References: K. M. Cameron, A. St. Laurent, E. E. Br\ done-Jack, H. M. Daw 
C . H. Fox. ' 



xt c SUTHERLAND— WILLIAM McKAY, of Glace Bav N.S. Born at Earltown 
N.&., Dec. 19th, 1883: Educ, cert, from Mt. Allison Univ. permitting entrance to 
3rd year science, McGill Univ.; 1907-13, with Dom. Coal Co. as follows — 1907-09 
instr man., surface and underground, 1909-11, dftsman., C.E. dept., 1911-13, dftsman ' 
struct 1 and mech.; 1915-20, mech. and struct'l design, plant equipment, Nova Scotia 
hteel & Coal Co.; Dec. 1920 to date, checker and designer of struct'l. andmech equip- 
ment, surface and underground, Dom. Coal Co., Glace Bay, N.S. 

References: C. M. Odell, K. H. Marsh, D. Morrison, H. C. Chi]). nan ' It r 
Waycott, W.G. Matheson. 



FOR TRANSFER FROM CLASS OF JUNIOR TO HIGHER GRADE 

ALLEN— LEONARD EDGAR, of 137 Rideau Terrace. Ottawa, Ont Born 
at Ottawa, Ont., Sept. 28th, 1882; Educ, Ottawa Collegiate Institute; 1904-07, rodman 
and leveller, C.P.R., mtce of way dept.; 1907-11, transitman and asst. res engr., C P R 
mtce. of way dept.; 1911-14, dist. office engr., N.T.C. Rly.; 1914-17, Overseas., Can 
Engrs.; at present supervising work in the Civil Service, Ottawa. 

References: J. M. R. Fairbairn, 
J. E. N. Cauchon, A. M. Jones. 



G. Grant, W. A. Richards, W. M. Tobey, 



BOAST— RICHARD GRIFFITH, of Box 892, North Bay, Ont. Born at DeSmet, 
South Dakota, U.S.A., Feb. 22nd, 1885; Educ, B. Sc.,(C.E.) McGill Univ. 1911; 

1905 (May-Dec), rodman, Orford Mountain Rly., Kingsbury, Que.; Dec. 1905 to Sept' 

1906 and summers 1907 and 1908, rodman, Boston & Maine Rid., St. Johnsbury, Vt.; 
1910 (summer), instr'man on constrn., C.P.R. Western lines; 1911 to date successively,' 
inst'man., res. engr. and engr. mtce of way, T. & N.O.Rly., North Bay, Ont. 

References: S.B.Clement, R.A.C. Henry, D. C. D. Briercliffe, W.O. Cudworth 
H. W. Sutcliffe, C. F. Szammers, W. R. Maher. 



48 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



PIRIE— ALEXANDER, of 119 Pender St. West, Vancouver, B. C. Born 
at Lossiemouth, Scotland, Dec. 16th 1888; Educ, corres. course. 1905-11, articled 
to C.C. Doig, Architect and C.E. Elgin, Scotland; 1911-12, rodman, dfts'man., topog'r. 
and leveller. Water Power Surveys, Winnipeg Kiver; 1912-15, asst. engr., Dom. Water 
Power Branch, Winnipeg, Man.; 1915-19, overseas; 1919 to date, asst. engr., Dom. 
Water Branch, Vancouver, B. C. 

References; J.B. Challies, J.T. Johnston, R.G. Swan, C.E. Webb, D.L. McLean. 

REID— RUPERT HARRINGTON, of Timmins, Ont. Born at Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont., Oct. 5th, 1886; Educ, B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1910; 1904-08, electrician, 
Algoma Steel Corpn., Sault Ste. Mai-ie, Ont.; 1909-12, instr'man., Lake Superior 
Power Co.; 1912-13, supt. of constrn., hydro-elec. plant, Steep Hill Falls, for mines 
dept., Algoma Steel Corpn.; 1913-16, asst. engr., Welland Ship Canal; 1916-19, over- 
seas. Lieut., Can. Artillery; 1919 (3 mos.), asst. engr., Welland Ship Canal; At present, 
in charge of electr'l, constrn. work, elcct'l. dept., Hollinger Mining Co., Timmins, 
Ont. 

References: J. L. Weller, W. H. Sullivan, F. E. Sterns, J. W. LeB. Ross, L. A. 
Herdt, G. H. Kohl. 

THEXTON— ROBERT DONALD, of Twyford, Hants., England; Born at 
Lindsay, Ont., May 19th, 1890; Educ, 4 years scientific course, Davenport High 
School; 1908-09, dftsman., Peoples Light & Power Co., Davenport, Iowa; 1911-13, 
rodman and instr'man. .C.N.R.; 19 13-14, asst. to Major D.Barry, Connaught Rifle Range, 
Militia Dept.; 1914-19, overseas. Capt., Can. Engrs.; 1919, engr., engr'g. branch, 
Dept. Militia and Defence; 1920-21, section engr. on constrn., Federated Malay States 
Rlys.; Now going to the Nigerian Rly. as engr. on constrn. 

References: A. P. Deroche, D. Barry, H. E. Maple, H. B. Miller, G. B. Hughes. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM CLASS OF STUDENT TO HIGHER GRADE 

DOHERTY— CHARLES ALEXANDER, of Hitchin, Herts., England. Born 
at Erin, Ont., June 18th, 1892; Educ, Univ. of Toronto, 1911-13; 1911 (summer), 
G.T.P.Rly.; 1912-13 (summers), with R. Forfar, Bldg. Contractor, Toronto and Sear- 
boro; 1914-16, with Baldey, Gerburgh & Hutchinson, Contractors, as asst. to chief 
engr., and later in charge of all excavation work and supervising concrete work on No. 2 
Section, Welland Ship Canal; 1916, overseas with C.F.A. as comm'd. officer; 1917-18, 
Dept. of Fortification and Works, War Office, res. engr., in charge of constrn.; Sept. 
1918, transferred to Air Constrn. Service, Royal Air Force, and placed in charge 
of all engineer and works services on aerodromes in Eastern and Midland Counties. 
Territory afterwards enlarged to include western and northern counties. Remained 
in charge until the disbandment of the Air Constrn. Service and its reorganization 
on a civilian basis as a branch of the Civil Service Air Ministry, when he was appointed 
(and at present), sub-area officer, rank of Major and grading of civil engr, in charge 
of all new constrn. and mtce. of all permanent air stations from London and Bristol as 
far North as Liverpool and Hull. 

References: A. R. Sprenger, C. R. McCort, S. A. Hustwitt, S. A. Lanzon, E P. 
Muntz,. W. L. Dobbin 



EDWARD— ARTHUR JAMES, of Three Rivers, Que. Born at Lachine, Que., 
Oct. 10th, 1896; Educ, B.Sc, (Chem. Eng.), McGill Univ. 1920; surveying, dfting. 
and constrn. work during vacations;instr'man. on constrn. of Camp Borden Mil. Camp, 
with Bate & MeMahon Constrn. Co. Ottawa; instr'man on constrn., Leaside Aviation 
Camp, Toronto; 1918-19, overseas with tank corps; 1920, res. engr.. International 
Paper Co., Berlin, N.H.; At present, chem. engr. in operation of St. Maurice Lumber 
Co. — New Mill, International Paper Co., Three Rivers. 

References: C. M. McKergow, A. R. Roberts, W. B. Mackenzie, T. M. Montague, 
A. Gray, J. B. Porter. 



JICKLING— ROBERT WILLIAM, of 396 Victor Street, Winnipeg, Man. 
Born at Morden, Man., March 8th. 1897; Educ, B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of Manitoba, 
1920; topog'r. for C. PR. ; junior clerk and helper to wireman, City of Winnipeg Hydro- 
Elec. System at Pointe du Bois; At present, testing and inspecting of overhead dis- 
tribution system transformer lines, etc City of Winnipeg Hydro-Elec System. 

References: C. A. Clendening, E. V. Caton, E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, J. W. Dorsey, 
E. A. Chiklerhose, N. M. Hall. 



PICA RD— PETER ALBERT, of Indian Lorette, Que. Born at Indian Lo- 
rette, Que. Dec. 19th, 1880; Educ, surveying and mapping and complete drawing 
course, I.C.S.; 1903-04, asst. to L. A. Dufresne, C.E., Sherbrooke, Que.; attended 
Royal Military School of Infantry, Quebec; 1906-07, i/c of dfting on location also 
divn'l. dftsman and instr'manon constrn., T.C-Rly.;1908-15, gen. dfting., checking, and 
estimating, T.C.Rly. office, Quebec; (1909), also prospecting in Labrador and Eastern 
Townships, Quebec; 1915 (June and July, making plans and profiles, aqueduct and sewer 
system, Victoriaville, Que.; 1915-16, asst. engr., prov. highway constrn., Quebec; 
1917-19, asst. engr., Quinlan & Robertson, Ltd., Limoilou, Que., shipbldg, etc., 1919-20, 
surveying, dfting., estimating, etc., Quebec prov. highways dept.; At present, mapping, 
reference books, descriptions, etc., Dept. Colonization, Mines and Fisheries, Cadastre 
Branch, Prov. Govt., 

References: J. O. Montreuil, E. A. Forward, J. Dumont, A. Tremblay, Z. Langlais, 
L. C. Dupuis. 



TRUDEAU— ALPHONSE, of Ste Anne de Bellevue, Que. Born at Montreal, 
Que, June 19th, 1894; Educ, B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1917.; 1917 (4 moc), engr. for 
G. B. Mitchell, Gen. Contractor, Montreal; 4 mos. Atlas Constrn. Co., 1918-19, 
Lieut., Can. Engrs., 1919-21, engr. and supt. Atlas Constrn. Co.; 4 mos. with Montreal 
Water Board. 

References: H. M. MacKay, C. M. Morssen, J. A. Jette, A. S. Dawes, W. Dickson. 



T L H E E N G I N t EE RING JOURNAL 



49 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 




FEBRUARY 1922 



CONTENTS 



Volume V, No. 2 



Civil Service Classification 

Deterioration of Concrete in Alkali Soils . 

Honour Roll and War Trophies 

International Co-operation 

Publicity 

Roads and Pavements 

Uniform Steam Boiler Specifications 



REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR 1921 

COUNCIL COMMITTEES:— 

Library and House 54 

Papers 55 

Legislation and By-laws 55 

Finance 55 

Canadian Engineering Standards 58 

Canadian National Committee Inter- 
national Electro-Technical Commission 59 
BRANCH REPORTS:— 

Victoria 64 

Vancouver •. . 65 

Calgary 66 

Edmonton 68 

Lethbridge 68 

Saskatchewan 68 

Winnipeg 69 

Ontario Provincial Division 70 
JOHN G. SULLIVAN, M.E.I. C, PRESIDENT 
EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS:— 

Greetings from American Federation of Engineering Societies 

Policy Committee Meeting 

Badge of The Institute 

THE THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING 

RETIRING PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 

REGISTRATION 

CORRESPONDENCE 

EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 

ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

OBITUARIES 

PERSONALS 

BRANCH NEWS '. 

TOWN PLANNING NOTES AND COMMENTS, H. L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 

ENGINEERING INDEX (facing page 124) 



Sault Ste. Marie 71 

Border Cities 73 

London 74 

Niagara Peninsula 74 

Hamilton 75 

Toronto 76 

Peterborough 76 

Kingston 77 



Montreal 

Quebec 

St. John 

Moncton .... 
Cape Breton . 

Halifax 

Ottawa 



51 

59 
59 
60 
61 
61 
62 
63 

78 
80 
81 
81 
82 
82 
83 

87 



89 

94 

98 

101 

102 

103 

105 

107 

109 

119 

121 

15 



The Institute does not hold itself responsible for the opinions expressed by the 
authors of the papers published in its records, or for discussions at any of its meetings, 
or for individual views transmitted through the medium of The Journal. 

Published by 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

176 Mansfield St., Montreal 
BRANCHES: 



Halifax Branch, Halifax, N.S. 

Cape Breton Branch, Sydney, Cape Breton. 

Moncton Branch, Moncton, N.B. 

St. John Branch, St. John, N.B. 

Quebec Branch, Quebec, Que. 

Montreal Branch, Montreal, Que. 

Ottawa Branch, Ottawa, Ont. 

Kingston Branch, Kingston, Ont. 

Peterborough Branch, Peterborough, Ont. 

Toronto Branch, Toronto, Ont. 

Hamilton Branch, Hamilton, Ont. 



Niagara Peninsula Branch, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

London Branch, London, Ont. 

Border Cities Branch, Windsor, Ont. 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Winnipeg Branch, Winnipeg, Man. 

Saskatchewan Branch, Regina, Sask. 

Lethbridge Branch, Alta. 

Edmonton Branch, Edmonton, Alta. 

Calgary Branch, Calgary, Alta. 

Vancouver Branch, Vancouver, B.C. 

Victoria Branch, Victoria, B.C. 



50 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



•H. G. ACRES, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

LT.-Col. R. W. Leonard, St. Catharines, Ont. 



Members of Council for 1922 

PRESIDENT 
JOHN G. SULLIVAN, Winnipeg, Man. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 
tC. H. MITCHELL, Toronto, Ont. fA. SURVEYER, Montreal 



PAST PRESIDENTS 
R. A. ROSS, Montreal. 



tA. C. D. BLANCHARD, Niagara Falls. 
*F. A. BOWMAN, Halifax, N.S. 
•FREDERICK B. BROWN, Montreal. 
*H. M. BURWELL, Vancouver, B.C. 
+11. S. CARPENTER, Regina, Sask. 
•J. B. CHALLIES, Ottawa, Ont. 
*G. W. CRAIG, Calgary, Alta. 
•A. R. DECARY. Quebec, P.O. 
*R. L. DOBBIN, Peterborough. Ont. 
tG. B. DODGE, Ottawa, Ont. 
:J. A. DUCHASTEL, Montreal. 



•For 1922 



COUNCILLORS 
*GUY C. DUNN, Toronto, Ont. 
{J. E. GIBAULT. Levis, Que. 
»E. R. GRAY, Hamilton, Ont. 

V. R. CREIG, Saskatoon, Sask. 
iH. L. JOHNSTON, Victoria, B.C. 
tC. C. KIRBY, St John, N.B. 
{GEO. MACLEOD, Montreal, B. C. 
{ALEXANDER. MACPHAIL, Kingston, Ont. 
*J. R. C. MACREDIE, Moose Jaw, Sask. 
tS. S. OLIVER, Quebec. P. Q. 
tS. G. PORTER, Lethbridge, Alta. 
}D. A. ROSS, Winnipeg, Man. 
{For 1922-23 



{WALTER J. FRANCIS, Montreal, Que. 
J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Montreal. 



{C. H. E. ROUNTHWAITE, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

tW. M. SCOTT, Winnipeg, Man. 

tF. P. SHEARWOOD, Montreal. 

"JULIAN C. SMITH, Montreal. 

JA. F. STEWART, Moncton, N. B. 

{R. S. L. WILSON, Edmonton, Alta. 

tK. B. THORNTON. Montreal. 

{GEO. A. WALKEM, Vancouver. 

{R. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS, Toronto, Ont. 

tC. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 



TREASURER 
Brig. Gen. SIR ALEX. BERTRAM, Montreal. 



{For 1922-23-24 

SECRETARY 
FRASER S. KEITH, Montreal. 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, C. E. W. DODWELL 
Sec.-Treas.. O. S. COX 

Asst. Engineer Public Works Dept., 

Halifax, N.S. 
Executive, H. W. L. DOANE 

F. R. FAULKNER J. B. HAYES 
W. P. MORRISON K. H. SMITH 
L. H. WHEATON 

(Ex-Officio) F. A. BOWMAN 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, C. M. ODELL 
Sec.-Treas., K. G. CAMERON 

Bk. of Commerce Bldg., Sydney, N.S. 
Executive, D. S. MORRISON 

D. F. MacISAAC H. LONGLEY 
ST. JOHN 

Chairman, FRANK P. VAUGHAN 
Sec.-Treas. HARRY F. BENNETT 

P.O. Box 1417, St. John, N.B. 
Executive, G. G. MURDOCH, A. G. TAPLEY 
A. DUFRESNE 

G. N. HATFIELD 
(Ex-Officio) C. C. KIRBY 

MONCTON 

Chairman, J. D. McBEATH 
Vice-Chair., S. B. WASS 
Sec.-Treas. M. J. MURPHY 

Asst. Engr., C.N.R., Moncton 
Executive, A. F. STEWART F. O. CONDON 
R. G. GAGE R. McMANUS 

II. J. CRUDGE F. B. FRIPP 
QUEBEC 

Chairman, A. R. DECARY 
Vice-Chair., ALEX. FRASER 
Sec.-Treas. HECTOR CIMON, 

8 Laporte St., Quebec. 
Executive, L. C. DUPUIS PAUL JONCAS 

J. A. BUTEAU A. B. NORMANDIN 
(Ex-Officio) J. E. GIBAULT S. S. OLIVER 

MONTREAL 

Chairman, J. H. HUNTER 
Vice-Chair., J. A. DUCHASTEL 
Sec.-Treas. J. L. BUSFIELD 

260 St. James St., Montreal 
Executive fA. E. DUBUC 

fCHAS. M. McKERGOW 

tS. F. RUTHERFORD 

•JOHN T. FARMER 

•O. O. LEFEBVRE 

•GEORGE R. MACLEOD 
(Ex-Officio) Brig-Gen. Sir ALEX BERTRAM 

FRED. BROWN 

R. A. ROSS J . 

F. P. SHEARWOOD 
JULIAN C. SMITH 
ARTHUR SURVEYER 
K. B. THORNTON 
GEO. MACLEOD 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, C. P. EDWARDS 
Sec.-Treas. F. C. C. LYNCH 

Dept. of Interior, Motor Building, Ottawa. 
Executive. K. M. CAMERON A. FERGUSON 
O. S. FINNIE J. E. BROWN 

M. F.COCHRANE 
(Ex-Officio) J. B. CHALLIES G. B. DODGE 

PETERBOROUGH 

Hon. Chair R. II. PARSONS 
Chairman, P. L. ALLISON 
Vice-Chair., P. P. WESTBYE 
Secretary D. I . McLAREN 

291 Stewart St., Peterborough, Ont. 
Treasurer, A. B. GATES 
Executive, E. R. SHIRLEY II. O. FISK 

A. L. KILLALY 

G. R. LANCLEY 
JAS. MACKINTOSH 

B. L. BARNES 
Ex-Officio) R. L. DOBBIN 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, W. P. WILGAR 
Vice-Chair., L. M. ARKLEY 
Sec.-Treas. L. T. RUTLEDGE 

262 University Ave., Kingston 
Executive, J. M. CAMPBELL A. MACPHAIL 
D. J. EMERY 

TORONTO 

Chairman G. T. CLARKE 
Vice-Chair., Wm. STORRIE 
Sec.-Treas. F. B. GOEDIKE 

201 Humberside Ave., Toronto 
Executive, PETER GILLESPIE 

G. G. POWELL 

M. V. SAUER H. J. LAMB 

J. M. OXLEY R. C. MUIR 
(Ex-Officio) C. R. YOUNG GUY C. DUNN 

R. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS 

HAMILTON 

Hon. Chair. ROBERT HOBSON 
Chairman, E. H. DARLING 
Sec.-Treas. W F. McLAREN 
c/o Canadian Westinghouse Co , Hamilton, Ont. 
Executive, H. GRAHAM BERTRAM 

W. G. MILNE F. W. PAULIN 
J. W. TYRRELL 
(Ex-Officio) E. R. GRAY 

LONDON 

Hon.Chair., J. DAVIS BARNETT 
Chairman, H. A. BRAZIER 
Vice-Chair., W. J. FORBES MITCHELL 
Sec.-Treas. GEO. C. WRIGHT 
Kingston Construction Co. Ltd., London, Ont. 
Executive, F. A. BELL 

CHAS. TALBOT 

H. B. R. CRAIG 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, N. R. GIBSON 
Vice-Chair., F. S. LAZIER 
Sec.-Treas. REX. P. JOHNSON 

Box 245, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Executive, F. E. STERNS S. R. FROST 

W. H. SULLIVAN H. L. BUCKE 
(Ex-Officio) Lt.-Col. R. W. LEONARD 

H. G. ACRES 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, GEO. E. PORTER 
Sec.-Treas. J. CLARK KEITH 

302 Ouellette Ave., Windsor. 
Executive, L. M. ALLAN A. J. M. BOWMAN 

H. C. McMORDIE 

A. J. RIDDELL 

SAULT STE MARIE 

Chairman, K. G. ROSS 
Vice-Chair., B. E. BARNHILL 
Sec.-Treas. F. T. GNAEDINGER 

Const. Depart., Algoma Steel Corp., 

..... Sault Ste. Marie. 

Executive, |J. W. LeB. ROSS 

tF. F. GRIFFIN 

tL. L. JACOBS 

C H. E. ROUNTHWAITE 

•J. G. McLAURIN 

•L. R. BROWN 
WINNIPEG 

Chairman, E. P. FETHERSTONHAUGH 
Sec.-Treas. GEO. L. GUY 

503 Tribune Bldg., Winnipeg 
Executive, tJ. G. LEGRAND 

tD. A. ROSS 

•A. J. S. TAUNTON 

•b. s. Mckenzie 

•J. M. LEAMY 

(Ex-Officio) GUY C. DUNN 

\V. M. SCOTT 



SASKATCHEWAN 
Chairman, W. R. WARREN 
Vice-Chair., J. R. C. MACREDIE 
Sec.-Treas. D. A. R. McCANNEL 

City Engineers Dept., Regina, Sask. 
Executive, C. J. MACKENZIE 

W. H. GREENE 

J. W. CALDER 

H McIVOR WEIR 

C. W. DILL 

a. J. Mcpherson 

(Ex-Officio) H. S. CARPENTER 

J. R. C. MACREDIE A. R. GREIG 
LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, SAM G. PORTER 
Sec.-Trea. C. M. ARNOLD 

Lethbridge Northern Irrigation District, 
Lethbridge, Alta. 
Executive, G. N. HOUSTON H. W. MEECH 
C. D. MACKINTOSH 
EDMONTON 
Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Sec.-Treas. 



Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
CALGARY 
Chairman, 
Sec.-Treas. 



C. A. ROBB 
J. G. REID 
R. H. DOUGLAS 

Railway Dep't, Edmonton, Alta. 
H. H. TRIPP 
R. W. JONES 

C. F. CORBETT 

A. G. STEWART 

D. J. CARTER 
R. S. L. WILSON 

B. L. THORNE 
ARTHUR L. FORD 

District Chief Engineer, Dominion 
Water Power Branch, Calgary, Alta. 

F. W. ALEXANDER 
P. J. JENNINGS 

G. W. CRAIG 



Executive, 
(Ex-Officio) 

VANCOUVER 

Chairman, CHAS. BRAKENRIDGE 
Vice-Chair., A. C. EDDY 
Sec.-Treas. P. H. RUCHAN 

930 Birks Building, Vancouver, B.C. 
Executive, J. N. ANDERSON WM. SMAIL 

R. G. EDWARDS R. G. E. LECKIE 
(Ex-Officio) H. M. BURWELL 
GEO. A. WALKEM 

VICTORIA 

Chairman, P.PHILIP 
Secretary, E. P. GIRDWOOD 
Treasurer, H. M. BIGWOOD, 
Executive, E. E. BRYDONE-JACK 

J. P. FORDE 
(Ex-Officio) H. L. JOHNSTON 

ONTARIO PROVINCIAL DIVISION 
Chairman, Col. W. H. MAGWOOD 
Vice-Chair., Prof. C. R. YOUNG 
Sec.-Treas A. B. LAMBE. Ottawa. Ont. 
EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS 
Lt.-Col. R. W. LEONARD 
H. G. ACRES 

Brig.-Gen. C. H MITCHELL 
J. B. CHALLIES G. B. DODGE 
A. MacPHAILA. C. D. BLANCHARD 
R. L. DOBBIN C. R. YOUNG 
R. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS 

E. R. GRAY 

C. H. E. ROUNTHWAITE 

H. B. R. CRAIG GEO. HOGARTH 

Representative of Branches 
P. L. ALLISON, Peterborough Branch 
L. M. ARKLEY, Kingston Branch 
WILLIS CHIPMAN, Toronto Branch 
REX. P. JOHNSON, Niagara Peninsula Branch 
A. B. LAMBE, Ottawa Branch 
J. J. NEWMAN, Border Cities Branch 

F. W. PAULIN, Hamilton Branch 

K. G. ROSS, Sault Ste. Marie Branch 

G. C. WRIGHT, London Branch 

Representatives of Non-Resident Members 

D. T. BLACK 
G. H. BRYSON 
S. B. CLEMENT 

Col. W. H. MAGWOOD 
GEO. A. McCUBBIN 

F. D. REID 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Published Monthly at 176 Mansfield Street, Montreal 

By 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

INCORPORATED IN 1887 AS 

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 



Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, As Second Class Matter 



Volume V 



MONTREAL, FEBRUARY 1922 



Number 2 



Report of Council for the Year 1921. 



Of the varied phases of The Institute s activities to 
distinguish the year 1921, the establishment of three 
new Branches, one at Sydney, Nova Scotia, known as 
the Cape Breton Branch, one at London, Ontario, and the 
other at Lethbridge, Alberta; a very substantial increase 
in membership and an expansion of Branch activities 
are the more notable. 

It is undeniable that the year just closed has been 
one of the poorest from the view-point of engineering 
operations for many years, resulting in considerable in- 
dividual hardship on account of unemployment, which 
condition Headquarters has sought in every way to 
alleviate, but, on account of economic conditions, with 
indifferent success. It is some satisfaction to note that 
the outlook for the coming year is more promising. 

This year has seen the greatest engineering gathering 
yet held in Canada, when, under the auspices of the 
Toronto Branch, the Annual Professional Meeting was 
held in that city in February, the success of which was 
largely attributed to the organizing ability of the Toronto 
Branch Officers, and was an indication of the fact that 
engineers are becoming more and more alive to the 
advantages of meeting for social and professional inter- 
course. The Professional Meeting at Saskatoon, while 



fewer in numbers, was marked by continuous enthusiasm, 
and by a series of papers that would be a credit to any 
engineering gathering. A Council meeting was also held 
during this meeting. Authorization was given for a 
Council meeting to be held in Ontario during the current 
year, at a date to be set by the Ontario Provincial Division. 

The difficulties involved in connection with the work 
of the Committee on Policy, due to its breadth of scope 
and the many factors presented to it for consideration, 
became apparent during the year, and although the 
Committee has done a great deal of work it has been 
found impossible to put the result into final shape without 
a meeting of the Committee, and it is therefore recommen- 
ded to the incoming Council that a meeting be held 
shortly of the Committee. 

Classification and Remuneration have been advanced 
to a point where the Committee's final report is under 
consideration by Council at the present time, and it is 
anticipated that this report will be submitted to the various 
Branches in the immediate future, for discussion and sug- 
gestions. 

The report of the special committee on Publications, 
dealing with the question of rules and regulations regard- 
ing the publication of papers presented at Branches and 



52 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Professional Meetings, has been approved by Council, 
and will be found printed under Institute Committee 
reports. 

Various Institute Committees in addition to those 
already mentioned, have done notable work during the 
past year. Of outstanding importance is that of the 
Committee on the Deterioration of Concrete in Alkali 
Soils, which is endeavouring to solve the problem which 
confronts the Prairie Provinces. The sum of thirteen 
thousand dollars has been raised to follow up more 
effectively the work done by this Committee during the 
past two years. The thanks of The Institute are due 
the Honorary Advisory Council for Scientific and 
Industrial Research, the Canadian Pacific Railway, the 
Canada Cement Company, the Province of Alberta, the 
Province of Saskatchewan, and the City of Winnipeg. 
It is hoped that this Committee's results will be of 
lasting benefit to the profession. 

The happy relations existing between The Institute 
and the four founder engineering Societies of the United 
States, is illustrated by the fact that arrangements have 
been made with the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, the American Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engin- 
eers, and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
whereby members of this Institute receive all the Tran- 
sactions and publications of the founder Societies at the 
same price as that paid by their own members. In the 
case of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
this amounts to the same price as paid by the members 
for transactions, in addition to their dues. With the 
other Societies it is amount paid by members for add- 
itional copies, and is equivalent in most cases to a fifty 
percent discount on the advertised rates. The Institute 
extends a similar courtesy to the sister societies, and it 
is hoped that the arrangement will be mutually beneficial. 

The strength of The Institute, and its growth in the 
professional field, is well reflected in the operations of 
The Institute as a whole during the past year. Every 
Branch has shown a satisfactory growth, resulting in 
about fifteen percent increase in membership. For the 
first time a budget system was adopted by the Finance 
Committee, and the financial statement is one which 
reflects a flourishing organization, while the very large 
number of papers presented at professional and branch 
meetings, as shown in the reports, is an indication of the 
general activity of The Institute. 

While lamenting the loss by death of a number of 
prominent members of The Institute, it is with particular 
regret that Council records the death of Sir John Kennedy, 
K.B., Hon. M.E.I.C., a charter member of The Institute, 
Past-President, one of its first Vice-Presidents, and for 
eleven years a Councillor, in honour of whose position 
in the engineering world, it is proposed to place a bronze 
tablet in The Institute Headquarters. 

Meetings 

Professional meetings were held as follows: — 

Annual General Professional Meeting held in Toronto, 
Ont., Februarxj 1st., 2nd., and 3rd, 1921, at which the 
following papers were read: — 



"Design of Sewage Disposal Scheme for a City 
located on Tidal Waters", by C. J. Yorath, A.M.E.I.C. 

Xost-Plus Contracts", by J. Clark Keith, A.M.E.I.C. 

"Hydrated Lime a Chemical Engineering Product", 
by Lucius E. Allan, M.E.I.C. 

"Toronto Filtration Plant", by James Milne, 
M.E.I.C. 

"Heating and Ventilation of Paper Machine Rooms", 
by Edward A .Ryan, A.M.E.I.C. 

Practice of Ventilation of Paper Machine Rooms", 
by E. A. Briner. 

"Mechanical and Electrical Equipment of the To- 
ronto Union Station", by Walter J. Armstrong, A.M.E.I.C. 

"The Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry", by 
T. Linsey Crossley, A.M.E.I.C. 

"Chemical Engineering in the Packing House", 
by J. Richardson Donald. 

"Present Day Illumination Standards", by George 
C. Cousins. 

"Municipal Engineering", by R. O. Wynne-Roberts, 
M.E.I.C. 

"The Activated Sludge Process of Sewage Disposal", 
by George G. Nasmith. 

"Some Controversial Points in Concrete Specific- 
ations", by Frank Barber, A.M.E.I.C. 

"On the Economics of Building Construction", by 
J. Morrow Oxley, A.M.E.I.C. 

"Toronto Harbour Improvements", by Edward L. 
Cousins, A.M.E.I.C. 

"Control of Corrosion in Iron and Steel Pipes" by 
F. N. Speller. 

Tenth General Professional Meeting held at Saskatoon, 
Sask., August 10th, 11th, and 12th, 1921, at which the 
following papers were read: — 

"The Development of Trunk Highways as Affecting 
the "Western Provinces", by C. W. Dill, M.E.I.C. 

"Water Supply and Irrigation Schemes of the Prairie 
Provinces", by G. N. Houston, M.E.I.C. 

"The Audion and its Applications", by R. S. Parker, 
A.M.E.I.C, and S. B. Sherman, A.M.E.I.C. 

"The Self-Corrosion of Cast Iron and other Metals 
in Alkaline Soils", by W. Nelson Smith, M.E.I.C, and 
Dr. J. W. Shipley. 

"What about Western Coal", by R. de L. French, 
M.E.I.C. 

"The Coal Situation of Western Canada", by William 
Pearce, M.E.I.C 

"Economics and Engineering Features of the Mani- 
toba Power Commission", by J. Rochetti, M.E.I.C 

"The Water Powers of the Prairie Provinces", by 
C H. Attwood, A.M.E.I.C. 

"Northern Territory in Western Canada, Its Deve- 
lopment and Problems", by R. C Wallace. 

"The Disintegration of Concrete in Alkali Soils", 
by G. M. Williams, A.M.E.I.C. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



53 



Roll of the Institute 

Elections during the year resulted in the following 
additions to the roll: — one Honorary Member, seventy- 
one Members; three hundred and thirty Associate Mem- 
bers; one hundred and fifteen Juniors; three hundred and 
forty-seven Students and ten Associates. 

The following transfers were made: — thirty-eight 
Associate Members to the class of Member; one Associate 
to the class of Member; thirty-seven Juniors to the 
class of Associate Member; twenty-five Students to the 
class of Associate Member; twenty-one Students to the 
class of Junior. 

The following is a detailed statement of elections 
and transfers which have taken place. These are included 
in the official membership roll as acceptances are received 
and have been published monthly in The Journal immedia- 
tely after election: — 

Elections. 

Hon. Associate 
Month Member Members Members Juniors Students Associates 

January 6 25 23 103 

February. . . 66 

March 13 61 18 47 1 

April 

May 2 14 9 19 2 

June 17 87 22 2 4 

July 

August 14 79 21 5 1 

September.. 12 48 18 5 2 

October.... 4 7 1 50 1 

November.. 3 9 3 12 

December.. 1 38 



71 


330 


115 


347 


10 




Transfers 








A.M. 


Assoc. 


Jr. 


S. 


S. 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


M. 


M. 


A.M. 


A.M. 


Jr, 


4 




2 


2 


5 


9 




6 


4 


2 


4 




5 


3 


1 


9 


1 


7 


9 


7 


6 




6 


3 


2 


3 




6 


3 


1 


1 




5 




3 


2 






1 




— 


— 








_ 


38 


1 


37 


25 


21 


Removals from Roll 







January. . . 
February . . 
March .... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September . 
October. . . 
November . 
December. 



There have been removed from the Roll by resignation 
or on account of non-payment of dues: — sixteen Members; 
fifty Associate Members; seventy-one Juniors; one hun- 
dred and six Students and ten Associates. A detailed 
list of resignations accepted is as follows: — 



Members Barton, Donald S. 

Crenshaw, Smith S. 

deLotbiniere, A. C. Joly. 

Fergie, Charles. 

Frost, Harwood 

Leach, Lt.-Col. Francis E. 

Macintyre, Robt. Wentworth 

Tarr, Charles Winthrop 

Weatherbe, Lt.-Col. Paul 

Webster, Henry 

Wilkin, Lt.-Col. Francis A. 
Associate Members Ayer, Kenneth Roger 

Bagshawe, Frederick T. 

Charton, Capt. Pierre 

Cowin, James 

Dion, Alfred Hector, 

Eriksen, Borge O. 

Finlay, Delmar C. 

Freeland, Philip Broke 

Godwin, Benjamin 

Harris, A .Dale 

Hodge, Charles A. 

MacNeil, Hector 

Mullarkey, John P. 

Smith, Geo. W. 

Whitney, Arthur W. 

Junior Stanley, Major H. P. 

Students Emmons, E. F. 

Gervan, C. F. 

Godin, Charles 

Haliburton, E. D. 

Hayward, John Gray 

Hovey, John A. 

Jamieson, Eldred 

MacDonald, J. P. 

McLean, John Reginald 

McLellan, N. W. 

Pfeiffer, Walter M. 

Payment, Euclide 

Sirett, E. James 

Tanton, John F. 

Warner, Donald Franklin 

Wright, E. S. 

Associates Bate, Wm. C. 

Cowan, John Robert 
Morrison, Thomas A. 

Deceased Members 

The following deaths, thirty-two in number, have 
been reported, of which number, eight were killed in 
action or died as the result of wounds and illness con- 
tracted during war service. 
Members Bayne, Geo. Arthur 

Burley, Ralph J. 

Busteed, F. F. 

Fawcett, Thomas 

Hill, Albert James 

Kennedy, James Cron 

Kennedy, Sir John, LL.D. 

(Hon. Member) 

Langton, John 

McKay, Owen 

Robb, Aubrey Granger 

Sing, J. G. 



54 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Tomlinson, A. T. 

Associate Members. . . .Chataway, Chas. T. 
Drummond, T. 
Girard, Joseph E. 
Keefer, E. C. 
Mason, Major John 
McLellan, John Wm. 
McPhee, Capt. Murdoch N. 
Phillips, Archibald M. 
Powell, Major Alan Torrance 
Ruhl, Harry Thornton 
Stuart, William James 
Thorne, Major Stuart M. 
Waldron, Major Stanley M. 

Juniors Allan, Lieut. H. D. 

Davis, Wm. James 
Duff, Miles O'Reilly 
Williams, Jack Northmore 

Students Jacquemart, Rene 

Probst, Emile 

Associate. Kammerer, Jacob A. 

Killed in action or died as the result of wounds, and 

illness contracted during war service: — 

Associate Members. . . .Mason, Major John 

Powell, Major Alan Torrance 
Stuart, Lieut. William James 
Thorne, Major Stuart M. 
Waldron, Major Stanley M. 

Junior Allan, Lieut. H. D. 

Students Jacquenart, Rene 

Probst, Emile 

Total Membership 

At present the membership stands as follows: — 

Honorary Members 10 

Members 1018 

Associate Members 2285 

Juniors 438 

Students 899 

Associates 38 



4688 



Elected ■ — acceptances pending. 191 

4879 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. R. Fairbairn, 
President. 

Fraser S. Keith, 
Secretary. 

Library and House Committee 

The' President and Council, 

On behalf of the Library and House Committee I 
beg to submit the following report. Your Committee 
had hoped to have a complete catalogue of the Library 
printed during the present year, but owing to other 
expenditures made by your Committee it was considered 
necessary to hold issuance of the catalogue until a later 
period. The present Library is catalogued according to 



a modification of the Dewey decimal system, published 
by the American Society of Civil Engineers a few years 
ago. Since its adoption by The Institute the United 
Engineering Societies Libraries, comprising the joint 
libraries of all the founder engineering societies of the 
United States, has adpoted the Dewey decimal system 
in its original form, and your Committee recommends 
that this system be adopted in The Institute's Library. 

Additional equipment for the Assembly Hall was 
provided by the addition of fifty chairs, and in view of 
further accommodation being necessary, your Committee 
is now investigating the cost of providing additional by 
the means of a gallery. Should the cost of this prove too 
great it is recommended that an additional fifty chairs be 
purchased. 

The question of improving the ventilation has received 
considerable thought, and a report is now in progress to 
Council, outlining this subject, together with that of 
increased accommodation. 

It is felt by your Committee that the Library would 
be strengthened by the purchase of a number of modern 
engineering text-books, provision for which might be 
made in the budget for the coming year, if the suggestion 
meet with your approval. 



Publication Received 



The 



The following publications were presented to 
Institute during the year. — 

By Octave Doin, publisher, Paris. 

"La Technique des Petroles" by R. Courau. 

By the Institute of Naval Architects. 

"Transactions of the Institution of Naval Arch- 
itects 

By Masson et Cie., publishers, Paris. 

"Traite de Chimie Physique", translation by Wm. 
C. Lewis. 

By D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, publish- 
ers. 

"Cam. Design and Manufacture" by F. B. Jacobs. 

By Canadian Engineering Standards Association. 

"Standard Requirements for Single-Phase Distri- 
bution". 

By National Board of Fire Underwriters, Bureau 
of Standards and Associated Factory Mutual Fire In- 
surance Companies. 

"Fire Tests of Building Columns." 

By American Concrete Institute. 

Proceedings, Vols. 1 to 8; 12 to 16. 

By A. C. Tagge, M.E.I.C. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Canada, 1883 
to 1892 inclusive. 

By R. W. Leonard, M.E.I.C. 

Book of Plans of New York State Barge Canal. 

By Roy Campbell, A.M.E.I.C. 

"Construction du Canal de Jonage", by Rene Chau- 
vin, published by La Societe Lyonnaise des Forces Mo- 
trices du Rhone. 

By H. B. Muckleston, M.E.I.C. 

"Flow of Water in Irrigation Canals", by P. J. Flynn. 
"Irrigation Canals and Other Irrigation Works", by 
P. J. Flynn. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



55 



By Chester B. Hamilton, Jr., M.E.I.C. 
"Hamilton's Gear Book". 

By the Joint Commission on the Bridge over the 
Delaware at Philadelphia. 

Report on the Bridge over the Delaware at Phila- 
delphia. 

By E. and F. Spon, publishers, London, England. 
"Reinforced Concrete Construction", by M. T. 
Cantell, A.M.E.I.C. 

By McGraw-Hill Company, publishers, New York- 
Federated Engineering Societies Report on Waste 
in Industry. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Alex. Bertram, 
Chairman. 

Papers Committee 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Papers Committee I beg to submit 
the following report for the year 1921. 

The Papers Committee is composed of the Chairman 
of the various Branches of the Institute with myself as 
Chairman of the whole Committee. On account of the 
members of the Committee residing so far apart, no 
attempts have been made to hold any meetings, but the 
Committee, nevertheless, has provided a means of inter- 
change of papers between the Branches. 

The activities of the Branches have been carried out 
so successfully that there has not been any great demand 
on the Papers Committee of the Institute for assistance 
but a number of meritorious papers have been sent in 
and I have referred them to other Branches for their use. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Frederick B. Brown, 
Chairman. 

Committee on Legislation and By-Laws 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Committee on Legislation and By- 
Laws, I have the honour to report that peace and har- 
mony has prevailed throughout the whole year as far 
as this Committee is concerned, and that nothing beyond 
the formal approval of Branch By-Laws has been sub- 
mitted to the Committee. 

Your Committee has kept in close touch with the 
legislation situation throughout the whole Dominion, 
and confidently believes that the period of evolution 
through which the profession is now passing will end in 
the haven of recognition already attained by our sister 
professions — law and medicine. This end cannot be 
reached by us, however, until its need is fully recognized 
by our members, and by everyone engaged in any branch 
of the profession, as well as by our legislators, and it is 
more than ever incumbent upon us, each and every one, 
to act in such a way that the public will appreciate our 
high ideals and in the end realize the wonderful part the 
engineer is playing in our great civilization. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Walter J. Francis, 
Chairman. 



Finance Committee 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Finance Committee, I have the 
honour to submit herewith the Financial Statement for 
the year 1921. 

In presenting this statement, I would venture to call 
your attention to the fact that this is the first year during 
which the financial affairs of The Institute have been upon 
a budget system. The estimated operating surplus appear- 
ing in the budget prepared at the beginning of 1921 was 
$10,468. The actual operating surplus as certified by your 
Auditors is $10,313.73 exclusive of the hereinafter men- 
tioned recommendation regarding the disposal of entrance 
fees. This is a satisfactory result in view of the difficulty 
of estimating either the revenue or expenditure on the 
items of Journal and transactions. 

The Committee begs to recommend that as much as 
possible of the 1921 entrance fees be reserved to discharge 
our mortgage obligations, and for the future the whole 
of this amount be set aside for said purpose until such 
time as the mortgage is wiped out. 

The Committee further recommends that the budget 
system be continued, and that for the future three annual 
statements be prepared for the Council:— 

(a) Balance Sheet. 

(b) Statement of Cash Receipts and Disbursements. 

(c) A statement showing the operating condition of 

The Institute. This statement should include 
not only the cash but Bills Receivable and 
Bills Payable in order that the members may 
observe quickly the actual financial status of 
The Institute. This statement would corres- 
pond to the one that has been submitted to 
the Council from year to year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. A. ROSS, Chairman. 

The President and Council, 
Dear Sirs: — 

We have completed the Audit of the Books ane 
Accounts of The Engineering Institute of Canada for thd 
year ending 31st December 1921, and submit herewith 
Statements of Assets and Liabilities as at that date and 
Revenue and Expenditure for the past year duly certified 
by us. 

All expenditure has been properly supported by 
vouchers. The cash on hand and in Bank has been 
verified and the Investments held have been verified by 
personal inspection. 

We append hereto a Schedule showing the position 
of the various Special Funds. 

We certify that we have obtained all the information 
and explanations we have required, and that, in our 
opinion, the accompanying Balance sheet is properly 
drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the 
state of the affairs of The Institute as at 31st December 
1921. 

Faithfully yours, 

Riddell, Stead, Graham and Hutchison.C.A. 
A uditors. 



56 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



STATEMENT OF ASSETS 

Assets. 

Property Account 

Furniture 

Balance as at 1st Jan. 1921 2,999 .95 

Added during year 1,283 .81 

4,283.76 
Less 10% written off for Depreciation. 428 .37 

Library : 

Estimated Value of Books as at 1st Jan. 

1921 6,330.00 

LESS 10% written off for Depreciation . 633 .00 

Stationery on Hand, as per Inventory . . . 

Gold Medal 

Investments: 

Canada Permanent Mortgage Corpora- 
tion stock, 20 shares par value 
$10 each 215.00 

Montreal Light, Heat & Power Co., 

stock, 6 shares par value $100 each. 120 .50 

Accounts Receivable: 

Journal 4,736.80 

Advances to Branches 1,000 .00 

Sundry 4.61 

Arrears of Fees — Estimated 

Cash 

Canadian Bank of Commerce Current 

Account 3,477.55 

Petty Cash on Hand 200 .00 

Insurance Unexpired 

Special Funds: 

Investments Victory Bonds 2,000 .00 

Cash in Savings Bank Accounts 1,147 .69 



AND LIABILITIES AS AT 31st, DECEMBER 1921 

Liabilities, 

$89,041 .64 Mortgage on Property 

Royal Institute for the Advancement of 

Learning $20,000.00 

Interest thereon accrued to date 233 .33 

Accounts Payable: 

3,855.39 Sundry ..... "4.81 

Advances to Branches °lo .«/ 

Special Funds (as per Schedule No. 1 

attached) 

5,697.00 

Surplus Account: 

Balance as at 31st Dec. 1920 ?0,442 .12 

45 . 00 Add Surplus for year 1921 10,313 . 73 



20,233.33 

951 .68 
3,147.69 

90,755 .85 



335.50 



5,741.41 
2,500.00 



3,677.55 
147.37 



3,147.69 
$115,088.55 



$115,088.55 



Montreal, 10th January, 1922. 
Verified subject to our report of this date. 
(Signed) Riddell, Stead, Graham & Hutchison, C.A. 

Auditors. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



57 



STATEMENT OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31st, DECEMBER 1921 
Revenue. Expenditure. 



Subscriptions: 

Arrears of Fees $5,610 .25 

Current Fees 24,127 02 

Advance Fees 478 .77 

Entrance Fees 9,661 .50 

Interest: 

On Overdue Fees 

Dividends: 

Canada Permanent Mortgage Corpora- 
tion Stock 21 .30 

Montreal Light, Heat & Power Co. 

Stock 30.00 

Journal: 

Net Revenue 

Bank Exchange 

Rent of Hall 

Certificates 

Badges 

Examination Fees 



39,877.54 



473.48 



51.30 



6,204 .89 

48.15 

60.00 

721 50 

52.67 

8.00 



Building Expense: 

Interest on Mortgage $1,400 .00 

Taxes 1,373 .89 

Water rates 203 .70 

Fuel 770.92 

Insurance 122 .96 

Light and Gas 129 84 

Caretaker's Wages and Service 1,187 .50 

Repairs and Expense 948 .03 



Office Expense: 

Salaries. Secretary and Office Staff 14.378 .32 

Office Supplies and Stationery 2.509 . 21 

Postage and Telegrams 1,415 55 

Auditors' Fees 250 .00 

Telephone 194 79 

Messengers and Express 63 71 

Miscellaneous Expense 207 71 

Legal Expense 7 .98 



Publication: 

Transactions 

General Expenses: 

Annual and Professional Meetings 

Donation C.E.S.A 

Travelling Expenses, Secretary 

Branch Stationery 

Gzowski Medal 

Students' Prizes 

Library Expenses and Magazines 

10% written off Furniture for Deprecia- 
tion 

10% written off Books for Depreciation 



Rebates to Branches: 

As per Schedule No. 2 attached . 



$47,497.53 



1,422.36 

200.00 

1,298 30 

224.27 

12.10 

25.00 

464.77 

428.37 
633 .00 



Balance being Surplus of Revenue over 
Expenditure for the year ending 31st 
December, 1921 



Montreal, 10th January, 1922. 

Verified : 
(Signed) Riddell, Stead, Graham & Hutchison, C.A., 

Auditors. 



6,136.84 



19,027.27 
1,840.30 



4,708.17 

5,471 .22 
$37,183.80 

10,313.73 

$47,497.53. 



58 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Canadian Engineering Standards 
Committee 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Canadian Engineering Standards 
Committee, I beg to submit the following report:— 

Personnel 

The Institute is honoured with having three members 
on the Main Committee of the Canadian Engineering 
Standards Association. At the beginning of this year the 
personnel of this Committee was as follows: — W. F. Tye, 
M.E.I.C, for one year; H. H. Vaughan, M.E.I.C, for 
two years; and the writer, for three years. 

During the past year the work of the Association has 
developed considerably. The various working committees 
now complying upwards of 250 members, and the number 
is constantly increasing as work is commenced on new 
subjects. In the prosecution of this work The Engineering 
Institute is vitally interested, and over half the number 
of the Committee members are members of The Institute. 

Publications 

The publications during the year are as follows: — 
No. 3, 1921, Standard Specifications for Galvanized 

Telegraph and Telephone Wire. 
No. 4, 1921, Standard Specifications for Wire Rope 

for Mining and Dredging Purposes. 
The Specification for Portland Cement is in the press. 
The following publications are in an advanced stage 
of progress, and will shortly be ready for submission to 
the Main Committee for authority to print:— 

Reprint of Standard Specification for Steel Railway 

Bridges. 
Standard Specification for Steel Highway Bridges. 
Standard Requirements for A.C. Watt-hour Meters. 

Outside Relations 

The establishment of cordial relations with the various 
European national standardizing bodies has been an im- 
portant feature of the year's work. An arrangement has 
been approved by the Main Committee and is now in 
effect whereby information as to the progress of the work 
of the various Canadian Engineering Standards Associa- 
tion Committees is periodically transmitted to the organ- 
izations doing similar work in other parts of the world. 
Similar information as to their own work being furnished 
by these bodies in return. In this way overlapping and 
duplication of work will be avoided, and data as to work 
already accomplished elsewhere in any subject can be 
readily applied for. 

Specially close co-operation and consultation has 
taken place with the British Engineering Standards 
Association, and with the American Engineering Stand- 
ards Committee in several instances, (gearing for example'), 
members of our Committee have been invited to attend 
meetings of the American Engineering Standards Com- 
mittee with very satisfactory results. 



The sympathy and financial assistance of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada has been greatly appre- 
ciated by the Main Committee of the Canadian Engin- 
eering Standards Association; in many subjects, (as for 
instance, the important one of Concrete and Reinforced 
Concrete), it is felt that the two organizations must 
work hand in hand if the best results are to be obtained 
by either. 

New Activities 

During the last few weeks a number of important 
suggestions for activity have been received, among which 
may be mentioned one from the Automobile Club of 
Canada requesting the formation of a Committee to draw 
up, if possible, specifications for gasoline, which will be 
acceptable to, and used by the manufacturers, and one 
from the Dominion Highways Commission, asking for the 
organization of a Sectional Committee on Road Materials 
and Construction, with the view of obtaining the co- 
operation of the various Provincial Highways Authorities, 
engineers and contractors, in defining and specifying road 
materials and methods so as to avoid confusion and secure 
uniformity wherever possible in the requirements for this 
important work throughout the Dominion. The Institute, 
of course, is primarily interested in this work. 



Progress 

In some cases, progress by the working committees 
has been disappointingly slow, not from lack of willingness 
on the part of the chairmen and members, but because 
of the time necessary to ensure that all interests concerned 
actually receive thorough consideration of their proposals, 
and that these proposals are adequately criticized before 
adoption. 

Our late Chairman 

This year the Committee sustained a great loss in 
the death of its founder and President, Sir John Kennedy, 
Hon.M.E.I.C. Untiring in his interest and co-operation, 
his keen judgment and long experience were of very great 
value, and while we mourn his loss, we are thankful that 
such long years of service to the engineering profession 
and to mankind were his portion. 



Secretarial Work 

Your representatives cannot close this report without 
referring in the most complimentary terms to the highly 
efficient and indefatigable work of the General Secretary, 
R. J. Durley, M.E.I.C. The success so far attained by 
the Committee is, in no small measure, due to his. 
unflagging interest. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Walter J. Francis, 

Chairman. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



59 



Canadian National Committee 
International, Electro-Technical Commission 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Canadian National Committee 
of the International Electro-technical Commission, I 
beg to submit the following report for the year 1921. 

The main activities of the Committee have been con- 
nected with the completion of the system of International 
Electrical Symbols, and also with the question of the 
adoption of names for the fundamental Electro-Magnetic 
Units. The latter subject was brought to the fore by 
the action of the Danish Committee in appealing, in 
connection with the centenary of the discovery of Electro 
Magnetism by Oersted, for this name to be given to one 
of the Electro-Magnetic Units. 

This appeal brought expressions of views from most 
of the National Committee, and the matter is still under 
consideration. 

The Committee hope to be represented in Paris at 
the International Conference on technical problems 
connected with high tension distribution by Major 
Edgcumbe. 

Yours truly, 

L. A. Herdt, 
Chairman. 

Civil Service Classification Committee 

The President and Council, 

The Civil Service Classification Committee has not 
been called upon for any action during the past year 
and consequently has had no meeting. 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. R. Fairbairn, 

Chairman. 

Committee on Deterioration of 
Concrete in Alkali Soils. 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Committee on Deterioration of 
Concrete in Alkali Soils, I beg to submit the following- 
report. An organization meeting of the Committee as 
originally constituted was held at the University of Saskat- 
chewan, Saskatoon, Sask., April 23rd, 1921. A general 
discussion of the problem by the Committee members, all 
of whom have been familiar with the effect of alkali on 
concrete for several years, indicated that there was complete 
agreement as to the course which should be pursued in the 
investigation. Sinceprevious investigations have established 
the fact that the best of Portland cement concrete may 
not prove permanent under certain known exposure 
conditions it was agreed that the main effort should be 
directed towards the chemical problems involved, in- 
cluding the constitution of cement and the chemical 
reactions between the soluble salts and the constituents 
of the cement. There is at present little to be gained 
by an extensive series of exposure tests of concrete to 
field conditions and it was decided to limit this phase of 



the investigation to a limited number of concrete spe- 
cimens which would later serve as a basis of comparison 
with future field work which might be planned as a re- 
sult of the findings of the chemical laboratory. It was 
further agreed that a physical chemist having the highest 
qualifications be obtained to direct and supervise the 
chemical research and steps were taken to survey the 
field of available men in that line of work. In order 
that the Committee might have the benefit of the advice 
and experience of a number of chemists of the Prairie 
Provinces who are familiar with the alkali-concrete prob- 
lem, the appointment by the Council of The Institute 
of the following to full membership on the Committee 
was recommended:— 

Dr. J. W. Shipley, professor of chemistry, University 
of Manitoba. 

Dr. T. Thorvaldson, professor of chemistry, Univer- 
sity of Saskatchewan. 

F. C. Field, city analyst, Calgary. 

A. G. Blackie, city analyst, Winnipeg. 

J. A. Kelso, provincial analyst, Edmonton. 

The above were later designated as Committee 
members and have since taken an active part in the 
work of the Committee. 

A second series of meetings of the Committee was held 
in Saskatoon, August the 10th to 12th, 1921, at the time 
of the Tenth General Professional Meeting. After tho- 
rough consideration of the names of available chemists, 
it was decided to ask Dr. Thorvaldson, a Committee 
member, to take charge of this chemical research, which 
he accepted subject to the approval of Dr. Murray, 
president of the University of Saskatchewan. Dr. Thor- 
valdson has been directing the work of several assistants 
during the past year in connection with certain phases 
of the alkali-concrete problem and it was felt that he would 
be in a position to take active charge with a minimum 
of delay. The University of Saskatchewan has since 
agreed to this arrangement and in addition to offering 
all of its available facilities to advance the progress of the 
investigation has freed Dr. Thorvaldson from all class 
work so that beginning with January, 1922 he will devote 
all of his time to the research. 

A report of the contributors to the funds of the 
Committee was made as follows:— 
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. $5000.00 

Province of Saskatchewan 3000 . 00 

City of Winnipeg 200.00 

Province of Alberta 1000.00 

Canada Cement Company, Ltd 3000 . 00 

Canadian Pacific Railway 1000 . 00 

• Total $13,200.00 
A detailed report of the present status of the Chem- 
ical research appears later. 

Report of Field Tests — Summer of 1921. 

Following out the intention of the Committee that 
a limited amount of field investigation be started during 
the summer of 1921, concrete block specimens for expo- 
sure tests were moulded in the Concrete Laboratory* of the 
University of Saskatchewan for exposure to alkali soil 
waters at points in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. 



60 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



These specimen are cylindrical in shape, 7" in diameter 
and 21" long, moulded in sheet metal forms. Two quali- 
ties of concretes were employed, having strengths of approx- 
imately 1200 and 2500 pounds per square inch at 28 
days. Canada and Super brands of Portland cement 
were used. Three different aggregates were used for 
each of the above cements and qualities of concrete, 
gravel used in commercial work in the vicinity of Winni- 
peg, Saskatoon and Strathmore, Alta. After preliminary 
tests of the cements and aggregates, batches of concrete 
were carefully proportioned and mixed by hand and test 
specimens were cured in moist air for 27 days after 24 
hours of hardening in the forms. From each batch of 
concrete prepared, there were moulded not less than six 
large exposure cylinders, 3-6" x 12" compression test 
cylinders and two slabs for permeability tests of the 
concrete. All obtainable data such as characteristics 
of cement and aggregate and weights of each used were 
noted for further study. 

In addition to plain concretes listed above, other 
batches were prepared using various waterproofing and 
alkali proofing compounds suggested by the Committee 
members and different manufacturers as well as "Commer- 
cial" cement, a natural cement manufactured near 
Winnipeg. Some waterproofings are of the integral type 
while others are liquids or bituminous coatings applied 
to the surface after curing is completed. Each batch of 
concrete moulded was given a series number. In all 
28 series or batches were prepared. Before shipment 
all specimens were wrapped in heavy paper and crated 
separately for protection. 

Shipments of 56 test cylinders, (28 series) were made 
to the following points early in September for exposure 
to Alkali conditions. 

Cassils, Alta.: — One group was placed in a heavy 
alkalied tract of land near Cassils, Alta., in a locality 
which has been used for several years by the Department 
of Natural Resources, C.P.Railway for similar experiments. 

Grandora, Sask.: — One group was placed along the 
shore line of a sulphate lake near Grandora, Sask., about 
14 miles west of Saskatoon. 

Winnipeg, Man.: — A group was placed along the 
Aqueduct of the Greater Winnipeg Water District at a 
spot where analyses showed the ground water concentra- 
tion to be highest. 

At Cassils, Alta., the ground water table is only 
slightly below the ground surface and the blocks were 
embedded with about 6" projecting. At Grandora, 
Sask., the same scheme was employed. At Winnipeg 
the water table was found about 8 feet below the surface 
which necessitated the excavation of the soil to a depth 
of 8 feet in an area about 50 feet square. 

A systematic method of securing samples of the 
alkali waters, during the period that the ground remains 
unfrozen has been adopted and the inspection of the 
condition of the individual blocks will be made at least 
twice yearly, in the spring and in the fall. 

The Portland Cement Association is at present con- 
ducting extensive field experiments in the United States 
and is cooperating with the work of our Committee by 
furnishing groups of 82 blocks each for exposure at the 
above three points. These have been installed along- 



side our own blocks and will be given the same inspection. 
The Super Cement (America) Limited has also furnished 
a number of small test pieces made in their laboratory 
which have been placed with the large blocks. 

Report on Chemical Research. 

Since September three graduate students holding 
bursaries from the Honorary Advisory Council for Scien- 
tific and Industrial Research have been working on certain 
phases of the problem. The laboratory work so far done 
is of a preliminary nature concerned mainly with the 
action of the various salts under consideration on some 
of the simpler substances in cement and concrete. A 
considerable quantity of equipment specially adapted 
to this investigation has been ordered and is now being 
delivered. In September Dr. Thorvaldson made a trip 
to Washington, D.C., and conferred with the members 
of the Cement Division of the Bureau of Standards and 
the research workers in the Geographical Laboratory 
of the Carnegie Institution on questions relating to this 
investigation. The bulk of the advances so far made in 
America as to the constitution of cement has been accom- 
plished at these two laboratories and it was therefore 
considered important to ascertain what work on this 
subject they proposed to continue and correlate our 
work with theirs. We look forward to a cordial cooper- 
ation with these institutions. To date difficulty has been 
encountered in obtaining a trained assistant for the petro- 
graphical work. This phase should be carried on along 
with physical, chemical and collodial examinations of 
the disintegration of concrete. In addition to the fore- 
going and the graduate students whose services will 
continue, additional assistance will be required and is 
now being arranged for, and the force of trained research 
workers will be increased as rapidly as the different 
phases of the investigation unfold during the next few 
months. As stated above Dr. Thorvaldson is now 
devoting his full time to conducting and carrying on the 
chemical investigation. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. M. Williams, 
Secretary. 

Honour Roll and War Trophies Committee 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Honour Roll and War Trophies 
Committee I beg to submit the following report. 
During the past year your Committee has secured 
the nucleus of an exhibit of war trophies, which have 
been placed in a glass case at The Institute Headquarters. 
It is suggested by the Committee that members of The 
Institute who have trophies which they do not desire to 
keep, might donate them to The Institute, where they 
could be placed on permanent exhibition, and for which 
credit will be given the donor. 

Through the efforts of your Committee, and after 
considerable negotiations, we were able to secure for 
The Institute a captured German field gun, which has 
been mounted on a concrete base alongside the Head- 
quarters building, and which will stand as a lasting 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



61 



monument of the part played by Canadian engineers in 
the late War. It is hoped that a suitable bronze tablet 
may be placed on this trophy to commemorate the gallant 
part taken by the many members of The Institute in every 
branch of overseas service. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Charles J. Armstrong, 

Chairman. 

Committee on International Co-operation 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Committee on International Co- 
operation, I beg to submit the following report. 

Your Committee reports a continuation of friendly 
fraternal relations between The Institute and the founder 
engineering societies of the United States. Following 
the policy previously adopted, members of The Institute 
have been encouraged to attend the annual conventions 
of the founder societies in which they are members. One 
member of this Committee, John Murphy, M.E.I.C., 
attended as an official delegate of The Institute, a Peace 
Dinner, given in New York on October 10th, in honour 
of distinguished British and European engineers. 

The outstanding announcement of your Committee 
is to advise that successful negotiations have been complet- 
ed with the American Society of Civil Engineers, and 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, whereby 
our members shall receive the publications of these 
Societies at the same price as their own members, follow- 
ing a similar arrangement made last year with the Amer- 
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, in return 
for the same courtesy extended by The Institute. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. H. Vaughan, 

Chairman. 



Publicity Committee 

The President and Council, 

Enclosed herewith is a copy of a report prepared in 
June 1921 by your Committee on Publicity, consisting of 
Professor Peter Gillespie, M.E.I.C, of Toronto; J. B. 
Challies, M.E.I.C, of Ottawa; H. H. Vaughan, M.E.I.C, 
of Montreal, and the writer as Chairman. Since preparing 
this report, further discussions have taken place and cor- 
respondence passed amongst the members of the Commit- 
tee, and with certain representatives of the technical 
press, in an endeavour to harmonize the very conflicting 
opinions expressed. 

The members of your Committee are not unanimous 
in the opinion that the suggested regulations are the best 
that can be drafted, but the majority of the Committee 
feels that the suggested regulations will serve the present 



purpose well, at least until they will have been in force 
for some time to see how they work out in practice. 
With the amendment to the by-laws worded as it is in 
our report, it will be possible for Council to change the 
regulations as it sees fit from time to time to meet any 
requirements that may arise. 

It is suggested by one member of our Committee 
that it might be well not to make the proposed regulations 
a definite ruling of Council until, first, they have been 
submitted to the various Branches for immediate consider- 
ation and advice, and second, they have been made the 
basis of a consultation between the Institute Committee 
and a Committee representing the Trade and Engineering 
Journals of Canada. 

After two years' experience in this Committee work, 
the writer feels thoroughly convinced that no restrictive 
regulations which any committee could put out will be 
acceptable to the technical press, which apparently desires 
an absolutely free hand to gather news wherever and in 
whatever manner it can do so. 

Your Committee feels that it has completed the 
work it was asked to do, and begs to be relieved of its 
duties. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frederick B. Brown, 

Chairman. 



The President and Council, 

Your Special Committee on Publicity in connection 
with Institute Papers and Addresses have continued the 
work they have been doing during the past year and now 
beg to present their report covering the work done to 
date. A great deal of correspondence has been exchanged 
between the members of the Committee, and represent- 
atives of the technical press have been interviewed. We 
have come to the conclusion that it will be impossible 
entirely to satisfy the representatives of the technical 
press by imposing any restriction whatever on the public- 
ation of Institute Papers. We realize that a certain 
amount of publicity in the technical press is desirable, 
especially if proper acknowledgement of the author's 
standing as a member of The Institute be made with the 
publication of the paper, but on the other hand we feel 
that some restrictions are necessary in the interests of 
The Institute and the author himself. 

A solution which appears to meet the case well is 
to amend the by-laws as follows, — delete clause 3 of 
section 22 and substitute for this clause the following, 
which would become a new clause 3 of section 21 of the 
by-laws. 

"All papers, written discussions thereon, or commun- 
ications accepted for presentation at any Branch, 
Provincial Division, General Professional, Annual or 
other meeting of The Institute, as "Institute Papers" 
shall be considered the property of The Institute. The 
publication of such papers shall conform to regulations 
issued from time to time by the Publication Committee 



62 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



and shall be subject to their decision. Any paper which 
has not been accepted shall be promptly returned to its 
author." 

You will note in the above proposed amendment that 
the proposed restrictions apply only to papers accepted 
as "Institute Papers." This gives considerable leeway 
in deciding whether a paper is of sufficient importance 
to hold for the Transactions or The Journal, and it would 
also save dignifying as an Institute Paper a mere address 
of no real importance or a subject of purely local interest. 
We would therefore suggest that the above amendment 
be issued temporarily as a ruling of Council, and an 
amendment in the by-laws made accordingly. This 
would place the matter on a proper footing and the 
following suggested regulations could apply and be 
changed from time to time as found necessary or desirable 
without any further change in the by-laws. 

Your Committee suggests the following regulations: — 

1. — No Institute paper shall be published without 
written consent of the Publication Committee of The 
Institute in advance of its presentation before The Insti- 
tute except it be in a regular or special edition of The 
Journal. All papers published in The Journal in advance 
of being read at a meeting of The Institute, shall, after 
being read, be immediately available for publication 
elsewhere. 

2. — Any Institute paper published in advance of 
presentation or in advance of its publication in The Journal 
unless with the written consent of the Publication Commit- 
tee of The Institute, shall be ineligible for inclusion in 
the Transactions of The Institute or for competition for 
any of The Institute prizes or medals. 

3. — Institute papers of general or purely local interest 
may, with the author's permission, be published anywhere 
immediately after being read. 

4. — Institute papers descriptive of engineering work 
of a technical nature or of a general engineering or tech- 
nical nature may be published other than in The Institute's 
publications in abstract only, unless by special arrange- 
ment with the Publication Committee, such abstract to 
be made by the author or by a committee. 

5. — All Institute papers shall be subject to editing 
and revision by the Institute Committee before public- 
ation in the Transactions. A paper so revised shall not 
be published in the Transactions without the consent 
of the author to the proposed changes. 

6. — When necessary to publish a paper in abstract 
in The Journal, the author should be requested to furnish 
an abstract corresponding with the space available or to 
consent to the paper being abstracted by the Publication 
Committee. 

7. — The author of any paper should be requested to 
submit with his paper a list of members of The Institute 
specially qualified to discuss his paper and the Secretary 
should call the paper particularly to the attention of 
these members and others locally known to him as likely 
to be interested in it, urging them to be present at the 
meeting at which the paper is to be presented and to join 
in its oral discussion. 



8. — The printing of his own discussion should be 
optional with the speaker. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frederick B. Brown, 

Chairman. 

Roads and Pavements Committee 

The President and Council, 

I beg to submit the following report with respect to 
the work of the Roads and Pavements Committee for the 
Calendar year 1921. 

The year 1921 has been a season of somewhat excep- 
tional activity with respect to road construction and 
paving throughout Canada; so that the Chairman of 
this Committee experienced some slight difficulty in 
securing the prompt attention of members of the Com- 
mittee whose services would be most valuable. It is 
anticipated, however, that with the foundation laid 
during the past year, very satisfactory results will accrue 
during the year 1922 with respect to the work carried 
on by this Committee. 

The Committee has undertaken the task of preparing 
general specifications for various types of roads and pave- 
ments and has allocated the drafting of these specifications 
to various individual members as follows: — 
A. F. Macallum, M.E.I.C. —Block Pavements. 
W. P. Brereton, M.E.I.C. Sheet Asphalt. 

J. A. Duchastel, M.E.I.C. Macadam. 
W. P. Near, M.E.I.C. —Cement Concrete. 

L. C. Charlesworth, M.E.I.C— Gravel. 
W. A. McLean, M.E.I.C. —Bituminous Penetration 

and Bituminous Concrete. 

It isjintended that the several specifications will be 
prepared ' with some degree of uniformity, based on the 
following outlines: — 

1. General Description. 

2. Preparation of Subgrade. 



(a) 


Cleaning 


(b) 


Shaping to grade 


(c) 


Consolidating. 


Foundation. 


(a) 


Brief Description 


(b) 


Dimensions 


(c) 


Materials 


(d) 


Method 


(e) 


Cleaning. 



4. Binder Course (Cushion), 

(a) Brief Description 

(b) Dimensions 

(c) j Materials 

(d) Method. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



63 



Top Course. 


(a) 


Brief Description 


(b) 


Materials 


(c) 


Method of Handling 


(d) 


Finishing 


(e) 


Joints. 


Seal Coat (Grouting). 


(a) 


Brief Description 


(b) 


Materials 


(c) 


Method of Handling 


Shoulders. 


(a) 


Brief Description 


(b) 


Materials 


(c) 


Method of Handling 





_. Asphaltic 


Cement 


Brick, Stone, 


Water-bound 


Bituminous 


Concrete 


Concrete 


Wood, 


Macadam 


Macadam 
Penetration 


Sheet 
Asphalt 


Surface or 
Foundation 


Asphalt Block 


General 


General 


General 


General 


General 


description 


description 


description 


description 


description 


Preparation 


Preparation 


Preparation 


Preparation 


Preparation 


of sub-grade 


of sub-grade 


of sub-grade 


of sub-grade 


of sub-grade 


Foundation 


Foundation 


Water-bound 
macadam, 
cement 
concrete 

Binder course 


Foundation 


Cement 
concrete 

Cushion 


Top course 


Top course 


Top course 


Top course 


Top course 




Seal coat 


Seal coat 




Grouting 


Shoulders 


Shoulders 


Shoulders Shoulders 


Shoulders 



Respectfully submitted, 

W. A. McLean, 

Chairman. 



Committee On Uniform Steam 
Boiler Specifications 

On behalf of the Committee I beg to report as follows 
on the progress made during the past year in having 
uniform boiler regulations adopted by the different 
provinces. 

The regulations which the Committee recommend 
for adoption have been printed in pamphlet form and 
sample copies may be obtained from R. N. Blackburn, 
chief inspector of steam boilers, Regina, Sask. 

These regulations have now been officially adopted 
by the different Provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba 
and Alberta. 

The chief inspector of boilers for Ontario advises that 
sample copies of these regulations are being prepared for 
the consideration of the Minister of Labour for Ontario. 
It is expected that Ontario and British Columbia will 
adopt them at an early date. 

The Department of Public Works of the Province of 
Nova Scotia has been supplied with copies of these 
regulations and is considering the advisability of adopting 
them. 

Your committee hopes to bring the advantages of 
adopting these rules before the proper authorities in the 
remaining Provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island, in the near future, in order that 
Canada shall have uniform boiler regulations in all the 
Provinces. 

The membership of the Committee is as follows:— 
L. M. Arkley, M.E.I.C, Chairman, W. G. Chace, 
M.E.I.C, F. G. Clark, M.E.I.C, R. J. Durlev, M.E.I.C, 
D. W. Robb, M.E.I.C, H. H. Vaughan, M.E.I.C. 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. M. Arkley, 

Chairman. 



64 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Branch Reports 



Victoria Branch 

The President - and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee I beg to sub- 
mit the following report. I have pleasure in presenting 
for your consideration, some particulars of the work 
of the Branch during the past twelve months, which I 
trust be satisfactory, and meet with your approval. 

Membership 

Since the last annual meeting there have been a few 
changes in the membership of the Branch, which the 
following statement will make clear: — 

Active members on present list 

Members 25 

Associate Members 41 

Juniors 2 

Students 3 



Total 

Changes 
Members Assoc.Mem. 

Died - 1 

Resigned 2 

Left City 2 1 

New Residents 4 3 

Elected 2 ljr. 



Net gain of four. 



71 



Gain 


Loss 


- 


1 


— 


2 


— 


3 


7 


- 


3 


- 



10 



6 



Transfers 

Only one transfer has been effected during the year, 
from Student to Associate Member. 

Owing to the changed conditions affecting employ- 
ment here, several members who are generally resident 
in Victoria have been away at other places during 
the greater part of the year. 

Branch Activities 

The activities of the Branch have comprised holding 
Regular Meetings, when Papers have been read and branch 
business conducted, luncheons at which either addresses 
on technical subjects have been delivered or some sub- 
ject of general interest to the profession dealt with by 
different speakers. 

In this regard I would mention that the Executive 
decided to invite all members of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers who are not at present members of 
The Institute, to attend the lunches, and many have done 
so and have also expressed their appreciation for the con- 
sideration shown them. 

Some of the papers and addresses which have been 
given dealt with the following subjects: — 



Small Water Powers 

Light Railways in 
France 

Electric Pumping for 
Irrigation 

Astronomy 

Wireless 



J. B. Holdcroft, A.M.E.I.C. 

H. Peters, A.M.E.I.C. 

G. R. Alexander 
Dr. Plaskett. 
F. P, Hill 



Only one visit has been made during the year to 
the plant of Messrs. Yarrows Ltd., Esquimalt, but in 
the near future we hope to arrange for a series of visits 
to the new Dry Dock now under construction and also 
to the Dominion Govt. Astro-Physical Observatory. 

Visitors 

The Branch has been fortunate in that both the Gen- 
eral Secretary of The Institute, Fraser S. Keith, and the 
President, J. M. R. Fairbairn, have visited the city in 
the year. 

Mr. Keith was with us at lunch and also addressed 
the members at a regular meeting. We hope to have the 
pleasure of another visit some time during the coming 
year. 

Unfortunately owing to the fact that he had only 
just previously recovered from a serious illness, the 
President was unable to meet the members collectively, 
but he did give a little of his time to discuss the affairs 
of The Institute with some members of your executive. 

Branch members chosen for other positions 

The Branch can congratulate itself in that several 
of its members have been chosen to act on different coun- 
cils and committees. D. O. Lewis, M.E.I.C., formerly 
an active member of this Branch, and still considered as 
one of us, has been elected President of the Association 
of Professional Engineers of B. C. for the second time, 
and H. L. Johnston, M.E.I.C., our representative on the 
Council of The Institute, is also a member of the council 
of the same association of Professional Engineers. 

P. Philip, A.M.E.I.C, has been appointed to act as 
provincial representative on The Institute Committee 
on Specifications for Good Roads. The appointment 
of a member to represent this branch on this committee 
is still to be made. 

G. P. Napier, M.E.I.C., is a member of the Engin- 
eering Standards Committee on Steel Bridges. 

Branch business 

As indicating the relationship of the Branch to The 
Institute generally and to show the necessity for Branch 
organizations I would mention that during the period 
under review, not taking into consideration notices of 
meetings etc, about 460 letters have been received and 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



65 



sent, dealing with such matters as legislation, remuner- 
ation, employment, applications for admission and 
transfer, and annual and professional meetings. 

Journal 

The Journal of The Institute, which shows continual 
improvement, now gives regularly in its pages some ac- 
counts of the work being done by this and other Branches. 
When any news of interest is available it is forwarded as 
a contribution to the Branch News, and the funds of the 
branch benefit to some extent from such copy. 

It would be to the advantage of the Branch as a whole, 
as well as of interest to members individually, if items 
of news available for publication were forwarded to me 
for transmission to Montreal. 

Branch dues 

The question of the cost to members, of keeping 
up their subscriptions to various societies and keeping 
in touch with the technical literature published, is one 
calling for consideration. Apart from the fact that the 
remuneration of engineers is generally poor, it is quite 
expensive to be in the profession and keep up-to-date. 
I am of the opinion that this is the reason for the difficulty 
experienced in collecting Branch dues and also accounts 
for the absence from our meetings of some members. 
It would appear advisable that the question be given 
consideration. 

In concluding I wish to express my thanks to the 
Chairman and members of the executive for their assis- 
tance and forbearance during this year, and the members 
for the readiness with which they have acted upon notices 
etc, and for their evident appreciation for my poor efforts. 

Revenue 

Fees from 1st Dec. 1920 to 30th Nov. 1921 . . . $200 .00 

Rebates from Engineering Inst. Montreal 211 .36 

Interest on War Bond 2 .75 

$414.11 

Expenditures 

Rent of Room, 1st Nov. 1920 to 30th Nov. 

1921 $260.00 

Postage Stamps 32 .30 

Stationery 53 .91 

Blue Prints 3 .27 

Technical Papers 27 .06 

Lectures (Rent of Hall) 5 .00 

Socials and Dinners 4 .00 

Commission on Cheques .45 

Obituary Wreath (J. Mason, deceased) 4 .50 

— $390.49 

Excess of Receipts over Disbursements 23 .62 

Balance in Hand • $83 .06 

Liquid Assets: 

Victory Bond $99.11 

Bank Balance 64 . 18 

Cash..- 18.88 



$162.17 



(Signed) E. P. Girdwood, 
Treasurer. 



The Books, Vouchers and Balance Sheet have been examined 
and found correct. 

(Signed) E. P. McKie, 

A. Long, Auditors. 

December 8th 1921 

Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Victoria Branch, December 
14th 1921, and adopted. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. M. Bigwood, 

Secretary. 

Vancouver Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee I beg to 
submit the following report. 

Meetings 

During the year 1921 the following meetings were 
held:— 

Feb. 9 — "Town Planning 1 '. Luncheon. Address by Thos. 
Adam, F.S.I. Attendance — 45. 
25 — Water Supply Across the Sinai Desert for the 
Feb. Palestine Expeditionary Force" Capt. T. W. 

Fairhurst, R.E., A.M.E.I.C. Attendance— 60. 
Mar. 24 — Luncheon. Address by S. L. Squire and Russel 

T. Kelley of the Canadian Good Roads Association 

Attendance — 50 
April 8 — Dinner. Guest, Fraser S. Keith, Secretary of the 

Institute. Attendance — 39. 
May 25 — "Administration of Vancouver Harbour". 

Luncheon. Address by Lt. Col. Guy H. Kirkpatrick, 

D.S.O. Attendance— 48. 
June 8 — "Light Railways in France during the War" 

Major W.G. Swan, D.S.O., M.E.I.C. Attendance,— 20. 
Oct. 26— "The Ballantyne Pier" E. H. James, A.M.E.I.C., 

and Wm. Smail, M.E.I.C. Attendance— 50. 

On August 27th the Branch officers and those 
interested in paving work were the guests of the Prov- 
incial Public Works Department when the paving work 
on Lulu Island and in the Fraser Valley was visited. 
The Ballantyne Pier, the contractor's plant and yard 
were visited on 24th September. 

The inauguration of luncheon meetings has proved 
a distinct success, both as regards the social side and the 
attendance, which was in excess of that at evening meet- 
ings. Difficulty has again been experienced in obtaining 
papers of sufficient interest to insure an attendance 
commensurate with the time for preparation and the cost 
of preparing slides. 

The Executive Committee held eleven meetings dur- 
ing the year and two additional luncheon meetings. 

Major Walkem and Professor Matheson attended 
the Western Professional meeting at Saskatchewan in 
August. 

The Western Irrigation Convention held at Vernon 
was attended by two delegates from this Branch and a 
report on the proceedings was received from A. C. R. Yuill, 
A.M.E.I.C. 



66 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



New Quarters 

Considerable time was devoted to the obtaining of 
joint quarters. The new quarters in the Birks Building 
consist of four rooms, there being a general office, Board 
room, Secretary's Room, and Library. The following bodies 
are now housed in the new rooms: The Institute, the 
Association of Professional Engineers, The Architectural 
Institute of B.C., the B. C. Technical Association, Van- 
couver Sect. A.I.E.E., and the Chemical Society. The 
Library is undoubtedly better patronized since this arrange- 
ment was completed and its usefulness generally is 
much enhanced by the presence of Mr. Wheatley who 
has taken great pains to make the rooms as serviceable 
as possible. A valuable addition was made to the Library 
by Chas. Garden and the Branch is much indebted to 
Major Walkem for technical magazines. 

British Columbia Technical Association 

On 26th September the B.C.T.A. wrote this Branch 
requesting answers bearing on a suggested scheme whereby 
their members might join The Institute. This matter 
was very fully discussed by this Branch Executive 
and before an answer was drafted our President, 
Dr. Fairbairn, visited Vancouver, thus giving the 
Executive the viewpoint of Headquarters. The matter 
was then referred to Council and the reply 
received on 19th instant was submitted. The principle 
difficulties in the way of the scheme are the Association's 
request for the waiving of Entrance Fees and the diffi- 
culty some Technical Association members would meet 
with on account of lack of qualifications to enable them 
to gain corporate membership while their age might 
preclude them from entering in the junior grade. 

It was a matter of very general regret that President 
Fairbairn was unable to meet the members at some 
general or social meeting, but he was scarcely recovered 
from a very severe illness, which caused him some anxiety 
while in the City. 

Membership 

It is rather difficult to compare the Branch member- 
ship year by year on account of the movement of Institute 
Members in B.C. 

The present membership is: — 

Members 51 

Associate Members 86 

Juniors 8 

Students 11 

Associate 1 

During the year the Branch sustained a very great 
loss in the death of Messrs. F. F. Busteed, M.E.I.C., and 
W. J. Stuart. 

Several members have left the Branch area. 
Major C.R. Crysdale A.J. Graham have gone to the Gold 
Coast, and Major LeR. Grant has gone to Kingston. 

Several new members were admitted during the year 
and there have been additional members from other 
Branches. 



Financial Statement 

Branch Fees are provided for in the Branch By-laws, 
and of the 145 corporate and junior members only 44 have 
paid their current dues. Eight paid arrears for 1920. 
While admitting a multiplicity of fees, the proportion 
is exceedingly small. 

The balance on hand is $209.16. 

Branch News has brought in a very considerable 
sum, and it might bear repetition to state that this is 
a matter which the members should bear in mind. Mat- 
ters of general interest and personal news should be sent 
to the Branch Secretary. 

I wish to take this opportunity of thanking the 
Chairman, the Executive Committee and members for 
their help in my work, and to bespeak the same hearty 
co-operation for my successor. 

J. N. Anderson, 

Secretary- Treas urer. 

Calgary Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee we beg to 
submit the following report for the period ending Decem- 
ber 31st, 1921. 

As our Branch year, previous to the amendment 
of the bye-law in January 1921, ended on November 
30th, this report covers the period November 30th 1920 
to December 31st 1921. 

The first meeting was the Annual Meeting held on 
December 4th 1920 and the following officers were then 
elected:— 

Chairman, G. N. Houston, M.E.I.C., 
Vice-Chairmen, P. Turner-Bone, M.E.I.C, G. W. 

Craig, M.E.I.C, 
Secretary-Treasurer, A. L. Ford., M.E.I.C, 
Executive Committee, F. W. Alexander, M.E.I.C., 

R. S. Trowsdale, A.M.E.I.C, C C Richards, 

A.M.E.I.C 
The appointed officers were: — 
Assistant Secretary, J. J. Hannah, A.M.E.I.C, 
Auditors, F. K. Beach, A.M.E.I.C, W. J. Gale, 

A.M.E.I.C, 
Branch News Editor, F. K. Beach, A.M.E.I.C. 

These officers under the new bye-law hold office until 
March 11th 1922. 

In May Mr. Houston's official duties required his 
residence in Lethbridge and he resigned as Chairman, 
B. L. Thorne, M.E.I.C, being appointed to succeed him. 

Mr. Hannah also moved to Lethbridge and was 
succeeded as Assistant Secretary by J. A. Spreckley, 
A.M.E.I.C. 

Meetings 

The executive held seventeen meetings at which the 
regular business of the Branch was transacted, special 
items being, the amendment of the bye-laws, compensa- 
tion and remuneration of engineers, the function of the 
Provincial Institute of Technology now being erected in 
Calgary and the recommendation to the members of the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



67 



Provincial Government that a Highway Commission be 
appointed and that the engineering profession be repre- 
sented thereon. 

Fourteen general meetings were held at which there 
was on the whole a good attendance, a feature being the 
number of non members present at the open meetings. 

The following is a list of these meetings: — 

Dec. 4 — "Annual Meeting 11 . 

Dec. 29 — Special Meeting at Calgary Power House at which 
the members and the students from the University of 
Alberta were the guests of the City of Calgary. The 
subjects of the addresses were "Electrical Distribu- 
tion of the City of Calgary 11 , by R. A. Brown, 
M.A.I.E.E., City Electrical Engineer, Calgary. "Cost 
of Operation of Power Plant 11 , by J. F. McCall, 
Chief Engineer Calgary Power Plant, and "History 
and Purpose of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada", by F. H. Peters, M.E.I.C., commissioner 
of irrigation, Calgary. 

Jan. 21 — "The Lac La Range Expedition of 1920 11 , B. L. 
Thorne, M.E.I.C., mining engineer, Dept. of Natural 
Resources, C.P.R., Calgary. Smoker. 

Feb. 4— "Smokeless Powder 11 , G. N. Houston, M.E.I.C, 
Chairman of the Branch. Open Meeting with the 
Alberta Military Institute as guests. 

Feb. 25— "The Petroleum Situation 11 , Dr. J. A. Allan, 
University of Alberta, Edmonton. Open Meeting. 

Mar. 3 — "Discussion of Report of Committee on Compen- 
sation and Remuneration 11 , P.J. Jennings, M.E.I.C, 
Chairman. Regular Meeting. 

Mar. 18— "Concrete 11 , Prof. G. M. Williams, M.E.I.C, of 
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. Open Meet- 
ing. 

April 1 — "Discussion of Amendment of Bye-laws 11 , Re- 
gular Meeting. 

April 15 — "Dinner 11 . Gen. Secretary, Fraser S. Keith was 
guest of the Branch. 

Oct. 4 — "Recent Developments in Concrete 11 , Lt. Col. 
Boyden, M.Am. Soc. C.E., of Chicago. Open Meeting. 

Oct. 18 — "Special Luncheon 11 . Dr. J. M. R. Fairbairn, 
President of the Institute was the guest of honor. 

Nov. 18 — "Engineering and Publicity 11 , C. O. Smith, editor 
of the "Herald" Calgary. Regular Meeting. 

Dec. 2 — "Contracts in Relation to Corporations 11 , Alex- 
ander Hannah, Calgary. Regular Meeting. 

Dec. 30 — "Annual Dinner 11 . P. L. Naismith, manager of 
the Dept. of Natural Resources, C.P.R., Calgary, 
R. B. Baxter, supt. of Alberta Government Telephones, 
Edmonton, Prof. R. S. L. Wilson of the University 
of Alberta, and the Students of the Provincial Uni- 
versity were the guests of honor. 

The Branch is indebted to the several speakers for 
contributing to the success of the programme and to the 
Programme Committee for the excellent entertainment 
provided and to the press of Calgary for its co-operation . 

During the year F. H. Peters, M.E.I.C, a past 
chairman and very active member was lost to the Branch 
through his transfer to Ottawa. A. S. Dawson, M.E.I.C, 
who has always taken a very keen interest in the welfare 
of the Branch has been honoured by an appointment to 
the Senate of the University of Alberta. 



Membership 

The present Membership of the Branch is as follows : 
28 Members 
65 Associate Members 

6 Juniors 

4 Students 

2 Associates 

8 Affiliates of the Branch. 



Total 113 

During the year the gain in Membership to the 
Branch was: — 

1 Member 
17 Associate Members 
and the loss in the lower grades: — 
1 Junior 
1 Student 
1 Affiliate 



Net gain 15 

In the above statement the Members of the Calgary 
Branch who are now transferred to the newly formed 
Lethbridge Branch are shown as belonging to the old 
Branch. They will be written off our lists with the 
beginning of the new year. 

This will decrease the number of full Members by 
four and Associate Members by three. It is to be noted 
however, in spite of this loss, that the Calgary Branch is 
entering 1922 with 106 members which is a stronger 
membership than at any time previous to 1921. 

On behalf of the Calgary Branch we wish to express 
our best wishes for the success of the young branch which 
is, so to speak, our offspring. 

The excellent condition as to membership is equalled 
by the splendid financial position of our Branch. The 
following statements are proof of this. 

Financial Statement 

Revenue 

Balance on hand Dec. 1st, 1920 $620.22 

Rebates for Parent Institution 215 .44 

Branch News 70 .84 

Interest from Bonds 31 . 28 

Interest on Savings Account 4 .84 

Dues from Affiliates 3 .00 

Subscriptions to Special Meetings 12 .00 

$957.62 
Expenditures 

Purchase of Bonds. $422 .68 

Payment of Outstanding Acct. for Banff Meeting 30 .95 

Expenses of Representative to Edmonton 21 .60 

Expenses of Meetings, Speakers, Travelling Expenses, 

Refreshments, etc 85 . 75 

Flowers, etc 25 .CO 

Mimeographing Bye-laws 25 .50 

Printing notices, etc 31 .46 

Stationery, postage, steno, etc 76 .55 

$ 719.49 

Balance on hand Jan. 1st, 1921 238.13 

Total $957.62 



68 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Assets 

Balance in Bank, Jan. 1st, 1922 $238 .13 

Victory Bonds (3— $100) as per statement of 1920 286 .50 

Victory Bonds (1— $100) purchased in 1921 95 .50 

City of Calgary Bond (1— £100) 327.18 

Increment in value of Bonds in 1921 65 .94 

Rebate dues from Parent Institute 23 .94 

Branch News Rebates due 10 . 70 

Total Assets $ 1047 .89 

Liabilities 

Total Liabilities "Nil" 

Audited and found correct, 

F, R. BEACH, 
W. J. GALE. 
Respectfully submitted, 

B. L. Thorne, 
Chairman. 

Arthur L. Ford, 

Secretary- Treas urer. 

Edmonton Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive, we beg to submit the 
1921 Annual Report covering the activities of the Edmon- 
ton Branch . 

Membership 

Members 8 

Associate Members 44 

Juniors 4 

Students 3 

Associates 1 

60 

Six general, and seven executive meetings were held 
during the year. The early meetings were taken up 
largely with discussion relating to the classification and 
remuneration of engineers. 

Two technical papers of general interest were read 
during the year, one by Prof. G. M. Williams, M.E.I.C., 
on "A logical method for determining the Concrete- 
making value available aggregate and its practical 
application to production of concrete in the field". The 
second paper was an illustrated paper on the "Geological 
investigations made in the Fort Norman area of the 
McKenzie River Basin", by F. H. Link, Imperial Oil 
geologist. 

The Branch had a cash balance on hand December 
31st, 1921, with accounts all paid, of $69.87. 

The officers for the year were: — ■ 

Chairman D. J. Carter, A.M.E.I.C. 

Vice-Chairman A. W. Haddow, A.M.E.I.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer C. C. Sutherland, A.M.E.I.C. 

Executive: R. W. Ross, A.M.E.I.C. 

J. D. Robertson, A.M.E.I.C. 

E. Kells Hall, A.M.E.I.C. 

Prof. R. S. L. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C. 



The officers elected for the year 1921 and 1922 were: — 

Chairman C. A. Robb, A.M.E.I.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer R. H. Douglas, A.M.E.I.C. 

Executive: Lt.-Col. Reid, M.E.I.C. 

R. W. Jones, M.E.I.C. 
H. H. Tripp, A.M.E.I.C. 
C. F. Corbett, A.M.E.I.C. 
A. G. Stewart, A.M.E.I.C. 
Ex-Officio D. J. Carter, A.M.E.I.C. 

Respectfully submitted, 
C. A. Robb, 

Chairman. 
R. H. Douglas, 

Secretary- Treasurer. 

Lethbridge Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee I beg to 
submit the following report. 

Following the granting of the petition for the form- 
ation of the Lethbridge Branch a meeting was held on 
Dcember 3rd to complete the organization and for the 
election of officers, the following being elected: — ■ 

Chairman, S. G. Porter, M.E.I.C, 
Secretary-Treasurer, C. M. Arnold, M.E.I.C. 

Executive Committee: 
G. N. Houston, M.E.I.C, 
C. D. Mackintosh, A.M.E.I.C, 
H. W. Meech, A.M.E.I.C. 

The Branch starts off with a corporate membership 
of seventeen and one junior with four probable corporate 
members additional being now dealt with. 

Subsequently the Executive Committee discussed 
plans for the Branch promising an active winter of meet- 
ings to start after the New Year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C M. Arnold, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

Saskatchewan Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee we beg to 
submit the following report for the calendar year 1921. 
As the Branch year ends on February 28th., the period 
covered by this report refers to part of two Branch years, 
the activities of which were controlled by different Execu- 
tives. 

The outstanding feature of this year's programme 
was the Western Professional Meeting "held at Saskatoon 
August 10th. to 12th., inclusive, which was carried out to 
a successful conclusion under the auspices of the Sask- 
atchewan Branch. As full reports of the Meeting have 
appeared in The Journal little remains to be said but we 
wish at this time to express the appreciation of this 
Branch to the various Western Branches who helped to 
make this Meeting such a pronounced success. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



69 



While much more might have been accomplished, 
1921 has been a banner year for the Saskatchewan Branch. 
The membership shows a satisfactory increase as may be 
seen from the attached statement, there being an increase 
of 19.3% of the total membership. Finances are in a 
healthy condition as may be seen from the statement 
covering the period from March to December 31st. 1921. 
The Branch meetings have been well attended when 
it is considered that our membership is scattered through- 
out the whole of the province making it impossible for 
the majority of the members to attend many meetings. 
The social event of the year was a dinner dance held in 
February to which the outside members were guests of 
the Regina members, and it was pronounced by all to be 
well worth making an annual event. During 1921 nine 
regular and special meetings have been held, the major- 
ity of which were preceded by a Dinner at 6.30 P.M. 
The average attendance for the meetings was thirty-two 
particulars of which are as follows: — 

Jan. 13— "Bridges", A. P. Linton, A.M.E.I.C. 

Feb. 10 — "Dinner Dance". 

Mar. 8 — Annual Meeting. 

April 22 — Address on "Society Affairs", Fraser S. Keith, 

M.E.I.C., General Secretary. 
July 20 — "The Manufacture and Use of Reinforced Con- 
crete Pipe for Water Supply", W. G. Chace, 
M.E.I.C. Illustrated Lecture on. 
Sept. 29 — "Recent Developments in Concrete", Lt. Col. 
H. C. Boyden, M.A.S.C.E. Illustrated Lecture on. 
Oct. 13— "Publicity", R. N. Blackburn, M.E.I.C. 

"Classification", H. S. Carpenter, A.M.E.I.C. 
"Remuneration", J. McD. Patton, A.M.E.I.C. 
"Engineering Profession", H. R. Mackenzie, 
A.M.E.I.C. 
Nov. 10 — "Some Notes on Street Railway Operation", 

D. W. Houston, A.M.E.I C. 
Dec. 8 — "The Practice and Principles of Taxation", L. A. 

Thornton, M.E.I.C. 
While the Branch was disappointed in not being 
successful in securing legislation at the last Session of 
the Provincial Legislature we hope for better results in 
the near future. An active Legislation Committee have 
the matter in hand and the Legislature is now in Session. 
A visit from our President, J. M. R. Fairbairn. 
M.E.I.C, was looked forward to with considerable 
interest as it was hoped that conditions would allow 
him to stop over while in the west last fall. Unfortunately 
through a series of unavoidable circumstances he was 
only able to meet a few of the members as he was passing 
through after having been hurriedly called East. 

Membership 

Membership Record Saskatchewan Branch 1921. 

Membership New With- Membership. 

Jan. 1, 1921 Members drawals Dec.31,1921 

Members 19 2 21 

Associate Members 69 20 4 85 

Junior Members. . . 9 3 1 11 

Student Members . 10 2 1 11 

Associates 1 1 - 2 

Branch Affiliates. . 6 11 6 



Financial Statement 

Saskatchewan Branch March 1st. to December 31st. 1921. 

Revenue 

Bank Balance March 8th, 1921 $272.82 

Saskatchewan Branch Dues 203 .00 

Rebates from Headquarters Jan. to Sept. Inc 171 .43 

Western Professional Meeting 215 .65 

Advertising, Stationery, Printing, Postage 95 . 00 

Meetings 100 .50 

Sundries 13 .00 



$1071.40 
Expenditures 

Saskatchewan Branch Dues $ 13 .00 

Rebates to Headquarters 16 .18 

Western Professional Meeting 268 .03 

Advertising, Stationery, Printing, Postage 149 .22 

Meetings 139 .25 

Sundries 19 .86 

Honorarium to retiring Secretary-Treasurer 150 .00 

Scholarship to Saskatchewan University 100 .00 

To Bank Balance December 31st, 1921 215 .86 



$1071.40 
Assets 

Cash in Bank December 31st, 1921 $ 215 .86 

Outstanding Saskatchewan Branch Dues 287 .50 

Outstanding Rebates from Headquarters 96 .67 

Furniture and Library 50 .00 



$ 650.03 
Liabilities 

Accounts payable $ 50 .85 

Surplus 599 . 18 



Totals.. .114 29 
Applications pending 



136 



7. 



$ 650.03 
Respectfully submitted, 

W. R. Warren, 

Chairman. 
D. A. R. McCannel, 
Secretary- Treasurer. 

Winnipeg Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Winnipeg Branch we beg to submit 
the following Report for the year 1921: — 

Membership 

Our membership has increased from 295 to 316, being 
an increase of 7.1%. The membership is distributed as 
follows : — ■ 

Members 50 

Associate Members 168 

Juniors 32 

Students 35 

Associates 5 

Local Affiliates 26 

316 
It will be noted by comparison with last year's report 
the increase is almost wholly due to the increase in Student 
Membership. 



70 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The following have been rem cved frcm the jur s- 
diction of this Branch through change in the location of 
the practice of their several professions: — 

Members:— E. Brydone-Jack, F. L. Butler, G. H. 
Burbidge, W. J. Dick, F. H. Farmer, G. H. Herriot, 
W. M. MacPhail, A. W. Smith and J. M. Street. 

Associate Members: — F. X. Amoss, C. K. Brown, 
C. F. Gray (temporarily). 

Juniors: — H. V. Carman. 

It is with regret that we record the loss of one of 
our esteemed members by death, Byron Hallock. 

Meetings 

The Branch has held sixteen meetings during the 
year, as follows: — 



Subject 



Speaker Attendance 



Feb. 
Feb. 

Mar. 



Date 
1921 
Jan. 6 — The Economics of the Tran- 
sportation and marketing of 
the Canadian Wheat Crop. W. Sanford Evans 

3 — Publicity James Quail 

17 — Highway Bridges in 

Manitoba P. Burke-Gaff ney. 

3 — Electricity for Domestic 

Heating E. V. Caton 

Mar. 17 — House Heating in Western 

Canada G. R. Pratt 

April 7 — Regulation of the Winnipeg 

River C. H. Attwood. . . 

April 28 — The Electrical Furnace in 

the Industrial Field F. H. Martin 

— Conservation of Energy — 

(Satirical)— Wm. C. Taylor. . . 

5 — Annual Meeting 

1 — Report of Western Profes- Prof. J. N. Finlay- 

sional Meeting son, M. A. Lyons, 

W. M. Scott 

15 — Searching for Oil in the 

Canadian Arctics Chester Bloom . . . 

Sept. 28 — Concrete Roads and Pave- 
ments H. C. Boyden .... 

20— The Mall Harold Edwards, 

G. B. McColl. . . . 
3 — Ethics of the Engineering 

Profession Prof. R. C. Lodge 

16— Town Planning W. C. Hobbs 

1 — Pulpand Paper Manufacture 
— Illustrated by Films of Price 

Bros. Operations D. A. Ross 

Dec. 15 — Foundations in and Around 

Winnipeg Harold Edwards, 

P. Burke-Gaffney. 88 
The average attendance at regular meetings held 
during the year was 60, being an increase of 7 over that 
of last year. 

Last April the Branch was favoured by a visit from 
the General Secretary. During his stay he imbued the 
members with interest in the affairs of The Institute. 
He addressed the regular meeting on April 28, and spoke 
at a luncheon in his honour held at the Fort Garry on 
April 29. General comment is to the effect that there 
should be more visits from Officers of The Institute. 



May 
Sept. 



Sept. 



Oct. 

Nov. 

Nov. 
Dec. 



51 
31 

72 

85 

62 

84 

74 



53 



34 

61 

46 

60 

48 
38 



68 



The Branch has taken considerable interest in civic 
problems, the most important being the considerations 
affecting the proposed Mall. A special committee was 
struck to assist the Mayor with advice on problems 
arising out of negotiations. 

W. E. Hobbs, A.M.E.I.C, was appointed commis- 
sioner of town planning for the Province. 

Financial Statement 

Revenue 

Receipts from Local Dues Collected during the Year 

amounted to $ 741.50 

Rebates from Main Society — Three quarters 401.32 

Branch News 47.79 

Advertising 52.50 

Bond Interest 27.50 

Current Interest 4.73 

Total $ 1275.34 

Cash in Bank at December 31st, 1920 91.07 



Expenditures . 



Cash on hand . 

Cash in hand 

Bank Balance 



$ 1366.41 
982.49 

$ 383.92 



27.00 
356.92 



Total $ 383.92 



Assets 



Cash Balance 

Rebates Last Quarter 

Local Dues in Arrears 

Victory Bonds 

Office Furniture and Library . 



383.92 
62.75 
116.00 
500.00 
378.50 



Total $ 1441.17 



Liabilities 



Accounts Payable . 
Surplus .... 



20.50 
1420.67 



$1441.17 



Respectfully submitted, 
Geo. L. Guy, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

Ontario Provincial Division 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Ontario Provincial Division, and 
pursuant to the direction of By-Law No. 63, we beg to 
submit the following report for the calendar year 1921. 

1. — The Membership of the Division consists, in 
accordance with The Institute By-Laws, of all the mem- 
bers of The Institute that are resident in Ontario. The 
total is approximately 1650, divided about as follows, viz: — 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



71 



Corporate Branch Members 

Non-Corporate Branch Members 

Corporate Non-Resident Members 

Non-Corporate Non-Resident Members. 



945 
450 
165 
100 

1650 



2. — The Executive Committee of the Division con- 
sists of the following, in accordance with the Division 
By-Laws, viz: — 

The Ontario Councillors. (Nine) 
The Honorary Councillors resident in Ontario. (Two) 
One Representative from each Branch. (Eight) 
One Representative per 25 Non-Resident Corporate 

Members. (Six) 
The immediate Past Chairman of the Division. 
The immediate Past Secretary-Treasurer of the Division. 

A detail list of the personnel is contained in each 
month's issue of The Journal. 

3. — The Executive Committee has held two meetings 
during the year, with an average attendance of 12 mem- 
bers, copies of all Minutes being duly forwarded to Coun- 
cil, as called for by Institute By-Law No. 63. In add- 
ition to the business transacted at the above meetings 
a considerable amount of detail has been attended to in 
the course of the year by correspondence. 

4. — The most important question with which the 
Division Executive has been concerned during the year 
is that of a Professional Engineering Act for the Province 
of Ontario. To handle this question, as we reported 
last year, late in 1919 the Division joined with: — 

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
Toronto Section. 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
Ontario Section. 

The Association of Ontario Land Surveyors. 

The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 

The Canadian Society of Chemical Industry, and 

The Ontario Association of Architects, 
in forming a combination committee, known as the 
Advisory Conference Committee, and consisting of two 
representatives from each of the seven subscribing bodies. 
Later on the Architects withdrew their membership, 
thinking it would better suit their needs if a separate 
Architectural Act were introduced by them, which has 
since been done. The balance of the Advisory Con- 
ference Committee prepared a draft Bill, a copy of which 
is enclosed, amended to date, and had it introduced in 
the Ontario House in April last. Shortly after it was 
referred to a Special Committee thereof for consideration 
and report, together with the Architectural Bill, but before 
the Committee had time to report the House adjourned. 
The work however is actively in hand in preparation for 
next session, when it is trusted that the Advisory Con- 
ference Committee, backed by all the members of its 
constituent organizations, will succeed in getting a bill 
through. 

5. — In this connection we would like to express the 
Division's appreciation of the action of the Toronto 
Branch Executive in forming itself into a local Committee 



to assist the Division representatives on the Advisory 
Conference Committee with their part of the work. 
There is a tremendous amount of detail to be attended to, 
and the advice and assistance of such a local committee 
will undoubtedly be a great help. 

6. — Further, we would like to emphasize again the 
great value of such a body as this Advisory Conference 
Committee as not only the best means of handling any 
matter affecting a number of professional organizations, 
but also as the best possible method of bringing such 
organizations together in a way that gives each and all 
of them the most complete understanding and appreciation 
of the aims and methods of each of the others. 

7. — Re finances, thanks to the kindness of Council 
in advancing us the sum of $400.00, coupled with the fact 
that up to date the outlay regarding legislation has not 
been as large as was anticipated, our financial situation 
has not been as difficult this year as it was during 1920. 
At date, assuming that all accounts were cleared away, 
both actual and prospective, we would have a cash balance 
of about $10.00. A copy of the statement presented to 
our last Executive meeting is enclosed herewith. 

Financial Statement 

Revenue 

Credit Balance at January 1st $ 11.07 

Subscription, Col. Leonard 100.00 

Subscriptions, Sundry 6.00 

Rebate re Journal Article 3.89 

Loan from Headquarters 400.00 

■ $ 520.96 

Expenditure 

Advance to Advisory Conference Committee $ 100.00 

Printing 30.00 

Stenography 20.00 

Postage 14.00 

Expenses re Meetings 8.00 

Telephone, Telegraph, etc 15.17 

$ 187.17 

Balance on hand 333.79 

$ 520.96 

Asset 

Rebate due from Advisory Conference Com- 
mittee $ 125.00 

Cash on hand 333.79 

— $ 458.79 

Liabilities 

Headquarters Loan $ 400.00 

Sundries, estimated 50.00 

— $ 450.00 

Balance $ 8.79 

8. — Lastly, we would like to take this opportunity 
of expressing, on behalf of all the Ontario members of 
The Institute outside of Toronto, their sincere appreciation 
of the Professional Meeting arranged and financed by 
the Toronto Branch in February last. It was exceeding- 
ly much enjoyed by all those attending, both profession- 
ally and .personnally, great credit and many thanks are 



72 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



due to each and all of the members of the Toronto Branch 
for the very fine programme they presented and the 
excellent way in which it was carried out. 
Respectfully submitted, 

W. H. Wagwood, 

Chairman. 
W. A. McLean, 

Vice-Chairman. 
A. B. Lambe, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch 

The President and Council, 

I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of 
the Sault Ste. Marie Branch for the year ending December 
31st, 1921. 

Membership 

The past year has seen the Branch membership 
increase from twenty- two to twenty-nine. Eleven new 
members were elected to membership in the E.I.C. 
within our district and there were four removals, making 
an increase of seven. 

During the early summer an aggressive membership 
campaign was started here and our efforts were brought 
to a focus at our First Annual Dinner held at the Country 
Club, June 28th. Over forty guests and members were 
present. The President of The Institute, J. M. R. Fair- 
bairn, M. E.I.C, and the Secretary, Fraser S. Keith, 
M. E.I.C, were the guests of honour. All engineers 
resident within our district were invited to be present. 
Those who were not already members of the E.I.C. had 
previously been approached with a view to securing their 
applications for admission. We have not a large field to 
work upon, and the resulting increase of eleven members 
is a creditable showing. There are still a number of 
applications pending. Our policy is to bring into The 
Institute as Associates men holding executive positions 
in the engineering and allied industries when their 
occupations come within the scope of The Institute's 
objects. 

Financial Statement 
The Branch statement of receipts and disbursements 
for the year ending December 31st 1921, is as follows: — 

Balance on hand, Jan. 1st, 1921 $ 80.33 

Revenue 

Rebates from H-Q. on Members' Dues $ 43.75 

Affiliates Dues 3.00 

Receipts from Journal for Branch News. . . . 8.34 

Subscriptions to Annual Dinner 85.00 

Dinner photographs sold to members at cost 16.50 156.59 

$ 236.92 
Expenditures 

Meetings and General Expense $ 47.30 

Annual Dinner expenses 155.75 203.05 

Balance on hand, Dec. 31st, 1921 $ 33.87 

Assets 

Cash: — In Treasurer's hands $ 12.44 

In Current Account, Royal Bank . . 21.43 

$ 33.87 
Liabilities 
None. 



Meetings 

The Officials of the Algoma Steel Corporation have 
very kindly placed their Board Room at our disposal 
for a place of meetings. Use was made of it nine times 
during the past year. Two meetings were held in other 
places, as noted in the following program of meetings 
held during the year. 

Jan. 6 — Discussion of the Draft Bill respecting Professional 

Engineers in Ontario. 
Jan. 26 — "Decay in Timber," G. L. Durgin, research engineer 

with the Spanish River Pulp & Paper Co. 
Mar. 3 — "The Oxidation of Coal in Storage Piles," Wm. 
Seymour, M.E.I.C., illustrated with stereopticon views, 
and held in the Steel Plant Club. 
Mar. 24 — "Results of an Explosion in a Blast Furnace and 
the Methods adopted to Repair the Damage, 
and to Prevent a Recurrence of Another,'" B. E. 
Barnhill, M.E.I.C. 
April 28 — Motion Picture, "From Spruce to Newsprint," 
loaned by the Spanish River Pulp & Paper Co., 
exhibited in St. John's Hall. 
May 26 — "Mining Methods in Algoma," Geo. Cowie, 
Superintendent of Dept. of Mines, Algoma Steel 
Corporation. 
June 30 — Annual Meeting of Branch. 

Sept. 29 — "The Construction of the Algoma Central and 

Hudson Bay Railway," R. S. McCormick, M.E.I.C. 

Oct. 27— "Handling of Steel Plant Raw Materials," Carl 

Stenbol, M.E.I.C. 
Nov. 24 — "Relationship between Engineering and Financ- 
ing in a Large Corporation," E. Carey, Comptroller 
of the Algoma Steel Corporation. 
Dec. 15 — Discussion on "Proposed St. Lawrence Canal and 
Power Development", led by J. W. LeB. Ross, 
M.E.I.C, and G. H. Kohl, A.M.E.I.C. 
The local press has shown much interest in our 
activities and publishes full reports of our meetings, 
including summarized accounts of the papers read. 

Although our Branch is not numerically large, 
considerable discussion has been aroused at our meetings 
and an effort is being made by our Papers and Publicity 
Committee to submit papers of more general interest 
than in the past, on account of the diversified interests 
of our members. The attendance at meetings has been 
encouraging and men of affiliated callings are becoming 
interested in our attitude on engineering matters as is 
evidenced by the number who attend as guests. We have 
a fairly large field to draw on in the local steel, pulp and 
paper and power industries. A programme has been outlined 
for the winter and spring that we think will prove of 
increasing interest to our members and affiliates. 

Public Interests 

A Committee on Town Planning has been formed for 
the purpose of studying Town Planning principles and 
legislation, particularly with reference to their application 
to the city of Sault Ste. Marie. It is our intention to 
stimulate "public interest in the Sault in a City Planning 
movement. Already we have secured the promise of 
cooperation and support from a number of local public 
bodies. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. Theo. Gnaedingek, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



73 



Border Cities Branch 

The President and Council, 

The Executive of the Border Cities Branch beg to 
submit the following Annual Report for the current year, 
ending December 31st, 1921. 

Meetings 

Regular meetings held 8 

Special meetings held 1 

Average attendance 20 

Executive meetings held 8 

37 
Date Subject Speaker 

Jan. 14 — Super Cement Capt. F. M. Dawson, A.M.E.I.C. 

Feb. 11 — Engineering Education. Prof. T. R. Loudon, M.E.I.C. 
April 15 — Richibuctu Breakwater Major A. A. Anderson, Jr.E.I.C. 
May 13 — Park Scheme for the 

Border Cities J. B. C. Keith, A.M.E.I.C. 

Oct. 14— Steel Plants W. H. Baltzell, M.E.I.C. 

Nov. 17— Hydro O. M. Perry, M.E.I.C. 

Paper presented to Journal by D. A. Molitor, M.E.I.C, on 
Metric System. 

The Border Cities Branch has had an active year, 
and has been regularly represented at the Ontario Prov- 
incial Division, and at the Annual Meeting of The Institute. 

The average attendance has shown twenty-five per- 
cent increase over the year 1920 and the finances of the 
Branch show considerably better, in that we have a balance 
in the bank on December 31st, 1921, of $126.31, as 
against a balance on hand December 31st, 1920, of $31.50. 

While the Branch has suffered a severe set back in 
membership this past year, from the fact that thirteen 
members have moved to points outside the Branch 
jurisdiction, through the efforts of your Membership Com- 
mittee and Executive, our membership is greater than 
one year previous by 6%. Indications also point to 
further increase in the next few months. 

The executive has met regularly throughout the year 
for the transaction of Institute business. 

Report of Membership Committee 

Members removed from Branch Jurisdiction: — ■ 

Members 2 

Associate Members 7 

Junior Members 3 

Student Members 1 

Total 13 

Members Moved within Branch Jurisdiction: — 

Members 

Associate Members 3 

Junior Members 1 

Student Members 4 

Total 8 

Admission to Institute M ember ship: — 

Members 3 

Associate Members 2 

Junior Members 5 

Total 10 



Transfers to Higher Grades: — 

To Associate Membership .... 2 

Total 2 

Removed from Institute Membership by Council, March 
22nd, 1921:— 

Junior 1 

Student 1 

Total 2 

Membership 

1920 

Members H 

Associate Members 32 

Junior Members 8 

Student Members 2 

Total 53 

1921 

Members 13 

Associate Members 29 

Junior Members 9 

Student Members 5 

Total 56 

Net gain in membership: 3. 

Report of Ontario Provincial Division Representative 
(To Branch at Annual Meeting) 

There has been no meeting of the Ontario Provincial 
Division since my appointment. Very few letters have 
been exchanged between the Secretary of the Division 
and myself. A meeting has been called, to be held in 
the Engineers' Club, Toronto, on the 17th inst. The 
agenda consists of: — 

1. Reading and confirming minutes of last Annual 

Meeting. 

2. Financial statements. 

3. Report on Ontario Engineering legislation 

situation. 

4. Draft division report as called for by Institute 

by-law No. 63. 

5. New business. 

Section 3 seems to be the only one calling for special 
attention, and as H. B. R. Craig, M.E.I.C, our past 
chairman, is one of the division representatives, I think 
he will be able to give this subject full consideration and 
hence do not think it necessary to go to Toronto for the 
meeting, unless something new developes. 

Report of Advertising Committee 

The securing of advertising is worthy of the energies 
of any Branch and when vigorously pursued is a direct 
source of revenue. Industrial conditions in the Border 
Cities, in keeping with other centres, did not reach the 
high level shown in the immediate preceding years and 
this had a definite bearing on advertising appropriations 
The territory was covered by a special representative of 
The Journal of The Institute this year but we hope that 
the incoming year will see a more aggressive policy 
pursued by the committee in charge than was in evidence 
last year. 



74 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Financial Statement 

Revenue 



By Balance Bank $ 31.50 

By Rebate of Headquarters: — 

Membership Refund..,.. $ 112.63 

Branch News 25.87 

138.50 

By Receipts Special Dinner (April) 37.00 

By Bank Interest 3.20 

By Rebate due from Headquar- 
quarters to Dec. 31: — 

Membership 2.00 

Branch News 8.80 

10.80 

Total Receipts $ 221.00 

Expenditures 

To Notices and Printing $ 16.63 

To Typing, etc 6.10 

To Telegrams, Telephone 3.52 

To Exchange on Cheques from Headquarters .40 

To Postage 7.97 

To Special Meeting Dinner (April) 39.45 

To Cigars, etc., Oct. Nov. and Dec. Meetings 9.82 

Total Expenditures $ 83.89 

To Balance on Hand in Bank 126.31 

To Rebate due from Headquarters to 
Dec. 31:— 

Membership $ 2.00 

Branch News 8.80 

10.80 

Total $ 221.00 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. J. RlDDELL, 

Chairman. 

J. E. Porter, 

Secretary- Treasurer. 

London Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee I beg to 
submit the following report: — 

The initial proceedings to form London Branch were 
taken on October 20th, the preliminary meeting being 
called by H. B. R. Craig, 1VLE.I.C, and H. A. Brazier, 
A.M.E.I.C. On October 26th, a general meeting of all 
engineers in the district was held at Tecumseh House to 
discuss the formation of the Branch and it was unanim- 
ously decided to proceed with the organization, the 
committee charged with this work having H. B. R. 
Craig, M.E.I.C., as Chairman, and Colonel E. I. Leonard, 
M.E.I.C, as Secretary. 



Following authorization by Council the organization 
meeting was held on November 16th; a full report of 
this meeting has been published in The Journal. The 
executive elected for the balance of 1921 was as follows: — 

Honorary Chairman, Dr. J. Davis Bamett, M.E.I.C. 

Chairman, H. A. Brazier, A.M.E.I.C. 

Vice-Chairman, W. J. Forbes-Mitchell, A.M.E.I.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Geo. C. Wright, A.M.E.I.C. 

Executive Committee:— F. A. Bell, Jr., A.M.E.I.C, 
Chas. Talbot A.M.E.I.C, F. J. Ure, A.M.E.I.C, 
A. H Smith, M.E.I.C. 

A regular meeting was held on December 21st. 
The report of this meeting will be found in the Branch 
News Section of the Section of the February Journal. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Geo. C Wright, 

Secretary- Treasurer. 



Niagara Peninsula Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee we beg to 
submit the third annual report of the Branch. 

Meetings 

During the year the Branch has held six general 
meetings, three executive meetings, two trips of inspection 
and a dance. Four speakers addressed the Branch, one 
meeting concerned legislation for the Province of Ontario 
and in May the Annual meeting marked the Branch's 
third birthday. 

This year's Executive have decided that a meeting 
should be held once a month during the Fall and Winter 
and that these should always be dinner meetings and 
held alternately in St. Catharines and Niagara Falls. 
The two meetings held this season and one last season 
seem to have shown the wisdom of this decision because 
the attendance and general enjoyment of the dinner 
meetings is much more marked than otherwise. Another 
new feature is the introduction of a song sheet at the 
dinner meetings under the able direction of Messrs. Frost 
and Blanchard. 



Legislation 

The principal item of business before the Branch 
during the year has been the question of legislation for 
Ontario. In March a general meeting was called to dis- 
cuss this matter and with the assistance of the Branch 
legislation committee and one of the members of the 
Advisory Conference Committee, a thorough explanation 
was made of the Bill Respecting Professional Engineers 
and the meaning of its various features and resulted in 
the members of the Branch giving their approval to the 
Bill as prepared by the Advisory Conference Committee 
and as introduced in the Legislature. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



75 



Papers 

With regard to the nature of papers presented at 
the meetings of this Branch, it has been the aim of the 
Executive to secure, as far as possible, subjects of a wide 
and general interest, having a bearing on national and 
international affairs, rather than obtaining papers upon 
specific engineering problems. It is felt that in this 
way the many varied specializations of the profession 
making up the personnel of the Branch can be better 
served and in this way a wider interest taken in the 
meetings. 

On October 8th an interesting gathering took place 
when the Engineering societies of Buffalo and Rochester 
joined with the Branch in making a trip of inspection 
over the Queenston-Chippawa Power Development and 
later in the day joining in a fraternal gathering with an 
international touch, at dinner in Buffalo. 

In January last, a very successful and enjoyable 
social gathering was held in the form of a dance at the 
Clifton Hotel, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

Membership 

The membership has increased during the year from 
one hundred to two hundred and thirty-three with eight 
applications for membership. The number of members 
in each classification is shown as follows: — 



1920 

Members 16 

Associate Members 58 

Associates 7 

Juniors 11 

Students 7 

Affiliates 1 

100 



1921 
19 

74 

2 

20 

17 

1 

133 



The finances of the Branch are in a satisfactory 
condition with some four hundred dollars in the bank. 

Respectfully submitted, 

N. R. Gibson, 

Chairman. 

R. P. Johnson, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 



Hamilton Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee we beg to 
submit the following report. The Branch year extends 
from 1st June to 31st May, so that there are two execu- 
tives in the year. 

Meetings 

The following meetings were held: — 
Jan. 28— "Legislation," Willis Chipman, M.E.I.C. The meet- 
ing approved of the proposed act and suggested that 
every effort be made to have it put through the 
present session. 



Feb. 18 — "Radio Engineering," S. M. Kitner, vice-president 
of the International Radio Telegraph Co. This was 
a joint meeting with the Toronto Branch of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, as guests 
of the Canadian Westinghouse Co. Refreshments 
were served. There was a record attendance of 175. 

Mar. 23— "Town Planning", J. W. Tyrrell, M.E.I.C, 
delegate to the Toronto Convention, gave his report, 
J. J. Mackay, O.L.S., M.E.I.C, a member of the Town 
Planning Commission and the Wentworth Road Com- 
mission, spoke on Road and Boulevards and what 
they mean to Hamilton. This was published in the 
Journal for August P-470. 

May 6 — "Annual Meeting", Reports presented and Nom- 
inating Committee elected. 

Nov. 1 — "St. Lawrence Route". The Branch was invited 
to attend a banquet given by the Chamber of Commerce 
to the delegates of the Canadian Deep Waterways 
and Power Association. Henry I. Harriman of Boston, 
gave an inspiring address. 

Nov. 24 — ' ' Annual Banquet at the Royal Connaught Hotel , ' ' 
Brig. -Gen. C. H. Mitchell, D.S.O., M.E.I.C, dean 
of the Faculty of Applied Science of the University 
of Toronto was guest of honour and gave an address 
on the Engineering Profession. There was an attend- 
ance of 110 members and friends. 

Dec. 16 — "Achievements of Sir Sandford Fleming", Prof. 
P. Gillespie, M.E.I.C,. Following this, there was 
a discussion on Institute affairs. 

Membership 

Dec. 31 1920. Dec. 31 1921. 

Members 14 18 

Associate Members 42 55 

Juniors 11 11 

Students 19 29 

Affiliates _48 55 

Total TJ4 "168 

Financial Statement 

Revenue 

Brought forward $198 .36 

Journal Subscriptions 26 .00 

Rebates 134 .43 

Branch News 37 .09 

Sundries 8 . 21 

Affiliate fees 99 .00 

$503.09 
Expenditures 

Miscellaneous $43 .75 

Printing and Postage 58 .36 

Rent Halls 36 .00 

Annual Dinner 30 .50 

Stenographer 50 .00 

Journal Subscriptions 24 .00 

Balance 260 .48 

$503.09 
Respectfully submitted, 

E. H. Darling, 

Chairman. 
W. F. McLaren, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 



76 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Toronto Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee I beg to 
submit the following report of the activities of the Toronto 
Branch from 1st January, 1921 to 31st December, 1921. 

In the first two months of the year we directed atten- 
tion mainly to the Annual Convention which was held 
in Toronto early in February and of which such full 
account was given in The Journal that need not be elabor- 
ated on here. 

During the Spring and Fall meetings were held weekly 
at which papers and addresses were given — the endeavour 
being to distribute the subjects through the various 
branches of Engineering, such as Electrical, Mechanical 
Chemical, Mining and Civil. This was found very effect- 
ive and much appreciated. In all 25 regular meetings 
and 17 executive meetings were held. 

In the Spring, visits of inspection were made to the 
New Union Station, Toronto Harbour Works, Chippawa 
Power Canal and others, which were very well attended. 

Meetings 

The following meetings were held:— 

Jan. 6 — General Meeting. 

Jan. 13 — "Superheaters and Economizers," F. A. W. Taylor. 

Jan. 20 — -"Reservoirs," (illustrated), W. Gore. 

Feb. 1 — 2 — 3 — Annual Convention E.I.C. 

Feb. 10 — "Toronto Gas Works," Arthur Hewitt. 

Feb. 17 — "Forms for Concrete," T. T. Black. 

Feb. 24 — "New Theory of Concrete Mining and its Use in 

Large Work," R. B. Young and T. V. McCarthy. 
Mar. 3 — "Formation of Ice and its Prevention," John 

Murphy. 
Mar. 10 — "Design of Centrifugal Pumps," A. T. Clark and 

I. M. Jones. 
Mar. 17 — General Meeting. 

Mar. 24 — "Engineers and Sociology," F. M. Crossley. 
Mar. 31 — "Pulp and Paper Works," C. Nelson Goin. 
April 7 — "History of Canals in Canada," G. T. Clark. 
April 14 — "Engineers and Contractors," W. E. Douglas. 
April 21 — General Meeting. 
April 28 — Annual Meeting. 

Membership 

The membership of the Branch is as follows: — 

Members 115 

Associate Members . . .251 

Associates 6 

Juniors 4 

Students 103 

Total 490 

Financial Statement 

The following is the financial statement of the year, 
Jan. 1st, 1921, to Dec. 31st, 1921. 

Cash on Hand $ 157.11 

Rebates and Branch News 955 .91 

Interest 14.15 

Affiliates dues 90 .00 

Rebate from Annual Convention 362 .95 

Other Items 51 . 17 



Expenditures 
General expenses, such as rent, postage, stenography, etc. $649 . 22 
Cash on hand 982 .07 



$1,631.29 



$1,631.29 
Respectfully submitted, 

F. B. Goedike, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

Peterborough Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee we beg to 
submit the Annual Report of the Peterboro Branch for 
the Calendar year of 1921. 

Meetings 

Teelve meetings were held during the year a list 
of which follows: — 

Jan. 13 — "Power Developments on the St. Maurice River", 

P. S. Gregory M.E.I.C, of Montreal, electrical 

engineer for the Shawinigan Water & Power Co. 
Feb. 17 — "Reservoirs", Wm. Gore, M.E.I.C, consulting 

engineer, Toronto. 
Feb. 24— "The Welland Ship Canal," Alex J. Grant, 

M.E.I.C, chief engineer of the Welland Ship Canal. 
Mar. 10— "Oil Refining Practice," Clayton D. Dean, 

A.M.E.I.C, of the Imperial Oil Company. 
Mar. 24— "Pulp and Paper Mfg.", P. P. Westbye, M.E.I.C. 

general manager of the Wm. Hamilton Co. Ltd., 

Peterboro. 

April 14 — ' 'The Hydro Electric Development at Queenston, ' ' 
A. D. C Blanchard, M.E.I.C, chief field engineer, 
for the H. E. P. C on the Chippawa Development 

April 28 — "The Regulation of the Run Off from the Upper 
Trent Watershed and the Possibilities of Further 
Conservation," A. L. Killaly, A.M.E.I.C, super- 
intendent of the Trent Canal. 

Oct. 13 — "The Complex Nature of a Modern Telephone 
System," Norwood M. Lash, chief engineer of the 
Bell Telephone Co. of Canada. 

Oct. 27 — ' 'Municipal Sewage Disposal, ' ' Prof. Peter Gillespie, 
M.E.I.C, of Toronto University. 

Nov. 10 — "The Construction of 140 miles of Sewers in 
Vancouver," A. G. Dalzell, M.E.I.C, for a number 
of years city engineer of Vancouver. 

Nov. 17 — "Annual Banquet". 

Dec. 8 — "Automatic Stations" G. R. Langley, M.E.I.C, 
Switchboard engineer for the Canadian General Elec- 
tric Co., Ltd. 

The attendance at the meetings averaged 45, which 
shows a slight increase over the previous year. 

Membership 

The membership of the Branch is as follows: — 

Members 15 

Associate members 24 

Juniors 6 

Associates 2 

Affiliates 24 

Total 73 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



77 



During the last year the Branch had occasion to 
use a motion picture machine frequently, so it was decided 
to purchase one for their own use. Now both a motion 
picture machine and a lantern are available for use when 
required. This factor has added very much to the in- 
terest taken by the members in the regular semi-monthly 
meetings which are held from October to April inclusive. 

We are attaching the financial statement for the 
Calendar year 1921. 

Statement 

Revenue 

Balance in Bank Jan. 1, 1921 $52 .31 

Rebates Journal News, etc 134 . 29 

Affiliate Fees 76 .00 

Annual Dinner 165 .00 

Balance from Sisson Dinner 5 .55 

Bank Interest .73 



$433.88 
Expenditures 

Rent $50 .00 

Lantern Service 10 . 00 

Lunch (Smoker) 10 .35 

Affiliate Journal Fees 34 .25 

Expense of Annual Dinner 158 .26 

Printing 77 .66 

Speakers' Expenses 8 .00 

Postage, War tax, etc 6 . 09 

Y.M.CA. Lantern Purchase on Acct 60' 00 

Balance in Bank Jan. 1st, 1922 14 .47 

Chairman's Expenses to Provincial Meeting 4 .80 



Respectfully submitted, 

P. L. Allison, 

Chairman. 

D. L. McLaren, 

Secretary. 

Kingston Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee, we beg to 
submit the following report for the calendar year of 1921. 

Meetings were held twice a month on a Tuesday 
evening at 8 P.M. during the University session. At 
the first meeting of the Autumn session, the second and 
fourth Tuesday was chosen as the ones on which pro- 
fessional meetings were to be held. The attendance at 
all meetings has been of a high average and the interest 
shown by the student and junior members has given 
the executive a valuable assistance. 

Meetings 

Twelve professional meetings were held during the 
year a list of which is given below: — 



Jan. 16— "Rubber Tire Industry". Discussion H. W. Nicoll, 
educational director of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber 
Company Limited. 

Feb. 15 — "Recent Developments in Concrete," Col. H. C. 

Boyden of the Portland Cement Company. 
Feb. 8 — "Economical Design of High Tension Lines," 
W. P. Dobson, M.E.I.C., research engineer of the 
Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission. 

Feb. 15— "Snow Fighting," W. H. Winterrowd, A.M.E.I.C, 
mechanical engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

Mar. 15 — "Fog Signalling," Prof. L. V. King, professor of 
physics, McGill University, Montreal. 

April 15 — Annual Dinner at the Frontenac Club, Kingston. 
Each member present made a short speech. 

Sept. 30 — Business Meeting and Smoker. Installation of 
Officers for the session 1921-22. 

Oct. 13 — "Prof. Einstein's Theory of Relativity and Gra- 
vitation," L. T. Rutledge, M.E.I.C, Queen's Uni- 
versity. 

Oct. 25 — "Cost Keeping as Practised in the Kingston 
Locomotive Works," Wm. Casey, general manager 
of the company. 

Nov. 8 — "Queen's New Heating Plant", W. P. Wilgar, 
M.E.I.C, and L. M. Arkley, M.E.I.C, Queen's 
University, both of whom were consulting engineers 
on the design and construction. 

Nov. 23 — "Life and Career of Sir Sandford Fleming," 
Prof. Peter Gillespie, M.E.I.C, of the University 
of Toronto. 

Dec. 13— "The Iron Ores of Canada" by Prof. Stanley Gra- 
ham, professor of mining, Queen's University. 

Membership 

The approximate membership of the Branch is as 
follows : — 

Members 7 

Associate Members 21 

Junior Members 7 

Student Members 16 

Associates 1 

Affiliates 3 . 

Total 55 

As this report covers the activities of two executives 
the members of both executives are given below: — 
1920-21 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chairman, 

Secretary-Treasurer, 

1921-22 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chairman, 

Secretary-Treasurer, 



J. M. Campbell, M.E.I.C, 
A. Macphail, M.E.I.C, 
W. P. Wilgar, M.E.I.C, 
Dr. A. L. Clarke, M.E.I.C. 
L. M. Arkley, M.E.I.C, 
[D. Ellis, M.E.I.C. 



W. P. Wilgar, M.E.I.C, 
L. M. Arkley, M.E.I.C, 

(L. T. Rutledge, M.E.I.C, 
J. M. Campbell, M.E.I.C, 
D. J.Emery, M.E.I.C, 

[A. Macphail, M.E.I.C 



78 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



1921. 



The following is a financial statement for the year 



Jan. 


1 


Jan. 


25 


Apl. 


9 


June 


27 


Aug. 


22 


Nov. 


18 



Dec. 31 



Revenue 

Cash on Hand $59 .00 

Rebate from fees 63 . 14 

Sale of dinner tickets 38 .00 

Rebate for fees 17 .00 

Receipts from Branch News 9 .45 

Rebate for fees 30 .00 

Rebate for fees 14 . 50 

Receipts for Branch News 5 . 00 

Accounts Receivable from Headquarters as 

per advice 23 . 11 



$259.20 



Expenditures 

Jan. 1— Oct. 1 Disbursements $109 .81 

Oct. 1— Dec. 31 Disbursements 43 .15 

$152.96 

Balance on hand Dec. 31st, 1921 $106 . 24 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. P. WlLGAR, 
Chairman. 

L. T. RUTLEDGE, 

Secretary- Treasurer. 



Montreal Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee we beg to 
submit the following report. The activities of the Montreal 
Branch during the calendar year 1921 have been carried 
on under two separate Executive Committees, the elective 
personnel of which were as follows: — 

June 1920 to May 1921 June 1921 to December 1921 



Arthur Surveyer, 
J. H. Hunter, 
J. L. Busfield, 
K. B. Thornton, 
J. A. Duchastel, 
S. F. Rutherford, 
George R. MacLeod, 
John T. Farmer, 
O. O. Lefebvre, 



Chairman 

Vice-Chair. 

Sec.-Treas. 



J. H. Hunter, 
J. A. Duchastel, 
J. L. Busfield, 
John T. Farmer, 
George R. MacLeod, 
O. O. Lefebvre, 
A. E. Dubuc, 
Chas. M. McKergow, 
S. F. Rutherford, 



In addition to the foregoing, the local members of 
Council and the immediate Past Chairman of the Branch 
were ex-ofhcio members of the Committee. 

On account of the change of the Branch year, which 
will in future conform to the calendar year, the Executive 
Committee under the chairmanship of J. H. Hunter, 
M.E.I.C., has been in office for only six months, being 
for the period ending December 31st, 1921. 



The Executive Committe has held meetings at fre- 
quent intervals throughout the year and in addition to 
discussing and making arrangements for routine Branch 
matters, such as the arrangements for meetings, recom- 
mendations to Council regarding applicants for admission 
to The Institute, and appointment of various committees, 
has devoted its attention to a number of matters involving 
the welfare of the members of the Montreal Branch. 
Among these matters may be cited the revising of the 
Branch by-laws; correspondence with the Chairman of 
the Canadian National Railways Board regarding employ- 
ment of members of The Engineering Institute in engin- 
eering positions; co-operation with the Builder's Exchange 
regarding Quebec building laws; recommendation regard- 
ing proposed meeting of Branch Secretaries, and other 
matters of local interest. 

Applications were received during the year for the 
formation of a Railway and a Marine Section. These 
two applications were favourably received, making the 
list of sections of the Montreal Branch as follows: — 

Chairman Chairman 

1920-21 June to Dec. 1921 

Civil Section O. O. Lefebvre S. Fortin 

Mechanical Section John T. Farmer F. A. Combe 
Electrical Section G. K. McDougall C. J. DesBaillets 
Industrial Section S. F. Rutherford S. F. Rutherford 
Railway Section ... P. B. Motley 

Marine Section ... N. E. McOelland 

Reception Committees under the chairmanship of 
George R. MacLeod, M.E.I.C., and Charles M. Mc- 
Kergow, M.E.I.C., were appointed for the two periods. 
They have carried on their duties at the regular meetings 
and have given great assistance, not only in enhancing 
the social atmosphere of the meetings, but also in making 
valuable suggestions from time to time regarding ways 
and means of making the meetings attractive. 

Membership 

There has been a healthy increase in the member- 
ship of the Montreal Branch as indicated by the following 
figures: — ■ 

Dec. 31st, 1920 Dec. 31st, 1921 

Honorary Members 3 2 

Members 150 181 

Associate Members 308 359 

Juniors 59 69 

Students 184 268 

Associates 11 8 

Branch Affiliates 12 17 

Totals 727 904 

A Committee was appointed early in 1921 by the 
Executive Committee for the purpose of approaching a 
number of engineers resident in Montreal who, though 
fully qualified, had not applied for admission to The 
Institute. 

Regular Meetings 

The Papers and Meetings Committee consisted of 
J. A. Burnett, A.M.E.I.C, Chairman, and V. I. Smart, 
M.E.I.C, Vice-Chairman, 1920-21, and John T. Farmer, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



79 



M.E.I.C, Chairman, and H. W. Fairlie, A.M.E.I.C., 
Vice-Chairman for the six months ending December 
31st 1921, together with the Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen 
of the various Branch Sections. 

These two Committees have done excellent work in 
arranging the programme of papers which were presented 
every Thursday evening, January to April inclusive, 
and October to December inclusive. These papers 
covered various phases of engineering work in which 
the Branch is interested, many being of a highly technical 
nature, others of more general interest. In addition 
there were a number of addresses or exhibitions of moving 
pictures on subjects not directly connected with engin-. 
eering work. The following table gives a complete list 
of the regular meetings of the Montreal Branch during 
the year 1921, with their authors and the attendance:— 



conferred upon them by McGill University. This func- 
tion will long be remembered by those who were fortunate 
enough to be able to attend. 

On October 27th, there took place the inauguration 
of the Marine Section of the Branch. This event is looked 
upon as being one of more than passing importance as 
the formation of the Marine Section will undoubtedly 
lead to a number of engineers more particularly interested 
in marine work becoming members of The Institute. 

On November 17th, the papers on Modern Railway 
Signalling were presented at the inauguration of the Rail- 
way Section of the Branch, which marks the revival of 
the interest of local railway engineers in The Institute. 

Another meeting of unusual importance was that on 
November 24th, when the evening was devoted to Liter- 
ature instead of Engineering. 



Date 



Jan. 


6 


" 


13 


" 


20 


" 


27 


Feb. 


3 } 


" 


10 


" 


17 


" 


24 


Mar. 


3 


" 


3 


" 


10 


" 


17 


" 


24 


" 


31 


Apr. 


7 


" 


14 


" 


21 


" 


28 


May 


5 


Oct. 


6 


" 


13 


" 


20 


" 


27 


Nov. 


3 


" 


10 


" 


17 


" 


24 


Dec. 


1 


" 


8 


" 


15 




*Motion 



Subject Author 

The Modern Newspaper Chas. F. Crandall 

Fire Prevention; The Engineer's Part G. H. Greenfield 

Bituminous Sands of Alberta S. C. Ells, A.M.E.I.C 

*The Toronto Hamilton Highway H. S. Van Scoyoc, M.E.I.C 

*Decay in Structural Timber H. J. Blair 

Preservation of Canadian Timber Products J. A. Coderre 

*Aviation (Motion Pictures) 

Radio-Telegraphy and Telephony A. H. Morse 

Modern Gas Production J. J. Humphreys 

Sewerage System of Montreal J. H. Valiquette, A.M.E.I.C 

Sewage Pumps F. V. Dowd, A.M.E.I.C 

130,000 Volt Surge Protectors G. C. Read & S. Cunha 

Toothed Gears C. B. Hamilton, M.E.I.C 

*World Shipbuilding H. R. McClelland, M.E.I.C 

Hydro Plants & Public Utilities at Sherbrooke. .C. J. DesBaillets, M.E.I.C 

Street Lighting C. B. Hastings 

Relay Protective Features, Toronto Power Co. . . .P. Ackerman, M.E.I.C 

Some Turbo Machines, Made in Canada C. E. Newill, M.E.I.C 

Production Engineering E. T. Spidy, A.M.E.I.C 

*Annual Meeting 

The Montreal Aqueduct, Historical Sketch A. E. Doucet, M.E.I.C 

Luncheon Meeting, McGill Re-Union Week 

Welding A. M. Barry & W. H. Ludington. . . 

*The Construction of 10,500 Ton Ships at Halifax N. E. McClelland, M.E.I.C 

Aeroplane Engines P. E. Biggar, S.E.I.C 

Pulverized Fuel and its Uses H. G. Barnhurst 

*Modern Railway Signalling C. H. Tillett & C. W. Parker 

Some Canadian Writers I Have Met Col. Geo. Ham 

The Montreal Aqueduct — -Engineering Features F. Y. Dorrance, A.M.E.I.C 

The Einstein Theory of Relativity Professor L. T. Rutledge, M.E.I.C. 

Annual Meeting 

pictures were also shown at these meetings. 



Attendance 

100 
63 
65 

74 



114 

186 

148 

93 

114 

114 

96 

95 

94 

88 

73 

48 

76 

75 

135 
115 
137 
247 
130 
130 
179 
118 
127 
240 



Efforts were made during the summer months to 
arrange for a visit to the Montreal Harbour, but after 
negotiations had been carried on for some time it was 
found impossible to conclude the arrangements. 

The second half of the period opened on October 6th, 
with a visit over the Montreal Aqueduct works during 
the afternoon in which a large number of members of the 
Branch took part. 

Another outstanding event was the luncheon held on 
October 13th in honour of the six members of The Institute 
who were having the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 



A glance at the attendance figures given in the fore- 
going table shows that the members of the Branch are 
taking a keen interest in the meetings. The additional 
seating accommodation that has been provided in the Hall 
has already frequently been taxed to its capacity. It 
is gratifying to know that steps are being taken to improve 
the ventilation and also to further possibly increase the 
capacity of the Hall. In the past a number of members 
have refrained from attending meetings, not only on 
account of the lack of seating accommodation, but also 
on account of the lack of proper ventilation. 



80 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Publicity 

While it has been found impossible to obtain very- 
much publicity for the Branch in the Montreal "Star", 
the "Gazette" has given the Branch fair recognition, 
and has usually devoted a fair amount of space to our 
meetings and discussions. The Star, however, on one 
occasion, in an article referring to the necessity for the 
education of Canadian Marine engineers referred to the 
Montreal Branch of The Engineering Institute as having 
formed a Marine Section and quoting remarks made at 
the meeting. 

Financial Statement 

The Financial Statement for the year 1921 follows:— 

Revenue 

Cash in Bank — January 1st, 1921 $45 .08 

Rebates — ■ October, November and December 134 . 25 

Rebates, January to March 814 .63 

Rebates, April to July 274 .63 

Rebates, August to October 248 .75 

Branch News 74 .19 

Affiliate dues 87 .50 

Sale of Cartoons 24 .00 

Bus Fares to Aqueduct 31 .50 

$1,734 .53 
Expenditures 

Post Card Notices $347.34 

Other printing and stamps 292 .24 

Secretary's Honorarium 325 . 00 

Clerical Assistance Reporting Meetings 160 .00 

Telephone and Telegraph 94 .50 

Stationery 8 .00 

Moving pictures and lantern slides 253 .35 

Signs, Chairs, Cartoon, Miscellaneous 164 .51 

Subscriptions to Journal for Affiliates 33 .00 

$1,677.94 
Cash in Bank, December 31st, 1921 56 .59 



$1,734.53 

Outstanding Bills Payable 

Printing and post card notices $144 .03 

Outstanding Bills Receivable (Estimated) 

Rebates for November and December 110 .00 

Branch News 15 .00 

Commission on advertising 5 .00 

Affiliate dues 10 .00 



$ 140.00 



Respectfully submitted 

J. H HUNTER, 

Chairman. 

J. L. BUSFIELD, 

Secretary- Treas ur er. 



Quebec Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee, we beg to 
submit the annual report of the Quebec Branch for 1921. 

During the past year, 5 general meetings and 8 
Executive meetings were held. 

Our Legislation Committee did splendid work and, 
more especially, when a certain bill was introduced to 
the last session of the Quebec Legislature, it largely 
contributed in having withdrawn from that bill all that 
could have affected the rights or prerogatives of the 
engineers. 

We deeply regret the death of J. Emile Girard, 
A.M.E.I.C., director of surveys for the Department of 
Lands and Forests for the Province of Quebec. He 
was highly esteemed by his fellow-engineers and his 
memory will be piously remembered by the members 
of this Branch. 

At the end of this year, our Branch numbers 14 
members, 60 associate-members, 7 juniors, 8 students 
and 1 associate or a total membership of 90. 

Despite the present crisis or economic stringency 
which is felt all over this country, the position of engin- 
eers in our locality may be considered as satisfactory. 
Our treasurer's books, on December 27th, 1921, 
indicate a surplus of $377.82. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. R. Decary, 
Chairman. 
Hector Cimon, 

Secretary- Treasu rer. 
Au President et au Conseil, 

II nous fait plaisir de vous soumettre, ci-apres, le 
rapport annuel de la Section de Quebec pour 1921. 

Au cours de l'annee derniere, 5 assemblies generates 
et 8 reunions du conseil furent tenues. 

Notre comite de legislation a fait bon travail et, 
plus specialement, dans le cas d'un bill presente a la der- 
niere Legislature de Quebec, il a concouru largement a 
en faire eliminer tout ce qui pouvait porter atteinte aux 
droits et prerogatives des ingenieurs. 

C est avec un profond regret que nous soulignons 
ici, la mort de J. Emile Girard, A.M.E.I.C., directeur 
des arpentages au Ministere des Terres et Forets de la 
province de Quebec. II etait hautement estime de ses 
confreres et son souvenir sera pieusement conserve par 
les membres de notre Section. 

A la fin de cette annee, notre Section compte 14 
membres, 60 membres associes, 7 juniors, 8 etudiants 
et 1 associe, soit un total de 90. 

Malgre la crise ou malaise economique que traverse 

notre pays en ce moment, la situation des ingenieurs de 

notre region peut etre consideree comme satisfaisante 

Les livres de notre tresorier accusent, au 27 decembre 

1921, un surplus de $377.82. 

Respectueusement soumis, 
A. R. Decary, 

President. 
Hector Cimon, 

Secretaire. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



81 



St. John Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee of the St. 
John Branch we beg to submit its fourth annual report, 
covering the year ending Dec. 31st. 1921. 

Meetings 

The Executive has met seven times during the year 
at which meetings general business has been transacted. The 
Branch held eight regular meetings when interesting papers 
were read and discussed. In addition, three special 
dinner meetings were held, an aircraft exhibit was shown 
and four excursions were made to works of interest in 
the vicinity of St. John, at two of which the members 
were the guests of the contractors at luncheon. The 
members have shown an increased interest in the affairs 
of the Branch and the meetings are well attended. 

The various committees have been actively at work. 
The Branch has continued its interest in public affairs. 

Membership 

The membership at the end of the year is as follows: — 

Grade Resident Non resident Total 

Member 14 3 17 

Associate Member. 27 5 32 

Juniors 10 10 

Associates 1 1 

Students 2 2 

Affiliates 9 1 10 

Total end of year 1921 72 

" " " 1920 74 

Net loss 2 

Statement of receipts and expenditures for the year 
ending Dec. 31st, 1921. 

Financial Statement 

Revenue 

Balance from 1920 $122 .55 

Rebate on dues from Headquarters 100 .00 

Dues and subscriptions from Affiliates 30 .00 

Branch news 70 . 84 

Special Entertainment receipts 155 00 



Total $478 .39 

Expenditures 

Postage $30 .49 

Stationery and Printing 39 86 

Telegrams 2 . 18 

Entertainment and Special Meetings 177 .43 

Hall and Janitor Service 11 .00 

Advertising 4 .05 

Journal Subscriptions (Affiliates) 12 .00 

Sundry Expenses 2 .68 



Total $279 .69 

Balance on Hand 198 .70 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frank P. Vaughan, 

Chairman. 
Harry F. Bennett, 
Secretary-Treasurer. 



Moncton Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee we beg to 
submit the second annual report of the Moncton Branch. 
The Executive Committee held eight meetings during 
the year 1921. These were twelve meetings of the Branch 
held at which interesting addresses were given, or papers 
read. 

The membership has increased from thirty-three to 
fifty-nine during the year, a net gain of twenty-six. We 
have at present: — 

Members 10 

Associate Members 32 

Juniors 11 

Students 4 

Affiliates _2 

Total 59 

We have held two meetings a month during the 
season, one of which was our popular Supper Meeting, 
at which the large number present showed great interest 
in the progress of the Branch and the welfare of The 
Institute. 

The Annual Meeting of the Branch was held on May 
5th, and after reports were read the following Officers 
were declared elected for 1921-22: — 

Chairman, J. D. McBeath, M.E.I.C, 

Vice-Chairman, S. B. Wass, M.E.I.C, 

Secretary-Treasurer, M. J. Murphy, A.M.E.I.C. 

Executive Committee: 
A. F. Stewart, M.E.I.C, F. B. Fripp, A.M.E.I.C, 
F. O. Condon, A.M.E.I.C, Reid McManus, A.M.E.I.C, 
R. G. Gage, A.M.E.I.C, and H. J. Crudge, A.M.E.CI. 

Financial Statement 

The financial statement for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31st, 1921, is as follows:— 

Revenue 

Balance from 1920 $46 .60 

Rebates on dues and Branch News 160 . 29 

Surplus from Suppers 19 .55 

Branch Affiliate Fees 6 .00 

Bank Interest .52 

$232.96 

Rebate due from Headquarters 7 54 

Total $240.50 

Expenditures 

Postage 8 .77 

Entertainment of Guests 14 .00 

Expenses of Meetings 34 . 11 

Printing 30.74 

Telegrams and Telephone 1 . 64 

Incidental Expenses 5 .40 

Total $94.66 

Balance including Rebates due from Headquarters $145 .84 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. D. McBeath, 

Chairman. 
M. J. Murphy, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 



82 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Cape Breton Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee we beg to 
submit the Annual Report of the Cape Breton Branch. 
This Branch was authorized early in 1921, the following 
therefore, covers the first year of its existence. 

Membership 

At the date of authorization of the Branch there 
were seventeen members of all grades resident within 
the Branch radius, the petition to Council carrying 
twelve signatures. During the year twenty-nine appli- 
cations have been received, of which eighteen have been 
elected, three classified for examination, and eight are 
pending. 

A detailed comparison is as follows:— 
Assoc. 
Members Members Juniors Students Total 



At Jan. 1921 

Gained by 
transfer to 
this district. 

Lost by 
transfer from 
this district. . . 

Elected 
during 1921.. . 

Members in 
good standing 

Dec. 31, 1921 



1 



17 



13 



24 



18 



40 



Net gain during year 23 

Meetings 

The period from the commencement of the Branch 
to the annual meeting in May was largely taken up with 
organization and efforts to promote local interest 
in The Institute among those qualified for membership. 
Some measure of success in this was obtained, and is 
indicated by the increase in membership. It is hoped 
that further efforts by the local members will result in 
all engineers in our Branch radius realizing the advantages 
of membership to themselves and to the profession. 

A successful meeting was held in May, Fraser S. 
Keith, the General Secretary making a special trip to 
Sydney, and his address on Institute affairs and objects 
was largely responsible for the subsequent activity and 
increase in membership. Two regular monthly meetings 
have been held this fall, one devoted to business and one 
to a professional paper by W. S. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C. 

The Executive Committee have held in all, eleven 
meetings, which were chiefly taken up with matters of 
organization and the consideration of applications. 

Regular meetings have been arranged for the coming 
months and there are good prospects of a successful 
season. 

The Branch is fortunate in being allied with the 
Mining Society of Nova Scotia, the headquarters of which 
are in Sydney. Several members of the Mining Society 
are members of The Institute, and through their interest 
and courtesy arrangements have been made whereby, 
for a relatively small rental, the Branch members have 



the full use of the reading rooms and library of the Mining 
Society, situated in the Bank of Commerce building, 
Sydney. This library is probably the most complete 
reference on mining subjects in the Maritime Provinces, 
and the rooms are also suitable for our regular monthly 
meetings. To meet that portion of the rental of these 
rooms with which we are assessed, the Branch members 
have agreed to a local quarterly subscription of two 
dollars. 

Financial Statement 

Revenue 

Advance from Headquarters $50 . 00 

Rebates from Headquarters 36 .00 

Branch News 10.83 

Interest on Bank Account .60 

Local Dues 56 .00 



Total 

Expenditures 

Postage and Telegrams 

Stationery and Printing 

Expenses of Annual Meeting 

Advertising 

Rental of Rooms, Nov. 1 to Feb. 1 . . 
Miscellaneous 



$ 153.43 


$ 


10.87 




16.37 




34.50 




11.65 




45.00 




4.95 



Total $123.34 



Balance in hand Bank . 

Cash. 



Due from Headquarters • 



Rebates for last quarter. 
Branch News 



15.04 
15.05 



$30.09 

12.25 
1.81 

$44.15 



Respectfully submitted, 

C. M. Odell, 

Chairman. 

Kenneth G. Cameron, 
Secretary- Treasurer. 

Halifax Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Executive Committee, we beg to 
submit the following report. As the Branch year begins 
in May, this report covers part of two Branch years, 
with the activities controlled by two separate Executive 
Committees. 

Meetings 

During the year, nine meetings were held as folllows: — 

Jan. 28— "The Formation of Ice, and Its Prevention," 
John Murphy, M.E.I.C., of Ottawa, illustrated by- 
moving pictures and lantern slides. 

Feb. 23— "Paints and their Uses," J. F. Ryan, Eastern 
representative of the Sherwin-Williams Paint Com- 
pany; Number present, 25. 

Mar. 24 — "Reinforced Concrete Fishery Piers at St. Pierre- 
Miquelon, A. C. Brown, A.M.E.I.C; Number 
present, 25. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



83 



April 28 — "Engineering Features of Automatic Telephone 
Equipment," A. J. Barnes of the Maritime Telegraph 
and Telephone Company, illustrated by lantern slides 
and a miniature exchange. 

May 5 — "Reinforced Concrete Pipe for Water Supply," 
W. G. Chase, M.E.I.C., of St. John; Number present, 
23. 

May 17 — Annual Meeting, at which the following Officers 
were elected : — 

Chairman C. E. W. Dodwell, M.E.I.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer. O. S. Cox, A.M.E.I.C. 
Executive H. W. L. Doane, A.M.E.I.C. 

F. R. Faulkner, M.E.I.C. 

J. B. Hayes, A.M.E.I.C. 

W. P. Morrison, M.E.I.C. 

K. H. Smith, M.E.I.C. 

L. H. Wheaton, A.M.E.I.C. 
(Ex. Officio) F. A. Bowman, M.E.I.C. 

Oct, 20 — "A Trip to Europe with Special Reference to 
Reconstruction in France after the War," Prof. 
F. H. Sexton; Number present, 46. 

Nov. 18 — "General Tramway Engineering," I. P. McNab, 
M.E.I.C; Number present, 42. 

Dec. 9 — "Town Planning," H. W. Johnson, asst. city 
engineer; Number present, 42. 



Membership 

The membership of the Branch at the end of the 
year is as follows: — ■ 

Members 25 

Associate Members 45 

Juniors 15 

Students 10 

Branch Affiliates 5 

Total 100 

It will be noticed from these figures that while our 
membership has decreased slightly, the attendance at 
our meetings has greatly increased, indicating a keener 
interest in Branch meetings. 



Financial Statement 

Balance January 1st, 1921 



$ 169.65 



Revenue 

Headquarters rebates on dues and Branch 

News $ 210.77 

Dues from Branch Affiliates 17.00 

Bank Interest 4.62 

Total 



$ 232.39 



$ 402.04 



Expenditures 

Post Cards and Postage $ 24.79 

Office Supplies 1.10 

Telegrams 4.30 

Printing and Advertising 52.63 

Clerical help 60.00 

Entertainment of Guests 13.75 

Journal Subscription for Branch Affiliates . . 6.00 

Exchange .65 

$ 163.22 

Balance Jan. 1st, 1922 $ 238.82 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. E. W. Dodwell, 

Chairman. 
O. S. Cox, 

Secretary- Treasurer. 

Ottawa Branch 

The President and Council, 

On behalf of the Managing Committee of the Ottawa 
Branch, we beg to submit the following report for the 
calendar year 1921: — • 

Several questions of importance affecting the Branch 
as a whole have arisen during the year, particularly the 
Bill introduced in the Ontario Legislature. "An Act 
respecting Professional Engineers" and the Act which 
was passed by the Dominion Parliament "An Act to 
amend the Civil Service Act 1918" better known as the 
Spinney Bill. 

The interests of the Branch in connection with the 
Professional Engineers' Act were looked after first by 
J. B. Challies, M.E.I.C, and later by A. B. Lambe, 
A.M.E.I.C, and their untiring efforts to promote the 
Bill deserve our united thanks. As matters stand at 
present, this Bill has been introduced, referred to a 
Parliamentary Committee and is still in the hands of 
that Committee. 

The Spinney Bill contemplated the cancellation of 
the recent re-classification of Professional Civil Servants 
and the attitude of The Institute towards the Bill is 
expressed in the following resolution: — 

"That The Engineering Institute of Canada 
strongly approved the provisions of the Civil Service 
Act of Nineteen Eighteen so far as they affected 
engineers and endorsed the system of making appoint- 
ments and promotions in the public service by merit 
and efficiency; that they endorsed without reservation 
the principles on which the classification of the engin- 
eering positions in the federal service was based, as 
approved in Nineteen Nineteen and appointed a 
Committee to confer with and assist the Civil Service 
Commission in their work; that they place themselves 
on record as opposing and viewing with apprehension 
any alteration in the Civil Service Act by which 
appointments, promotions or matters of compensation 
are placed on any basis but merit, experience and 



84 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



efficiency and firmly believe that any change of this 
nature would prejudice the opportunities offered 
capable men for a career in the service of the Govern- 
ment and would injuriously affect the obtaining of 
a high standard in the personnel and work of its 
various departments which can only be secured when 
merit and merit alone is recognized." 
Another question of importance was the "Research 
Institute Bill" which was introduced last session. As a 
few members of the Branch considered that this Bill 
affected them vitally, an interview was arranged with the 
Research Council and the matter thoroughly discussed. 
As a result of this, matters were crystallized, the Profes- 
sional Civil Servants interested met together and took 
concerted action through their representative body the 
"Professional Institute of Civil Servants". 

Harmonious relations of the closest character have a 
all times been maintained between the Branch and the 
"Professional Institute" mentioned above and last year 
we were honoured in having K. M. Cameron, A.M.E.I.C., 
a member of the Managing Committee of the Ottawa 
Branch, as President of the "Professional Institute". 

The "Engineers' Ball" under the distinguished 
patronage of their Excellencies the Governor-General and 
the Duchess of Devonshire, at the Chateau Laurier, on 
the 26th January was a success financially and otherwise 
and it is hoped that this feature will be established as an 
annual affair. 

The "Annual Popular Lecture" was given by Col. 
Stedman, chief technical officer of the Air Board, and was 
in every way a credit to the Branch. This feature has 
proven to be a success and it is the opinion that it is a 
valuable feature from a publicity standpoint and should 
be continued. 

The three outstanding papers of the year have been 
presented by members of the Branch viz. : Col. Stedman, 
Commander Phillips and Mr. Peters and it is hoped that 
other local members will come forward with papers from 
time to time. 

We are pleased to report that the new Governor- 
General, His Excellency Lord Byng of Vimy, has accepted 
Honorary membership in The Engineering Institute and 
has extended his patronage to the second "Annual Ball" 
which is to be held on the 26th January, 1922. 

During the year the Managing Committee held 13 
meetings. In addition the Branch had 12 evening meet- 
tings and 4 luncheons. The policy has been con- 
tinued of paying 25% of the cost of the luncheons out 
of Branch funds. 

On the 8th December, J. M. R. Fairbairn, D.Sc, 
M.E.I.C, President of The Institute visited us at a 
regular luncheon and gave a very interesting address on 
The Institute and its Branches. 

Meetings 

During the year the following meetings of the Branch 
were held: — 

Jan. 5 — Open meeting for all interested in the proposed 
Provincial Act respecting Professional Engineers; 
at the City Hall. 

Jan. 15 — Annual meeting, University Club. 



Jan. 18- — Meeting to discuss proposed Provincial Act res- 
pecting Professional Engineers; at the University 
Club. 

Jan. 26 — Ball, under the distinguished patronage of their 
Excellencies the Governor General and the Duchess 
of Devonshire; at the Chateau Laurier. 

Feb. 10 — "Cement and Super-Cement," E. Viens and Capt. 
E. M. Dawson, M.C.E. -Joint meeting with the Society 
of Chemical Industry, at the Carnegie Library. 

Feb. 17 — "Review of Mechanical Ship Propulsion," Engin- 
eer-Commander T. C. Phillips, M.E.I.C, A.M.I.N.A., 
M.I.Mech.E., chief engineer Canadian Naval Service; 
at Victoria Memorial Museum. 

Mar. 3 — "Industrial Relations," address by Hon. Senator 
G. D. Robertson, Minister of Labour, at Luncheon 
at Chateau Laurier. 

Mar. 17 — "The Aeroplane and its Development." The 
Annual Popular lecture given under the auspices of 
the Branch by E. W. Stedman, A.R.C.S., A.F.R.A.S., 
A.M.I.C.E., chief technical officer, the Air Board, 
Ottawa; evening meeting at the Victoria Memorial 
Museum. 

April 7 — "The Manufacture of Armco Ingot Iron and 
Specialty Steel Sheets," W. T. Jenkins, A.M., 
A.S.M.E.; evening lecture at Victoria Memorial 
Museum. 

April 14 — "The Proposed Research Institute for Canada," 
address by Hume Cronyn, M.P., Luncheon meeting 
at Chateau Laurier. 

April 21 — "Irrigation in Western Canada," lecture by F. H. 
Peters, M.E.I.C; in Victoria Memorial Museum. 

Oct. 13 — "Forests and the Fire Hazard," address by Ellwood 
Wilson, Manager, Forestry Dept., Laurentide Com- 
pany, Grand Mere, P. Q. ; at luncheon at Chateau 
Laurier. 

Oct. 20 — "Petroleum and its Products," evening lecture by 
C. I. Grierson, B.A.Sc, technical engineer, Imperial 
Oil Limited, Toronto; at the Victoria Memorial 
Museum. 

Nov. 15— "The Story of Rock Drilling," P. Sherrin, A.M.E.I.C. ; 
evening lecture at Victoria Memorial Museum. 

Nov. 24 — "Complex Nature of a Modern Telephone Sys- 
tem;" evening lecture at Victoria Memorial Museum, 
by N. M. Lash, B.Sc, chief engineer, Bell Telephone 
Company of Canada, Montreal. 
Dec. 8— The President's visit to the Branch; J. M. R. 
Fairbairn, President of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada was the very welcome guest of the Branch 
at a luncheon at the Chateau Laurier. 
Dec. 15 — Evening Entertainment at the Chateau Laurier. 

In the lectures and addresses the Committee has 
followed the advice given in the report of the Committee 
on Policy, adopted at the last Annual Meeting, in enhanc- 
ing the interest of the public towards the profession and 
in publicity, especially through local mediums. The eve- 
ning lectures have generally been of a popular, educational 
nature, and the attendance, averaging 400, would appear 
to substantiate the course followed. At the monthly 
luncheons the attendance has averaged 80, and a sustained 
interest has been shown. 

Through the courtesy of the local newspapers, advance 
notices and comprehensive reports of meetings have been 
given. During the year the local press has carried an 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



85 



aggregate of 37 columns, of 22 inches each, of reports 
and notices of meetings and in addition editorials have 
appeared. 

Continuing the policy of the Branch to invite to its 
meetings and luncheons, prominent men interested in the 
subjects to be presented, we have had the honour of 
meeting Hon. Senator Robertson, Minister of Labour; 
Tom Moore, President, The Trades and Labour Congress 
of Canada; Major-General Sir Willoughby Gwatkin; 
Hon. H. H. Stevens, M.P.; Dr. A. Thompson, M.P.; 
Hon. F. B. Carvell, Chairman, Board of Railway Com- 
missioners; Dr. J. G. Rutherford, Board of Railway 
Commissioners; J. B. Hunter, Deputy Minister, Dept. 
of Public Works; Charles Camsell, Deputy Minister of 
Mines; E. Brydone-Jack, M.E.I.C, Victoria, B.C.; Willis 
Chipman, M.E.I.C, Toronto; H. B. R. Craig, M.E.I.C, 
London; and many others. 

Membership 

During the year the Committee on Membership held 
eight meetings and dealt with 55 applications as follows: — 

New Members 1 

Transfer from lower grade to full 

membership 4 

Associate Members 27 

Transfers from lower grade to 

Associate Members 5 

Juniors 6 

Transfer from Student 3 

Associates 3 

Branch Affiliates 1 

Referred to Montreal 2 

Deferred 2 

Refused 1 

55 

The following table shows the comparative figures of 
the Branch membership for the year 1919, 1920 and 
1921:— 

1919 1920 1921 

Honorary Members 1 1 1 

Members 81 90 89 

Associate Members 148 158 167 

Associates 2 2 2 

Juniors 31 32 35 

Students 28 27 24 

Branch Affiliates 24 24 19 

315 334 337 

Rooms and Library 

The question of permanent quarters for the Branch 
has been discussed at previous Annual meetings and the 
general feeling has been that the matter should be held 
in abeyance until some specially favoured opportunity 
presents itself. Accordingly no active steps have been 
taken in this direction during the past year except to 
keep it in view and investigate and report on such poss- 
ibilities as were brought to the attention of the Committee. 
Part of the furniture owned by the Branch has been loaned 
to the Minto Skating Club and it is hoped to dispose 



of it on favourable terms. The remainder of the furniture 
is still stored in an unoccupied office. 

The Branch Library is now located on the third floor 
of the Journal Building and has been more extensively 
used by the members during the past year than previously. 

The library is in correspondence with the Library of 
Congress at Washington, receives all the bulletins issued 
by it and make use of the cards printed by it for cataloguing 
purposes. The library is also a member of the Library 
Association of Ottawa which comprises some fifty separate 
units. Arrangements are being made with the latter for 
the exchange of information and for mutual assistance in 
a number of ways which cannot fail to be a great help 
to all users of these libraries. One important step has 
already been taken by compiling a list of all technical 
and scientific periodicals received by those various 
libraries which will fill a long-felt want. 

This work is in line with the desire to be able to 
direct inquirers to the proper sources of information 
where any special request in regard to engineering 
research is made. It is impossible with the space and 
money available, for the Branch library to cover even 
in a very general way the whole field of engineering 
literature; but it is possible to maintain a reference library 
which may yield valuable results and this aim is now 
being realized to a considerable extent. 

Colonel Macpherson very kindly presented to the 
Branch bound volumes of the Proceedings of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers from the year 1912 to date, thus 
completing the set which the Branch received some years 
ago from the late Sir John Kennedy. This series of 
proceedings with its indexes and abstracts gives a fairly 
complete history of engineering progress in all its branches 
throughout the world from the year 1837. Accessions to 
the library have also been received from Col. Monsarrat, 
K. M. Cameron, C D. Norton and the main Institute. 

Remuneration 

The work of the Committee on Remuneration is to 
assist in solving the problem of improving the financial 
status of the engineer and increasing the amount of his 
remuneration to a level more in keeping with the condi- 
tions obtained in other professions and in the business 
world. A considerable amount of work has been done 
by many Committees of this character in the classification 
of positions and the preparation of salary schedules. 
These schedules will be of great value at the proper time 
and in the proper place, but it is felt that such things 
belong to the final rather than the initial stages of the 
work. The time of the Committee has therefore been 
spent in examining into and analyzing the conditions and 
underlying causes which have resulted in the present 
unsatisfactory state of affairs, with the object of attacking 
the evil at its, root and working up. The result of these 
deliberations was embodied in a preliminary report which 
was forwarded to the General Secretary. 

Policy 

In 1920 the Committee on Policy prepared a very 
comprehensive report which was submitted to the General 
Committee of The Institute. In this report, taking 
Section 1 of the By-laws as a starting point, an analysis 
was given of the most important lines to be followed in 
promoting its aims. 



86 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



During the past year the Committee has followed 
the progress of The Institute as affecting the trend of 
its future development and from time to time has been 
consulted by the Managing Committee of the Branch 
in regard to specific matters which have arisen. 

Finances 

The financial position of the Branch still continues 
to be highly satisfactory as may be seen by reference to 
the _ attached statements of assets and liabilities and 
receipts and expenditures. 

The Branch closes the year with a balance of $614.12 
in the bank; $3.66 in cash on hand, and $800.00 in Victory 
Bonds, a total balance of $1417.78. In 1910 the Branch 
had a deficit of $175.00, which continued until 1916 when 
there was a credit balance of about $200.00 which has 
steadily increased until we now have over $1400.00. 

Financial Statement 

Revenue 

Balance in Royal Bank, Jan. 1st, 1921 $ 419.23 

Cash on hand 8.27 

Rebates from Main Institute, quarter ending 31-12-20 74.63 

" 31-3-21.. 296.75 

April to July 1921 141.25 

Aug. Sept. and Oct. 1921 103.75 
Branch News — Jan. to 

June, 1921 38.06 

Branch News— Nov. 1921 5.00 

" —Dec. 1921 5.00 

Advertising in Journal. . 48.00 

Proceeds from sale of luncheon tickets 4.50 

Branch Affiliates Fees— 1921 33.00 

Interest on Victory Bonds 44.00 



$1221.44 



Expenditures 

Chateau Laurier for luncheons $ 121.90 

University Club — 3 meetings 57.50 

Daly Lunch Room — Luncheon for 12 9.00 

Journal Dailies — Advertising 34.40 

Citizen Newspapers — Advertising 39.80 

Ottawa Electric Railway Co.— Advertising 10.00 

Ottawa Printing Co 9.70 

Dept. of Interior, Printing 18.00 

M. F. Cochrane — Expenses exchanging bonds 10.63 

M. F. Cochrane — Subscription to Engineering News 

Record 7.67 

M. F. Cochrane — Engineering Index 7.40 

C. P. Edwards — Expenses re lectures 3.55 

K. M. Cameron — Expenses re lectures 18.50 

Willis Chipman— Expenses re meeting Jan. 5th, 1921. . 28.00 

R. K. Odell — Expenses of smoker 171.89 

Insurance , 2.00 

Petty Cash Expenditures — Postage, etc 53.72 

Balance in Bank, Dec. 31st, 1921 614.12 

Cash on hand 3.66 



Audited and found correct 
(Sgd.) A. A. Dion. 
Ottawa, January 12th, 1922. 



$1221.44 



Assets 

Furniture (Cost $200.00) 

Library: — 

Book Cases (Cost $72.50) . 

Bound Magazines Nominal 

Books 

Rebates due from Main Institute on 1921 fees . 

Stationery and equipment 

Victory Bonds due December 1st, 1937 

Victory Bonds due November 1st, 1934 

Cash in Bank 

Cash on hand 



$ 80.00 

50.00 

1.00 

25.00 

50.88 

20.00 

500.00 

300.00 

614.12 

3.66 



$1644.66 
Liabilities 
Surplus $1644.66 



$1644.66 



Audited and found correct 
(Sgd.) A. A. Dion. 
Ottawa, January 12th, 1922. 

Respectfully submitted, 



C. P. Edwards, 

Chairman. 

F. C. C. Lynch, 

Secretary- Treasurer. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



87 



JOHN G. SULLIVAN, M.E.LC. 

PRESIDENT 
The Engineering Institute of Canada. 



John G. Sullivan, M.E.LC, President of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada for the year nineteen hundred and twenty-two 
brings to the office the experience of thirty-four years spent in the 
West, combined with that spirit of optimism and enthusiasm which 
characterizes the men of the Western provinces. 

Mr. Sullivan was born at Bushnells Basin, New York State, on 
the eleventh day of January, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, and 
at the age of twenty-five graduated from Cornell University with 
the degree of C.E. In July of his graduating year, he became 
associated with railway develop- 
ment in the West, with which he 
has remained continuously, in many 
and varied capacities, from that 
time until the present. Although 
graduate, he started, as many 
another good man has done, by 
working his way up from a rodman, 
which position he occupied from 
July eighteen hundred and eighty- 
eight to April eighteen hundred 
and eighty-nine on the Great 
Northern Railway in Montana, 
Dakota and Minnesota. A year 
later he was with the Spokane Falls 
and Northern Railway, occupying 
positions as rodman, pile inspector, 
leveller, instrumentman, and final- 
ly, as assistant engineer in charge 
of work. From August eighteen 
hundred and ninety until February 
eighteen hundred and ninety-two, 
he was associated with the Great 
Northern Railway System in charge 
of work as assistant engineer on 
the Seattle and Montana Railway 
and the following year was in 
charge of work on the Pacific 
Extension of the Great Northern 
Railway. July, eighteen hundred 
and ninety-three, finds Mr. Sullivan 
as assistant engineer in charge of 
work with the Alberta Railway and 
Coal Company, and the following 
year as locating engineer with the 
Butte Anaconda and Pacific Rail- 
way Company. 

The year eighteen hundred and 
ninety-five was an important one in 
Mr. Sullivan's career, as it was then 

that he came to Canada as locating and division engineer with the 
Kaslo and Slocan Railway Company, British Columbia. For the 
next four years he occupied various positions with the Columbia 
and Western -Railway Company, first as reconnaisance engineer and 
later as principal assistant engineer in charge of all construction and 
surveys, during which time he was responsible for over one hundred 
miles of railroad construction, and made surveys for two hundred miles 
of location for proposed roads. It was on the work of the Pacific 
Extension of the Great Northern Railway Company that he received 
his first experience in tunnelling, having been responsible for the 
construction of two, each fifteen hundred feet long. 




JOHN G. SULLIVAN, M.E.LC. 

President 

The Engineering Institute of Canada. 



In August nineteen hundred, Mr. Sullivan joined the Canadian 
Pacific Railway as divisional engineer of construction, and with 
the exception of a year and a half as assistant chief engineer of the 
Panama Canal, his association with the Canadian Pacific Railway 
has been continuous up to the present time. In February, nineteen 
hundred and seven, Mr. Sullivan was made manager of construction 
of Eastern Lines, and a year and a half later was appointed assistant 
chief engineer. In nineteen hundred and eleven, his title j and 
responsibility became that of chief engineer of Western Lines, 

and he occupied the position of 
chief engineer from nineteen hun- 
dred and fifteen to July, nineteen 
hundred and eighteen, since which 
time he has been retained with the 
Company as consulting engineer. 

His previous association as an 
officer of The Institute, includes 
Councillor on two different occa- 
sions, and vice-president during 
the years nineteen hundred and 
eleven, twelve and thirteen. Mr. 
Sullivan became a member of The 
Institute in nineteen hundred, 
having been elected a member of 
the American Society of Civil 
Engineers the year before. In 
nineteen hundred and eighteen he 
was president of the American 
Railway Engineering Association. 
He is a member of the Manitoba 
and St. Charles Country Clubs, 
Winnipeg, St. James Club, Mont- 
real, and Cornell University Club, 
New York. 

Mr. Sullivan married Sarah Far- 
rell, daughter of Thomas Farrell, 
Lodi, N.Y., in eighteen hundred and 
ninety-five, the family consisting of 
two sons and two daughters. 

Besides enjoying a lucrative 
consulting engineering practice, 
President Sullivan has found time 
for public spirited activities. In 
nineteen hundred and twenty he 
was elected alderman for the city 
of Winnipeg for two years, and at 
the recent municipal election was 
re-elected for the term of nineteen 
hundred and twenty-two and nine- 
teen hundred and twenty-three. 

As Chairman of the Manitoba Drainage Commission, which 
position he has occupied since March nineteen hundred and nineteen, 
he is an authority on the subject of drainage, and for many years 
has been known as one of the best authorities in America on the 
economics of railway location. 

A genial personality, true Irish wit, and natural ability of a 
high order are outstanding characteristics that may be considered 
as factors in advancing the subject of this sketch to the high position 
he occupies in the engineering world. 



88 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Board of Management 

President 

JOHN G. SULLIVAN 

Past Presidents 

R. A. ROSS J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

Vice-Presidents 

WALTER J. FRANCIS ARTHUR SURVEYER 

Councillors 
K. B. THORNTON FREDERICK B. BROWN 



Editor and Manager 

FRASER S. KEITH 
Assistant-Editor 

A. W. SWAN 



Associate Editors 

J. CLARK KEITH Border Cities 

FLOYD K. BEACH Calgary 

K.G.CAMERON Cape Breton 

R. H. DOUGLAS Edmonton 

O. S. COX Halifax 

W. F. McLAREN Hamilton 

L. T. RUTLEDGE Kingston 

C. M. ARNOLD Lethbridge 

GEO. C.WRIGHT London 

M.J. MURPHY Moncton 

J. L. BUSFIELD Montreal 

G. R. TAYLOR Niagara Falls 

F. C C. LYNCH Ottawa 

D. L. McLAREN Peterborough 

HECTOR CIMON Quebec 

D. A. R. McCANNEL Regina 

F. THEO. GNAEDINGER . . . Sault Ste. Marie 

HARRY F. BENNETT .... St. John 

C.R.YOUNG Toronto 

H.L.SEYMOUR Toronto 

P. H. BUCHAN Vancouver 

HORACE M. BIGWOOD Victoria 

GEO. L.GUY Winnipeg 



Vol. V. 



February 1922 



No. 2 



Greetings from American Federation of 
Engineering Societies. 

At the commencement of the first session of the 
Annual General Meeting, a telegram was read by President 
Fairbairn which was received with great applause, from 
Dr. M. E. Cooley, President of the American Federation 
of Engineering Societies. Dr. Cooley is a past-president 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and 
Dean of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture of 
the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 



The message reads: — 
Fraser S. Keith, 

Engineering Institute of Canada, 
176 Mansfield Street, 

Montreal, Que. 
Please convey my greetings to The Engineering 
Institute assembled in Annual Convention, and say 
to our Canadian brother engineers that the hope was 
expressed at the Annual Meeting of American Engin- 
eering Council in Washington the sixth instant, that 
The Engineering Institute would before long join the 
American Federation of Engineering Societies. Such 
membership would go far towards the establishment 
of a Federation of Engineers of the world which if 
accomplished could be made a great force in the 
intelligent discussion and settlement of world prob- 
lems. It is time that the engineering profession was 
heard. 

M. E. Cooley, President, 

American Federation of 

Engineering Societies. 
The proposal contained in Dr. Cooley's message was 
left to the Council of The Institute for consideration and 
action. 

Policy Committee Meeting. 

An important decision was reached at the meeting 
of Council held at headquarters on January twenty-fifth, 
in connection with the affairs of The Institute when it 
was resolved that a meeting of the Committee on Policy 
be held in Montreal, at a date to be chosen by the chair- 
man of the committee, J. B. Challies, M.E.I.C. The 
committee was authorized to spend not more than twelve 
hundred dollars as a total expense of the meeting. 

As there are so many important suggestions regarding 
the affairs of The Institute, many of them having been 
under discussion for about two years it was felt by 
Council that such an important committee could not 
accomplish the best results by correspondence, and only 
by a meeting such as the one to be convened would the 
final report of the committee be possible. 




Badge of The Institute 

Although a photograph of the official badge of The 
Institute was published previously, it is reproduced here 
for the benefit of those who have joined The Institute 
more recently. This badge is available either as 
a lapel button, a pin or a watch fob. The badge for 
Members is gold, price three dollars and seventy-five cents, 
for Associate Members silver, price two dollars and twenty- 
five cents and bronze for Juniors and Students, price one 
dollar and fifty cents. The owner's name is engraved on 
the back together with the number of his badge. 

These are available through the Secretary's office. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



89 



The Thirty-Sixth Annual Meeting 



The Annual General Meeting of The Institute, was 
held at headquarters, on Tuesday, January twenty-fourth. 
President Fairbairn, D.Sc, M.E.I.C., opened the meeting 
at ten thirty A.M. 

Reading of Minutes. 

It was moved by C. A. Mullen, M.E.I.C., seconded 
by K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C., and carried, that the 
minutes of the last annual meeting be taken as read. 
Motion carried. 

Appointment of Scrutineers. 

It was moved by John Farmer, M.E.I.C., seconded 
by J. B. Challies, M.E.I.C., that W. S. Lea, M.E.I.C., 
and G. K. McDougall, M.E.I.C., be appointed scrutineers 
to report the result of the officers' ballot to the Secretary. 
Motion carried. 

Appointment of Auditors. 

It was moved by H. G. Acres, M.E.I.C, seconded 
by Sir Alex Bertram, M.E.I.C, that Messrs. Riddell, 
Stead, Graham and Hutchison, be appointed auditors 
for the ensuing year. Motion carried. 

Report of Council. 

It was moved by Geo. Mountain, M.E.I.C, seconded 
by Geo. T. Clark, A.M.E.I.C, that the report of Council, 
as published on page fifty-one of the February Journal 
be adopted. Motion carried. 

Reports of Committees. 

Finance Committee: — The report of the Finance 
Committee being read by the chairman, R. A. Ross, 
M.E.I.C, published in the February Journal, page 
fifty-five, it was moved by H. R. Safford, M.E.I.C, 
seconded by C K. McLeod, A.M.E.I.C, that the report 
of the Finance Committee be adopted. Motion carried. 

Library and House Committee: — It was moved by 
the chairman, Sir Alex. Bertram, M.E.I.C, seconded by 
H. R. Safford, M.E.I.C, that the report of the Library 
and House Committee, as published on page fifty-four of 
the February Journal, be taken as read. Motion carried. 

Legislation and By-laws Committee: — It was moved 
by J. E.Gibault, A.M.E.I.C, seconded by S.Blumenthal, 
A.M.E.I.C, that the report of the Legislation and By-laws 
Committee, as published on page fifty-five of the February 
Journal, be adopted. Motion carried. 

Papers Committee: — It was moved by John Farmer, 
M.E.I.C, seconded byW. D. Lawrence, A.M.E.I.C, that 
the report of the Papers Committee, as published on page 
fifty-five of the February Journal, be adopted. Motion 
carried. 

Publications Committee: — ■ The report of the Publica- 
tions Committee was read by the Secretary, in the absence 
of the chairman, H. H. Vaughan, M.E.I.C, as follows:— 
The Publication Committee beg to submit the following 
report for the year 1921, covering papers printed in The 
Journal from December 1920 to November 1921, both 
inclusive. It is recommended that the papers named 
below be printed in the Transactions; President's 
Address, R. A. Ross; Toronto Filtration Plant, Jas. 
Milne; On the Economics of Building Construction, 



J. Morrow Oxley; Relay Protective Features of the 
Toronto Transmission and Distribution System, P.Acker- 
man; A Logical Scheme for Determining the Concrete 
Making Value of Available Aggregates, G. M. Williams; 
Self-Corrosion of Cast Iron or Other Metals in Alkaline 
Soils, W. Nelson Smith and Dr. J. W. Shipley. Signed 
by Walter J. Francis, Col. R. W. Leonard, R. A. Ross, 
H. H. Vaughan. On motion by R. M. Hannaford, 
M.E.I.C, seconded by C K. McLeod, A.M.E.I.C, the 
report was adopted. 

Canadian Engineering Standards Committee: ■ — It was 
moved by S. Blumenthal, A.M.E.I.C, seconded by John 
Murphy, M.E.I.C, that the report of the Canadian 
Engineering Standards Committee, as published on page 
fifty-eight of the February Journal, be adopted. Motion 
carried. 

Canadian National Committee, International Electro- 
Technical Commission: ■ — It was moved by J. A. Jamieson 
M.E.I.C, seconded by C K. McLeod, A.M.E.I.C, that 
the report of the Canadian National Committee of the 
International Electro-Technical Commission, as printed 
on page fifty-nine of the February Journal, be adopted. 
Motion carried. 

Civil Service Classification Committee: — It was moved 
by C K. McLeod, A.M.E.I.C, seconded by H. R. Saf- 
ford, M.E.I.C, that the report of the Civil Service 
Classification Committee as published on page fifty-nine 
of the February Journal, be adopted. Motion carried. 

Committee on Deterioration of Concrete in Alkali 
Soils: — It was moved by W. D. Lawrence, A.M.E.I.C , 
seconded by E. V. Moore, M.E.I.C, that the report of 
the Committee on Deterioration of Concrete in Alkali 
Soils, as printed on page fifty-nine of the February 
Journal, be adopted. Motion carried. 

Honour Roll and War Trophies Committee: — On 
motion of General Armstrong, M.E.I.C, seconded by 
J. H. Hunter, A.M.E.I.C, the report of the Honour Roll 
and War Trophies Committee as published on page 
sixty of the February Journal was adopted. 

International Co-operation Committee: — It was moved 
by John Murphy, M.E.I.C, seconded by John Farmer, 
M.E.I.C, that the report of the International Co-opera- 
tion Committee, as published on page sixty-one of the 
February Journal, be adopted. Motion carried. 

Publicity Committee: — On motion of the chairman 
Frederick B. Brown, M.E.I.C, seconded by Commander 
Edwards, the report of the Publicity Committee 
as published on page sixty-one of the February Journal 
whas adopted. 

Roads and Pavements Committee: — It was moved by 
Geo. Mountain, M.E.I.C, seconded by J. A. Duchastel 
M.E.I.C, that the report of the Roads and Pavements 
Committee, as published on page sixty-two of the 
February Journal, be adopted. Motion carried. 

Uniform Boiler Specifications Committee: — On motion 
of S. Blumenthal, A.M.E.I.C, seconded by E. W. Oliver 
M.E.I.C, the report of the Uniform Steam Boiler 
Specifications Committee, as published on page sixty-three 
of the February Journal, was adopted. 



90 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Gzowski Medal Committee: — The report of the 
Gzowski Medal Committee, was read by the secretary, 
as follows: — Your Committee appointed to judge the 
papers eligible for this competition, presented to The 
Institute during the year ending June 1920, award this 
medal to Mr. P. Ackerman, A.M.E.I.C., for his paper on 
"Relay Protective Features of the Toronto Transmission 
and Distribution Svstem". Signed by Walter J. Francis, 
Col. R. W. Leonard, R. A. Ross, H. H. Vaughan. On 
motion by O. O. Lefebvre, M.E.I.C., seconded by J. B. 
Challies, the report was adopted. This report also 
showed the Students' prizes awards as follows: — A. M. 
Robertson, S.E.I.C., for paper on "Organization ofEngine 
Service during the War", and E. R. Woodward, Jr.E.I.C, 
for paper on "Lignite Briquetting Plant at Bienfait". 

Leonard and Plummet Medal Committees: - — It was 
moved by R. A. Ross, M.E.I.C, seconded by J. A. 
Jamieson, M.E.I.C, that the reports of the Leonard and 
Plummer Medal Committees, be received by Council. 
Motion carried. 

The meeting adjourned until two thirty P.M. 

In the afternoon session, the Chair was occupied by 
Vice-President H. G. Acres, M.E.I.C. 

Reports of Branches. 

Victoria Branch: — On motion of Rex. P. Johnson, 
A.M.E.I.C, seconded by J. B. Challies, M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Victoria Branch (February Journal page 
sixty- four) was adopted. 

Vancouver Branch: — On motion by S. Blumenthal, 
A.M.E.I.C, seconded by Sir Alex. Bertram, M.E.I.C, 
the report of the Vancouver Branch (February Journal 
page sixty-five) was adopted. 

Calgary Branch: — On motion bv Geo. MacLeod, 
M.E.I.C. seconded by Col. Magwood, M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Calgary Branch (February Journal page 
sixty-six) was adopted. 



Edmonton Branch: — On motion by J. H. Larmonth, 
M.E.I.C, seconded by R. L. Dobbin, M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Edmonton Branch (February Journal page 
sixty-eight) was adopted. 

Lethbridqe Branch: — On motion by A. C D. Blan- 
chard, M.E.I.C, seconded by B. E. Barnhill, M.E.I.C, 
the report of the Lethbridge Branch (February Journal 
page sixty-eight) was adopted. 

Saskatchewan Branch: — On motion by J. Clark 
Keith, A.M.E.I.C, seconded by Capt. Duchastel, 
M.E.I.C, the report of the Saskatchewan Branch 
(February Journal page sixty-eight) was adopted. 

Winnipeg Branch: — On motion by W. Chase Thom- 
son, M.E.I.C, seconded by Major McKergow, M.E.I.C, 
the report of the Winnipeg Branch (February Journal 
page sixty-nine) was adopted. 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch: — On motion by B. E. 
Barnhill, M.E.I.C, seconded by R. L. Dobbin, M.E.I.C, 
the report of the Sault Ste. Marie Branch (February 
Journal page seventy -two) was adopted. 

Border Cities Branch: — On motion of J. Clark 
Keith, A.M.E.I.C, seconded by John Farmer, M.E.I.C, 
the report of the Boder Cities Branch (February Journal 
page seventy-three) was adopted. 

London Branch: — On motion bv Geo. C Wright, 
A.M.E.I.C, seconded by J. W. H. "Ford, A.M.E.I.C, 
the report of the London Branch (February Journal page 
seventy-four) was adopted. 

Niagara Peninsula Branch: — On motion by Rex P. 
Johnson, A.M.E.I.C, seconded by A. C D. Blanchard, 
M.E.I.C, the report of the Niagara Peninsula Branch 
(February Journal page seventy- four) was adopted. 

Hamilton Branch: — On motion by R. M. Hannaford 
M.E.I.C, seconded by J. A. Burnett, A.M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Hamilton Branch (February Journal page 
seventy-five) was adopted. 




THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



91 



Toronto Branch: — On motion by Geo. T. Clark, 
A.M.E.I.C., seconded by F. B. Goedike, A.M.E.I.C., the 
report of the Toronto Branch (February Journal page 
seventy-six) was adopted. 

Peterborough Branch: — On motion of R. L. Dobbin, 
M.E.I.C., seconded by Col. Magwood, M.E.I.C., the 
report of the Peterborough Branch (February Journal 
page seventy-six) was adopted. 

Kingston Branch: — On motion by F. B. Goedike, 
A.M.E.I.C, seconded by Geo. C. Wright, A.M.E.I.C, 
the report of the Kingston Branch (February Journal 
page seventy-seven) was adopted. 

Montreal Branch: — On motion by P. L. Pratley, 
M.E.I.C, seconded by Major McKergow, M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Montreal Branch (February Journal page 
seventy-eight) was adopted. 

Quebec Branch: — On motion by J. E. Gibault, 
A.M.E.I.C., seconded by C. A. Buteau, A.M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Quebec Branch (February Journal page 
eighty) was adopted. 

St. John Branch: — On motion by H. F. Bennett, 
A.M.E.I.C, seconded by C C Kirby, M.E.I.C, the 
report of the St. John Branch (February Journal page 
eighty-one) was adopted. 

Moncton Branch: — On motion by C C Kirby, 
M.E.I.C, seconded by Rex P. Johnson, A.M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Moncton Branch (February Journal page 
eighty-one) was adopted. 

Cape Breton Branch: — On motion by K. G. Cameron, 
A.M.E.I.C, seconded by K. H. Smith, M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Cape Breton Branch (February Journal 
page eighty-two) was adopted. 

Halifax Branch: — On motion by O. S. Cox, 
A.M.E.I.C, seconded by K. H. Smith, M.E.I.C, the 
report of the Halifax Branch (February Journal page 
eighty-two) was adopted. 



Ottawa Branch: — On motion by Commander C P. 
Edwards, A.M.E.I.C, seconded by O. S. Finnie, M.E.I.C, 
the report of the Ottawa Branch (February Journal page 
eighty-three) was adopted. 

Ontario Provincial Division: — On motion by Col. 
W. H. Magwood, M.E.I.C, seconded by A. B. Lambe, 
A.M.E.I.C, the report of the Ontario Provincial Division 
(February Journal page seventy) was adopted. 

Report of the Nominating Committee: • — The following 
comprises the Nominating Committee for the year 1922, 
being the nominees of the various Branches: — Ottawa 
and Kingston Branches, John Murphy, M.E.I.C; Border 
Cities, H. Thorn, M.E.I.C; Cape Breton, G. D. Mac- 
dougall, M.E.I.C; St. John, C McN. Steeves, M.E.I.C; 
Saskatchewan, C J. Mackenzie, M.E.I.C; Vancouver, 
J. Muirhead, M.E.I.C; Peterborough, P. L. Allison, 
M.E.I.C; Hamilton, J. A. McFarlane, M.E.I.C; Monc- 
ton, J. D. McBeath, M.E.I.C; Calgary, F. W. Alexander 
M.E.I.C; Niagara Peninsula, A. J. Grant, M.E.I.C; 
Toronto, Wm. Storrie, M.E.I.C; Winnipeg, J.G.Legrand, 
M.E.I.C; Halifax, F. A. Bowman, M.E.I.C; Edmonton, 
C C Sutherland, A.M.E.I.C; Sault Ste. Marie, B. 
E. Barnhill, M.E.I.C; Quebec, A. B. Normandin, 
A.M.E.I.C; Lethbridge, G. N. Houston, M.E.I.C; 
Montreal, O. O. Lefebvre, M.E.I.C, and P. B. Motley, 
M.E.I.C; Victoria, K. M. Chadwick, A.M.E.I.C. On 
motion by Frederick B. Brown, M.E.I.C, seconded by 
Geo. T. Clark, A.M.E.I.C, the report was adopted. 

Amendment to Section 52 of the By-laws. 

Moved by Major McKergow, M.E.I.C, seconded by 
J. B. Challies, M.E.I.C, that this take the usual course, 
by sending out a ballot, accompanied by a pro and con 
circular. The chairman nominated A. B. Lambe, 
A.M.E.I.C, and J. L. Busfield, A.M.E.I.C, to prepare 
the circular, for and against the proposed amendment. 
The proposed wording of section fifty-two is:— 




MONTREAL, JAN. 24th. 1922. 



92 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



"Each Branch shall be managed by an Executive 
Committee or Managing Committee consisting of: 

(A) A Branch chairman, a Branch Secretary- 
treasurer, and not less than three other members, all to 
be known as elected members and to be ballotted for by 
all members of the branch entitled to vote at branch 
elections. 

(B) Those members of Council resident within the 
jurisdiction of the branch, to be known as ex-ofhcio 
members, and 

(C) The immediate past-chairman and the imme- 
diate past secretary-treasurer to be known as members 
emeritus, these latter to be members for only the year 
immediately following their term of office." 

The membership was advised of the proposal as 
required in the by-laws by an announcement on page 
six hundred and seventeen of the December Journal. 

Publicity. 

The question of greater publicity for engineers was 
discussed, and a motion by Mr. Mullen, seconded by 
Mr. Blanchard that Council appoint a committee to go 
into the matter of publicity, taking up the matter with 
local Branches was carried. 

Chemist for Concrete Deterioration in Alkali Soils. 

It was moved by Mr. Vaughan, seconded by 
Mr. Hunter that the meeting approve of the action of 
the Committee on Deterioration of Concrete in Alkali 
Soils in securing the services of a chemist to carry on 
their work, on the understanding that it does not commit 
The Institute in case the Committee contracts to spend 
funds which it has not on hand. An amendment that 
the matter be referred to Council with power to act was 
lost, and on standing vote the original motion was 
carried. 

Death of E. D. Lafleur, M.E.I.C. 

On motion by K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C, seconded 
by Geo. Mountain, M.E.I.C, that the meeting record the 
heartfelt sympathy of those present for the family of the 
late E.D. Lafleur, M.E.I.C, and that a message expressing 
the sympathy of The Institute be sent to the family. 

Officers Elected. 

The report of the scrutineers as read by the Secretary 
giving the result of the ballot showed that the following 
officers and members of Council had been elected : — 

President J. G. Sullivan, M.E.I.C. 

Vice-Presidents C.H. Mitchell, M.E.I.C... 

Arthur Surveyer, M.E.I.C 

Councillors: — District No. 1, J. A. Duchastel, 
M.E.I.C, Geo. MacLeod, M.E.I.C; District No. 2, 
J. E. Gibault, A.M.E.I.C; District No. 3, A. F. Stewart, 
M.E.I.C; District No. 4, Alexander Macphail, M.E.I.C, 
District No. 5, R. O. Wynne-Roberts, M.E.I.C; District 
No. 6, C H. E. Rounthwaite, A.M.E.I.C; District No. 7, 
D. A. Ross, M.E.I.C; District No. 8, A. R. Greig, 
M.E.I.C; District No. 9, R. S. L. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C; 
District No. 10, Geo. A. Walkem, M.E.I.C. 



Vote of Thanks to Montreal Branch. 

It was moved by H. R. Safford, M.E.I.C, seconded 
by Commander C P. Edwards, A.M.E.I.C, that this 
meeting extend a hearty vote of thanks to the Montreal 
Branch. 

The business of the meeting being concluded President 
J. M. R. Fairbairn, D.Sc, M.E.I.C, delivered his retiring 
presidential address. 

Professional Meeting 

In addition to the sessions on Tuesday, January 24th, 
at which the business of the annual meeting of The 
Institute was transacted there were two enjoyable social 
functions: a luncheon in the mezzanine dining-room, 
Windsor Station, at which over one hundred and fifty were 
present and at which the visiting Branch Secretaries were 
the guests of honour. The Annual Banquet was held in 
the Windsor Hotel, the chair was taken by H. G. Acres, 
M.E.I.C, newly elected Vice-President, and with him at 
the head table were the following: J. A. Duchastel, 
M.E.I.C, Geo. Mountain, M.E.I.C, H. R. Safford, 
M.E.I.C, Sir Alex. Bertram, M.E.I.C, G. Gordon Gale, 
M.E.I.C, Fraser S. Keith, M.E.I.C, Phelps Johnson, 
M.E.I.C, C V. Corless, M.E.I.C, G. H. Duggan, 
M.E.I.C, Fred. B. Brown, M.E.I.C, J. B. Challies, 
M.E.I.C, R. A. Ross, M.E.I.C, J. M. R. Fairbairn, 
M.E.I.C. After the toast to The King, "The Institute" 
was proposed by George A. Mountain, M.E.I.C, and 
replied to by H. G. Acres, M.E.I.C, who in his speech 
mentioned his gratification at there being present no less 
than five past -presidents. The Banquet was followed by 
a most enjoyable smoking concert. The programme was 
excellent and reflects great credit on the organizers. 
The Institute was represented on the programme by 
Professor C M. McKergow whose number "Thursday 
Evening at 8.15", a discussion on a technical subject 
in the manner of three well-known members of Montreal 
Branch was greeted with loud applause, and Yves Lamon- 
gne, Jr.E.I.C, who gave a 'cello selection in his usual 
finished manner. The other items on the programme 
also gave much enjoyment, and were enthusiastically 
received by the members present. 

Social Functions 

An annual function greatly enjoyed by those fortunate 
enough to be present, was the dinner given by the retiring 
President at the University Club on Wednesday evening 
to the outgoing and incoming Councils. It was a unique 
occasion in that at the head table there were seven past 
presidents of The Institute and three vice-presidents. 

Following the business sessions held on Tuesday 
January 24th, a one-day Professional Meeting under the 
auspices of the Montreal Branch was held on Wednesday 
25th. 

The programme was opened by an excursion to the 
plant of the Dominion Engineering Works, Lachine, where 
the new 41,000 H.P. unit now being constructed for the 
Shawinigan Water and Power Company was inspected. 
The plant proved most interesting to the visitors, and 
in addition to the large turbines other machines in course 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



93 



of erection were inspected. To construct these very large 
turbines the Dominion Engineering Works has installed 
the largest vertical boring mill on the continent. 

Following the inspection of the Dominion Engineering 
Works a luncheon was held in the Prince of Wales Salon, 
Windsor Hotel. The chair was taken by J. A. Duchastel, 
M.E.I.C., who after proposing the toast to "The King" 
introduced Alderman Hushion, who, on behalf of the 
Mayor welcomed the members of The Institute for the 
city. Mr. Duchastel then introduced Prof. H. E. T. 
Haultain, who addressed the gathering on ' 'The Romance 
of Engineering". 

The subject introduced by an apparently savage 
attack on the admission of ladies to any of the functions 
of The Engineering Institute, Professor Haultain declared 
himself one of the chief fighters against this innovation. 
However, following the gains of the ladies, first at Ottawa, 
next at Niagara Falls, and Toronto, he had noticed that 
to date they had never been officially welcomed, and he 
n ow took that duty upon himself. He went on to say 



that there was a very real work which the wives of the 
members of The Institute could perform in developing the 
"tribal soul". After all, this was the prime purpose of 
all gatherings of Institute members, and where the ladies 
could help largely was in instilling the Institute spirit 
into the younger men as they came through and graduated 
from the universities. 

Following the luncheon, the afternoon session was 
opened at headquarters when a most interesting address 
was given by Julian C. Smith, M.E.I.C., on the design 
and construction of the new 41,000 turbine unit which 
had been inspected at the plant of the Dominion Engin- 
eering Works that morning. Mr. Smith's paper will be 
printed in a later number of The Journal. 

At the evening session a very interesting paper on 
"The New St. John Cantilever Bridge" was given by 
Major Draper, describing the numerous unique features 
of the design and construction. The reading of this 
paper concluded the Professional Meeting. 




|-**i; 



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f; •» 



Osr Steei. Cas/»c, 






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Members of The Engineering Institute of Canada photographed at the Dominion Engineering Works Limited at the 
time of the Annual Convention of the Institute, showing the metal turbine cast steel scroll casing for the forty-one thousand 
horse power turbine, the largest of its kind ever manufactured, having a weight of two hundred and thirty-eight tons. 



94 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Retiring President's Address 

J. M. R. Fairbairn D. Sc., M. E. I. C. 
Delivered on Jan. 24th, 1922 at Headquarters, Montreal. 



When looking back over the past year and endeavour- 
ing to look toward the future, with a view to preparing 
something to say to you to-day, I am immediately led to 
wonder why custom has decreed that the President of 
The Institute should make his Annual Address at the end 
of his term of office, instead of at the beginning as is the 
custom in the Institution of Civil Engineers of Great 
Britain. If permitted to address The Institute at the 
beginning of the term, one could most pleasantly refer 
to the mistakes of his predecessors in office, delicately 
regret the lack of progress in the past, but, with due 
and becoming modesty, prophesy as to the rosy and 
successful future that may lie before The Institute, 
knowing full well that he will, at the end of his term 
hand over to another the results of his own mistakes 
without having in any way to answer for them. It being 
decreed otherwise, your President, at the end of his term 
must seemingly give an account of his own stewardship 
and prophesy as to the future of The Institute under the 
regime of his successor. 

Making Annual Address at Beginning 
Instead of End of Term. 

Before doing this, however, it may be worth while to 
dwell for a moment seriously on this very point. A newly 
elected president, at the beginning of his term of office, 
if making his address then, has a suitable opportunity 
to express in fitting terms his appreciation of the honour 
done him by his fellow engineers in electing him to office, 
an opportune moment to review the history and progress 
of the organization he is addressing, and a most fitting 
theme on which to dilate in stating to his fellow members 
his hopes and ambitions for the future, as well as his 
policy in trying to bring these into being. His fellow 
members, on the other hand, are taken into his confidence 
at the beginning of his term and, knowing his views, 
can aid and abet him in carrying them out, or caution 
and advise him as to their probable outcome, as may 
seem to them best for the welfare of their organization. 
A change in our procedure on this point is worth thinking 
over. I commend it to your consideration. 

Signs of the Times 

Reviewing the past year from the engineer's point of 
view is a somewhat serious affair. The reaction from the 
intense activity of the war period, which set in shortly 
after the signing of the Armistice and has been gathering 
impetus as it progresses, has now we hope reached its 
maximum, and, though there must be a constant down- 
ward trend in commodity prices for some time yet, it is 
to be devoutly hoped that with this downward trend 
there will be a sufficient increase in the demand for 
manufactured goods to start our industrial life once more 
on the way to normal production and a need for expansion. 
Large numbers of our membership, particularly the 
younger members, have suffered from the depression of 



the past year, and to many of our older members, who 
are more permanently established, this has been a matter 
of considerable concern, every effort being made, wherever 
possible, to aid those who were in need of it to secure 
employment. It is impossible to forecast how long 
industries will remain on their present short time basis. 
Already there are signs of improvement. Here and there 
we find groups of labour accepting sensibly the lowering 
of wages so necessary to get commodity values back to 
that point where trade will again begin to move briskly. 
These signs, though comparatively few and far between 
as yet, are indications of what may be looked forward to, 
and encourage the hope that it may not be long before 
we will have again embarked upon a period of industrial 
progress and expansion, leading to a demand which will 
create plenty of employment, not only in the field of 
ordinary and skilled labour, but in the professional 
engineering field as well. 

"Carry On" 

In a country such as ours, where vast areas await 
only the tilling of the soil, and illimitable natural resources 
only the advent of properly directed labour, with its 
inseparable partner — capital — to give to man with 
lavish hand the food and clothing to live and the power 
and raw materials with which to earn a living, it is 
impossible that a condition of depression can long exist 
among a young and energetic people. It is for us to-day 
to "Carry on", doing each his part to help his fellow over 
the low spots, and we will soon find ourselves surrounded 
by that activity and solid progress which is the natural 
condition of an intelligent and industrious nation. 

Progress of Institute 

While it is much easier, when considering the general 
conditions in our own country, to enthuss over the future 
than over the immediate past, a survey of the work of 
our own organization, The Engineering Institute of Canada, 
permits one to become enthusiastic over even the results 
of the past year's progress, as well as to look forward 
to a bright prospect of greater usefulness in the future. 
In many ways The Institute has made gratifying progress 
during the past year, the evidence of it being most 
apparent in the work of the twenty-two Branches which 
we now have scattered throughout the country. This 
work and its advantages to the individual member of 
a Branch apparently appeal to the membership at large, 
as several new Branches have been formed during the 
year and still others are now in prospect. The work of 
the various Branches has already become the most 
important activity of The Institute. It is still gaining 
in importance and is I believe leading our membership 
along lines calculated to do the most good in bringing out 
and developing each individual member of a Branch, 
making him more valuable to the community in which 
he dwells, and thereby improving the status of the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



95 



engineering profession as a whole. In making themselves 
felt outside of their own membership, by the holding of 
open meetings, social functions, etc., the Branches have 
created an interest among the general public and among 
engineers, not previously members of The Institute, which 
would appear to be largely responsible for the tremendous 
increase in membership which the last year has witnessed, 
in spite of the depressed condition of affairs throughout 
the country. 

Financial Condition 

This large addition to our membership is not only 
evidence of the interest and enthusiasm created by our 
Branches, but is a most potent factor in building up our 
revenues and putting the affairs of The Institute on a 
healthy and substantial basis. From the financial point 
of view, all members of The Institute are valuable, but 
particularly is the new member so in his first year, as he 
pays, not only his annual dues, but his entrance fee as well. 
It is a source of considerable gratification to the Council 
that this year, for the first time in the history of The 
Institute, despite the fact that the proposed increase in 
fees was turned down by ballot at the last Annual Meeting, 
they have been able to present to you a financial statement 
showing such a surplus on this year's operation. The 
Council has every hope that this will permit of a sum of 
being set aside this year to pay off the obligations of money 
The Institute, which sum will represent approximately the 
entire entrance fees of all members taken into The Institute 
this year. It has long been felt that all entrance fees 
should properly be used for Capital Account, and that 
Maintenance and Operating Expenses should be held 
down to a point where they can be met by the Current 
Annual Dues of the membership and Other Regular 
Sources of Annual Revenue. It is to be hoped that 
The Institute's affairs may so flourish that the precedent 
set this year can be followed in the future. 

Growth of Institute 

The year just passed shows a very marked contrast 
between the trend of business affairs throughout the 
country and the progress of The Engineering Institute. 
While business has been slowing down, the growth of 
The Institute has been speeding up. 

Extending Charts 

In January, 1917, Dr. G. Herrick Duggan, when 
retiring from office as your President, presented a series 
of charts showing graphically the increase in membership 
since the incorporation of The Institute in 1887. It seems 
appropriate at the present time to extend these charts 
to the end of 1921 and present them once more for your 
information . 



First Chart 

As shown on the first chart, there were, at the end 
of 1916, some 700 members, some 1400 associate members, 























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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ENGINEERINS INSTITUTE OF CANADA 
Chart ahowinq Growth of Corporate M«mb«r{hip 



Figure 1. 

or a total of some 2100 corporate members. This chart 
indicates the greatly accelerated increase in membership 
which has taken place since the Armistice, which has 
now carried the number of members to slightly over 1000, 
the number of associate members to very nearly 2300, 
and the total corporate members to somewhat over 3300. 
The fact that the increase in corporate membership was 
greater during 1921 than during any previous year would 
seem to indicate that it has by no means yet reached a 
peak, and I believe that you are justified in expecting 
your corporate membership to continue to increase at a 
very rapid rate for some time yet to come. 



Second Chart 



As shown on the second chart, there were at the end 
of 1916, some 900 non-corporate members, some 2100 
corporate members, and a total membership in The 
Institute of just under 3100. Although during the war 
period your corporate membership continued to increase 
at a reasonable rate, the non-corporate membership varied 
materially from year to year, in such a manner as to make 
a relatively slight increase in your total membership be- 
tween the end of 1912 and the end of 1918. After the 
Armistice, however, the non-corporate membership began 
to increase relatively as rapidly as the corporate member- 
ship, so that between the end of 1916 and the end of 1921 
the total membership of The Institute increased from 
slightly less than 3100 to practically 4900, or a total 
increase for the five years of approximately 1800 members. 
I believe this chart also warrants the belief that The 
Institute, insofar as membership is concerned, is but now 
starting to rise on a wave of prosperity. 



96 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



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ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

Chart showing Growth of Total Membership 



Figure 2. 
Third Chart 

The third chart, which shows the geographical 
distribution of your membership with the exception of 
students, is I believe even more gratifying. Although 
there has been a slight decrease in your total membership 
resident in the United States and other foreign countries, 
the Dominion-wide interest in The Institute which has 
been aroused is very clearly indicated by the fact that 
there has been an increase in membership in each one 
of the provinces since 1916. Ontario leads by a wide 
margin in this increase, but the trend for all of the other 
provinces is very markedly upward. 

Fourth Chart 

The fourth chart shows this same information in 
percentage rather than in actual numbers, and, while 
there is a decreased percentage of membership in the older 
and more settled provinces, there is an increase in the 
newer and less settled provinces, which is most gratifying. 
This indicates that the membership is becoming more 
equally distributed and that the engineering profession 
throughout Canada is all the time becoming better 
represented in the major engineering organization of the 
Dominion. 

Fifth Chart 

The fifth chart brings out very clearly the present 
geographical distribution of your membership. Well over 
50% is resident in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, 
which, on account of the greater population of these 
provinces, is to be expected. It is my hope, however, 
that as time progresses and the population of the Dominion 
becomes more equally distributed, the percentage columns 



of the other provinces will tend to rise and in so rising 
automatically reduce the height of the columns represent- 
ing the older provinces, so that ultimately your member- 
ship will approach the ideal of equal numbers in each of 
the eight provinces. 

Summary of Charts 

A study of the five charts just described cannot but 
enthuse one as to the future. It may be felt that the 
remarkable increase in membership shown during the last 
three years is perhaps accounted for by the return to 
civilian life of so many young men just starting out in 
their life's career, but it is my belief that such membership 
increase as may be due to this cause is more than offset 
by the hardship felt, during the declining market for 
engineers of the past three years, by those from whom 
we ordinarily draw our additions to membership. In any 
case the increase is a fact, and the most natural explana- 
tion for it is the favourable publicity which the excellent 
work of our Branches has been given among the engineering 
profession. May we not, therefore, feel that as the 
Branches grow and broaden the scope of their activities, 
a continuance of the rapid increase in our membership 
may be expected. 

Organization 

We have already 22 Branches, and, as these increase 
in number and in strength, it is evident that the parent 
body, or headquarters organization, must also increase or 
be modified in such manner as may seem necessary, in 
order to properly and efficiently co-ordinate the work of 
these Branches, and function as a tie to hold them together 







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ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

Chart showing Distribution of Members by Provinces 

[except Students] 



Figure 3. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



97 



and a clearing house through which there may be the freest 
interchange of ideas, proceedings and general results of 
Branch work. The ultimate success of The Institute lies, 
primarily, in keeping the Branches in close touch with 
one another and thus enabling each little group of us to 
work with every other group of us toward our ultimate goal 
— that all of us may be of the greatest possible service to 
thepublic at large and, therefore, to the engineering 
profession as a whole. 

Members in Outlying Districts 

One of the problems which will have to be met in 
the near future is how to interest those of our members 
in outlying districts whose location does not permit their 
participation in Branch affairs. They are at a distinct 
disadvantage and some means will have to be found 
whereby they can be brought into closer touch with the 
work of their fellow engineers. Just how this can be 
done is not clear, but. already, indications of unrest on 
the part of some such members are becoming evident, 
and a most careful consideration should be given to this 
subject in order that their interests may be served and 
their co-operation maintained. 






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ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 


CANADA 




Chart 


showinc 


Percent age Distribution of Members by Province; 








January I" |922 







Figure 4. 



Figure 5. 
Questions to be Kept in Mind 

We have now reached a stage in the condition of the 
profession where it seems wise to keep before us several 
questions upon which The Institute can be of the greatest 
value. Such matters as professional ethics; publicity of a 
suitable and dignified character; the enrollment of all engin- 
eering students at our universities in our membership; the 
possibility of adding to the classes of membership, or of 
broadening some of the existing classes, to take in more of 
those in the engineering field, or associated with it, who 
are not now eligible under the existing classes, and a number 
of other questions more or less related to these, some of 
which are now under consideration by the various com- 
mittees, should be kept in mind and, where possible, 
definite policies in regard to them adopted. With the 
Branches heartily co-operating in the carrying out of 
such policies, and the stimulation of interest in these 
matters which their co-operation would immediately 
bring about, there lies before us an opportunity for 
growth, expansion and improvement as a body which 
should make The Engineering Institute of Canada a most 
potent factor in determining the position which our 
membership will hold in their respective communities 
and the respect which the profession as a whole will 
command in the public mind. 



98 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Thirty-sixth Annual and Professional Meeting 



Registration 



Name Address 

1 Charles M. McKergow Westmount. 

2 A. L. Patterson Montreal. 

3 George T. Clark Toronto. 

4 Fraser S. Keith Montreal. 

5 F. B. Goedike Toronto. 

6 Wm. McNab Montreal. 

7 G. E. Bell Montreal. 

8 A. Boyer Montreal. 

9 G. K. McDougall Montreal. 

10 T. A. Chubb Montreal. 

11 J. L. Busfield Montreal. 

12 John T. Farmer Montreal. 

13 J. A. Burnett Montreal. 

14 Heber W. Dawson Montreal. 

15 C. H. T. Simm Montreal. 

16 Royal Le Sage Montreal. 

17 A. M. MacKenzie Montreal. 

18 C. A. Allan Strathmore. 

19 G. R. MacLeod Montreal. 

20 J. Clark Keith Windsor. 

21 Henry Holgate Montreal. 

22 A. W. Swan Montreal. 

23 James S. Costigan Montreal. 

24 J. H. Hunter Montreal. 

25 Geo. F. Alberga Montreal. 

26 J. A. Lalonde Montreal. 

27 J. H. Dupuis Montreal. 

28 D. W. Ross Montreal. 

29 W. S. Lea Montreal. 

30 J. A. Jamieson Montreal. 

31 R. A. Ross Montreal. 

32 H. L. Trotter St. Johns. 

33 W. B. Crombie Montreal. 

34 W. C. Adams Westmount. 

35 Gordon McL. Pitts Montreal. 

36 A. C. D. Blanchard Niagara Falls. 

37 Wilson J. Muir Montreal. 

38 Ernest V. Moore Montreal. 

39 Kenneth G. Cameron Sydney. 

40 E. A. Ryan Montreal. 

41 Frederick W. Cowie Montreal. 

42 Alex. Bertram Montreal. 

43 R. Armour Montreal. 

44 H. R. Saftord Chicago, 111. 

45 G. E. Templeman Montreal. 

46 F. A. Combe Montreal. 

47 J. LeRoy Underhill Sydney Mines. 

48 C. K. McLeod Montreal. 

49 G. C. Wright London. 

50 F. O. Orr Alfred Station. 

51 G C. Dunn Toronto. 

52 R. M. Charlton Montreal. 

53 Harry F. Bennett St. John. 

54 H. K. Wicksteed Toronto. 

55 A. L. Farnsworth Montreal. 

56 J. E. Gibault Quebec. 

57 E. E. Holmes Montreal. 

58 Edw. T. Mug Montreal. 

59 C. D. Woolward Montreal. 



60 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

110 

111 

112 

113 

114 

115 

116 

117 



Name Address 

R. W. Farmer Montreal. 

W. Chase Thomson Montreal. 

L. R . Thomson Montreal. 

E. W. Oliver Toronto. 

G. Marryat Montreal. 

L. W. Deslauriers Montreal. 

W. J. McAllister Montreal. 

H. M. MacKay Westmount. 

Brig. -Gen. C. J. Armstrong Montreal. 

R. Bickerdike, Jr Montreal. 

J. F. Grenon Chicoutimi. 

R. E. Stavert Montreal. 

Rex P. Johnson Niagara Falls. 

H. G. Acres Niagara Falls. 

A. L. Harkness Montreal. 

I. F. Roche Bienf ait, Sask. 

D. E. Perriton Montreal. 

C. W. Stokes Montreal. 

J. B. Wain Montreal. 

C. R. McCort Westmount. 

G. H. Duggan Montreal. 

Fred. A. McKay Westmount. 

C. G. Porter Montreal. 

H. W. B. Swabey Montreal. 

L. N. Jenssen Montreal. 

J. M. R. Fairbairn Montreal. 

P. E. Demers Montreal. 

W. F. Tye Montreal. 

H. Labrecque Montreal. 

S. E. Oliver Montreal. 

D. W. McKeen Montreal. 

J. J. O'Sullivan Montreal. 

L. H. Marrotte Montreal. 

C. C. Kirby St. John. 

N. L. Engel Montreal. 

H. M. Lyster Montreal. 

Geo. E. Newill Montreal. 

A. Duperron Montreal. 

E. A. Stone Montreal. 

Eugene Vinet Montreal. 

R. H. Ross Montreal. 

J. G. Notman Montreal. 

J. Gordon Robertson Montreal. 

W. J. Evans Montreal. 

E. P. Taylor Montreal. 

Robert Ford Montreal. 

J. D. Fry Montreal. 

H. A. Wilson Montreal. 

S. H. Wilson Montreal. 

P. G. Gauthier Montreal. 

R. A. McGregor Montreal. 

S. S. Colle Montreal. 

Frank M. Buchanan Montreal. 

H. S. VanScoyoc Montreal. 

B. J. Forrest Montreal. 

G. H. Fisk Montreal. 

J. B. Challies Ottawa. 

L. G. Papineau Outremont. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



99 



Name Address 

118 Kenneth H. Smith Halifax. 184 

119 George Kydd Orillia. ' 185 

120 Chas. A. Mullen Montreal. 186 

121 Arthur Vincent Montreal. 187 

122 K. M. Cameron Ottawa. 188 

123 James Ruddick Beaupre. 189 

124 J. M. Robertson Montreal. 190 

125 J. S. Cote Edmonton. 191 

126 Geo. F. Richan Ottawa. 192 

127 L. A. Desy Montreal. 193 

128 A. B. Lambe Ottawa. 194 

129 J. R. Stewart Renfrew. 195 

130 A. E. Jennings Toronto. 196 

131 C.P.Edwards Ottawa. 197 

132 W. P. Roper Montreal. 198 

133 M.F.Cochrane Ottawa. 199 

134 M. W. Maxwell Anyox. 200 

135 W. D. Lawrence Montreal. 201 

136 H. C. Kennedy Montreal. 202 

137 Geo. Mountain Ottawa. 203 

138 P. Johnson Montreal. 204 

139 John Murphy Ottawa. 205 

140 I. J. Tait Montreal. 206 

141 William Hay Montreal. 207 

142 A. S. Wall Montreal. 208 

143 M. J. Murphy Moncton. 209 

144 P. E. Biggar Montreal. 210 

145 S. Blumenthal Montreal. 211 

146 H. S. Deubelbeiss Outremont. 212 

147 R. M. Hannaford Montreal. 213 

148 J. Labell Montreal. 214 

149 John W. Seens Montreal. 215 

150 R. Sprenger Montreal. 216 

151 R. L. Dobbin Peterborough. 217 

152 B. E. Barnhill Sault Ste. Marie. 218 

153 R. A. Strong Bienfait, Sask. 219 

154 G. F. Cairnie Westmount. 220 

155 D. G. Anglin Montreal. 221 

156 Frederick B. Brown Montreal. 222 

157 K. M. Ramsey Montreal. 223 

158 Albert J. Kelley Montreal. 224 

159 T. A. G. Bishop Montreal. 225 

160 Edw. W. Francis Montreal. 226 

161 T. L. Crossley Toronto. 227 

162 Robert M. Robertson Montreal. 228 

163 J. E. Desy Montreal. 229 

164 R. H. Hunter Montreal. 230 

165 A. A. Putman Montreal. 231 

166 W. S. Gould Montreal. 232 

167 L. O'Sullivan Montreal. 233 

168 E. M. Bene Montreal. 234 

169 Alfred LaRocque Montreal. 235 

170 O. Lefebvre Montreal. 236 

171 P. W. St. George Montreal. 237 

172 A. B. Normandin Quebec. 238 

173 Douglas Bremner Montreal. 239 

174 J. A. Duchastel Montreal. 240 

175 H.A.Wilson Montreal. 241 

176 Wm. Kennedy, Jr Montreal. 242 

177 W. H. Magwood Cornwall. 243 

178 C. M. Morssen Montreal. 244 

179 W. A. Messenger Montreal. 245 

180 H. T. Kirkpatrick Montreal. 246 

181 W. R. McClelland Montreal. 247 

182 N.E.Brooks Sherbrooke. 248 

183 Peter Emslie . : Montreal. 249 



Name Address 

A. Ghysens Montreal. 

L. H. Laffoley Montreal. 

B. E. Norrish Montreal. 

E. S. Holloway Matane, Que. 

R. S. Eadie Montreal. 

S. Bonneville Montreal. 

H. L. Banfill Montreal. 

C. L. Cote Montreal. 

H. M. Black Montreal. 

G. S. Clark Montreal. 

G. R. Heckle Montreal. 

E. R. Pease Montreal. 

R. E. Jameson Montreal. 

Henry M. Lamb Montreal. 

R. M. Walker Montreal. 

H. E. Mott Montreal. 

A. M. Robertson Montreal. 

D. W. McLachlan .". Ottawa. 

F. C. C. Lynch Ottawa. 

R. DeL. French Montreal. 

E. Viens Ottawa. 

Edward C. Little Montreal. 

E. Brown Montreal. 

B. W. Seton Montreal. 

J. L. Rannie Ottawa. 

O. S. Finnie Ottawa. 

Noel Ogilvie Ottawa. 

Huet Massue Montreal. 

Aime Cousineau Montreal. 

G. H. Carsen, Jr. Montreal. 

W. C. Way Ottawa. 

C. M. Bennett Montreal. 

G. H. Desbarats Montreal. 

J. C. Kemp Montreal. 

G. Blanchard Dodge Ottawa. 

E. V. Brown Montreal. 

Walter Matheson Montreal. 

John S. Brisbane Westmount. 

G. C. Perkins Montreal. 

J. I. Monette Montreal. 

John Bonsall Porter Montreal. 

C. P. Creighton Montreal. 

H. B. Stuart Montreal. 

A. S. Poe Montreal. 

A. H. Milne Montreal. 

W. B. MacKenzie, Jr Montreal. 

W. V. Delaney Montreal. 

E. V. Gage Montreal. 

John E. Armstrong Montreal. 

L. H. Armstrong Montreal. 

John E. Paddon Montreal. 

BertweJl C. Root Westmount. 

Fred Newell Montreal. 

E. A. Beck Montreal. 

A. J. MacDonald Montreal. 

J. E. Openshaw Montreal. 

S. F. Rutherford Montreal. 

A. C. Tagge Montreal. 

A. S. Runciman Ville La Salle. 

O. S. Cox Halifax . 

Harold Rolph Montreal . 

G. C. Freeman Montreal 

F. I. C. Goodman Montreal. 

T. W. Lesage Montreal. 

J. H. Larmonth Montreal. 

Chas. Stephen Montreal . 



100 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Name Address 

250 T. H. G. Clunn Ottawa. 314 

251 D. Hillman Montreal. 315 

252 J. W. Harkem Melbourne. 316 

253 J. F. Harkem Melbourne. 317 

254 H. H. Vaughan Montreal. 318 

255 K. R. McLennan Montreal. 319 

256 A. Crumpton Montreal. 320 

257 R. E. Crawford Montreal. 321 

258 H. Steenbuch Montreal. 322 

259 E. C. Girouard Montreal. 323 

260 G. J. Morrissette Montreal. 324 

261 K. B. Thornton Montreal. 325 

262 John J York Montreal. 326 

263 G. H. Gagnet Edmonton. 327 

264 P. L. Pratley Montreal. 328 

265 A.R.Bingham St. Timothee. 329 

266 C. N. Monsarrat Montreal. 330 

267 G. L. Guillet ' Rochester, N.Y. 331 

268 C. J. Desbaillets Montreal. 332 

269 M.F.Williams Montreal. 333 

270 J. S. Goddard Montreal. 334 

271 Donald G. Kyle Montreal. 335 

272 Walter T. Moodie Port Arthur, Ont. 336 

273 C. A. Boulton Montreal. 337 

274 F. A. Chisholm Drummondville. 338 

275 G. Reed Montreal. 339 

276 Andrew S. Rutherford Montreal. 340 

277 Major J. Shepherd Lee Halifax. 341 

278 A. D. Swan Montreal. 342 

279 E- R- Woodward Montreal. 343 

280 F. H. McKechnie Montreal. 344 

281 J. R. Bradfield Montreal. 345 

282 Bruce B. Shier Montreal. 346 

283 W. J. S. Dormer Montreal. 347 

284 E. T. Herbert Montreal. 348 

285 F. E. Amlie Montreal. 349 

286 Henry B. Sims Montreal. 350 

287 J. H. Harries Montreal. 351 

288 Y. Lamontagne Montreal. 352 

289 Donald Ross-Ross Montreal. 353 

290 R. W. Mitchell Montreal. 354 

291 G. C. Monture Kingston. 355 

292 L. T. Rutledge Kinsgton. 356 

293 R. W Findlay : Lachine Locks. 357 

294 G. G. Gale Ottawa. 358 

295 A. V. Gale Ottawa. 359 

296 Cancelled 360 

297 G. B. Elliott Montreal. 361 

298 G. D. Coughlan Montreal. 362 

299 S. E. Junkins Winnipeg. 363 

300 F. L. Darrell Kenogami. 364 

301 T. E. A. Hall Montreal. 365 

302 S. J. H. Waller Montreal. 366 

303 James Ferguson Montreal. 367 

304 A. C. Loudon Montreal. 368 

305 E. J. Turley Montreal. 369 

306 S. F. Gualtieri Montreal. 370 

307 D. Leclerc Montreal. 371 

308 F. N. Harling Montreal. 372 

309 J. T. Ouinlan Montreal. 373 

310 W. J. Kingsmill Montreal. 374 

311 L. G. Cox Montreal. 375 

312 R. B. Young Toronto. 376 

313 Arthur Surveyer Montreal. 377 



Name Address 

J. C. Smith Montreal. 

G. P. Hawley Cedars. 

J. S. Le Page Montreal. 

L. C. Jacobs Montreal. 

A. W. McMaster Sydney. 

R. E. MacAfee Montreal. 

S. J. Fisher Ottawa. 

G. W. Thompson Montreal. 

D. L. McLaren Peterborough. 

P. E. Jarman Montreal. 

C. B. Bate Hawkesbury. 

W. F. McLaren Hamilton. 

A. Laurie Montreal. 

H. G. Welsford Winnipeg. 

V. E. Friedman Montreal. 

A. Peden Montreal. 

C. E. Herd Montreal. 

J. Robertson Montreal. 

John Chalmers Montreal. 

C. F. Draper Montreal. 

C. S. Kane Montreal. 

G. H. Osborne Montreal. 

W. C. Adams Montreal. 

C. R. Young Toronto. 

F. T. Kaelin Montreal. 

De Gaspe Beaubien Montreal. 

Brig. -Gen. C. H. Mitchell Toronto. 

H. C. Nourse Sherbrooke. 

C. V. Christie Montreal. 

L. Hovey Montreal. 

W. L. Dawson Montreal. 

B. C. Salamis Montreal. 

J. H. D. Ross Montreal. 

C. M. Wylde Montreal. 

E. S. M. Lovelace Montreal. 

G. E. Elkington Montreal. 

E. H. Morley Montreal. 

P. B. Motley Montreal. 

Peter Gillespie Toronto. 

Wm. A. Gilmour Montreal. 

Sadi Amiot Chicoutimi. 

P. S. Gregory Montreal. 

J. A. McCrory Montreal. 

R. H. Balfour Montreal. 

A. R. Henry Montreal. 

W. A. B. Hicks Montreal. 

C. B. Jandrew Montreal. 

A. V. Armstrong Montreal. 

J. H. Oliver Montreal. 

J. D. Peart Lachine. 

A. H. Chisholm Montreal. 

W. P. Seath Montreal. 

E. T. Spidy Montreal. 

C. E. Herd Montreal. 

L. S. McLennan Montreal. 

H. J. Goldberg Montreal. 

D. G. MacKenzie Montreal. 

J. C. Elder Montreal. 

J. L. T. Martin Montreal. 

R. L. Latham Hamilton. 

H. E. T. Haultain Toronto. 

Edward Normand Montreal. 

H. W. D. Armstrong Toronto. 

James J. Taylor St. John. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



101 



! 
i 

4—,, 



CORRESPONDENCE 



\ 



Canadian Electrical Association Meetings 

Editor, Journal: — 

Dear Sir, 

Referring to your letter of the 6th inst., re dates 
of meetings for the Montreal Section of the C.E.A., I 
beg to advise you that the Programme Committee at 
their meeting of regent date, have decided to hold meetings 
on the following dates: — 

Jan. 16 — "Paper on Illumination", by Geo. K. 
McDougall. 

Feb. 6— "Address", by M. H. Aylesworth, ex- 
ecutive manager, National Electric 
Light Assoc, New York. 

27 — "Paper on Electrical Protective Devices", 
by a speaker supplied by J. W. Pilcher. 

Mar. 20 — "Paper on Meters and Metering", by 
a speaker supplied by Chas. F. Medbury 

Apr. 10 — "Paper on Merchandising", by Geo. 
Atchison. 

24 — "Social Evening for the closing of the 
Season". 

It was decided to have a meeting every third week, 
instead of monthly, on account of the season being so 
short. It might be tha,t some of the subjects referred to 
in this programme may have to be altered but the dates 
will very likely remain the same. 

I should like to mention that any members of The 
Engineering Institute who should be interested in any of 
these subjects are welcome at our meetings. Our purpose 
is to have papers and talks which will be useful to our 
members without interfering with any of the organized 
bodies, at present. It is quite possible that some of the 
members of other associations might be interested in our 
papers and a welcome invitation is extended to them. 

Thanking you for your good wishes for the new year, 
which I duly reciprocate, I am, 

Yours very truly, 

Eugene Vinet, A.M.E.I.C., 

Secretary- Treasurer. 



Symposium on Water Power 

A symposium on Water Power Development is being 
planned at the University of Toronto under the direction 
of Professor R. W. Angus, M.E.I.C., head of the Depart- 
ment of Mechanical Engineering, and professor in charge 
of the hydraulic work at the University. This will take 
place during the last week in February and the first week 
in March of this year and each phase of hydraulic power 
development will be dealt with by a specialist. 



A number of eminent hydraulic engineers in Canada 
and the United States are being invited to contribute to 
the conference. The discussions will be of distinctly 
technical character and of interest particularly to prac- 
tising engineers. 

The details are now being arranged and a copy of 
the programme will be sent when ready to anyone apply- 
ing to Professor Angus, University of Toronto. 

Safety Census 

All branches of the engineering profession will watch 
with close interest the results of the safety census now 
being taken by the National Safety Council. 

The census which the National Safety Council is 
taking will include all persons engaged in safety and 
industrial health activities in all industries in all parts 
of the country, and persons doing public safety work as 
well. This is the first time any attempt has everbeen 
made to list all the persons engaged in these activities 
professionally. 

The census will include not only members and em- 
ployees of members of the National Safety Council, but 
all persons engaged in industrial safety and health work 
and public safety work whether connected with the 
Council in any way or not. Many consulting engineers 
and other engineers are included in the membership^ of 
the Council. The Council works in close co-operation 
with the leading engineering societies, government bureaus, 
such as the Bureau of Standards, Bureau of Mines, and 
other such agencies. Engineering plays a big part in the 
safety work being carried on under the leadership of the 
National Safety Council. 

Every member of The Institute who is professionally 
engaged in industrial or public accident prevention or 
industrial health work — whether he is devoting all or 
only part of his time to accident prevention — is urged 
to assist in the taking of this census by sending to the 
National Safety Council, 168 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago, his name and the other date requested in the 
Council's census form which is reproduced below. 

Following is the form which all safety workers are 
requested to fill in and send to the National Safety Council, 
168 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago. 



. State . 



Name 

Company or organization . . . 

City 

Nature of company's business 

Is safety your principal work ? 

Please check other activities you engage in: 

Fire protection Legal 

Health and sanitation Insurance 

Workmen's compensation and claims Welfare 
General executive (such as manager Educational 

or superintendent) 
Engineering (other than safety) Industrial relations 

How long have you been in your present position ? 

Technical or other special education ? , 

Signed 

Title 



102 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 



i 

i 



Situations Vacant 

Town Engineer. 

Applications will be received until February 10th 
1922 for position of Town Engineer for the town of 
Oshawa, Ont. Applicant must bee xperienced and 
thoroughly capable of taking charge of all branches of 
municipal work. Apply giving references to F. E. Hare, 
Town Clerk. 

Members Exchange 

Transit and Level for sale 

Keuffel & Esser Transit:— 6%" Hor. Limb, 5" 
Vertical Arc. and UK" telescope. In first class condition. 
If new, catalogue value would be $507.00. 

Keuffel & Esser Level: — 15" Y Level. In first class 
condition. If new, catalogue value would be $254.00. 

Two Split Tripods: — All may be examined at Keuffel 
and Esser, 5 Notre Dame Street, West, Montreal. 
Apply Box 20-A 

Tenders. 

Tenders will be received from manufacturers up 
until noon March 1st, 1922 for Dual Drive, 100 K.W., 
D.C. Generator, 3 wire, 125-250 volt, one drive to be 
E.H.N.C. turbine, the other 2 phase, 60 cycle, 2200 volt 
motor. Plans and specifications can be obtained from 
the office of A. R. Greig, M.E.I.C., Superintendent of 
Buildings, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. 



ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 



At the meeting of Council held on January 17th, 1922, 
the following elections and transfers were effected: — 

Members 

John Fawcett Bell, Commander-Engineer in charge of H.M.C.S. 
Aurora and fleet engr. officer, Halifax, N.S. 

Edward Victor Buchanan, gen. mgr., Public Utilities Commission, 
London, Ont. 

Charles Frederick Draper, B.A.I. , Trinity College, Dublin., res. 
engr., C.P.R. cantilever bridge, St. John, N.B. 

Frederick William Farncomb, private practice, London, Ont. 

Donald Ernest Grant, in control of all activities of the Armstrong 
group of firms in North America, Montreal, Que. 

Thomas Montgomery, chief engr., Sarnia plant, Imperial Oil, 
Limited, Sarnia, Ont. 

Associate Members 

Reginald deBruno Austin, Secretary, Turbine Equipment Co. 
Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 



Charles Walter Brown, B.Sc, (C.E.), Univ. of N.B., engr., J. A. 
Grant & Co. Ltd., Engrs. and Contractors, St. John, N.B. 

Robert Edwards Butt, dftsman. Canadian Westinghouse Co. Ltd., 
Hamilton, Ont. 

Harold Belbin Fisk, gen. mgr., Walsh Plate & Structural Works, 
Ltd., Drummondville, Que. 

Noel Faure Harrison, Manitoba Power Commission, Winnipeg, 
Man. 

Joseph Albert Laniel, asst. engr. Dept. P.W. Canada, London, 
Ont. 

Thomas Ernest McGrail, engr., C. A. Dunham Co., Ottawa, Ont. 

William Andrew Robinson, (Grad. S.P.S. Univ. of Toronto), 
district engr., Good Roads Board, Winnipeg, Man. 

William Gordon Scott, B.Sc, McGill Univ., plant engr., Northern 
Electric Company, Montreal, Que. 

Sidney Snell, gen. mgr. and engr., British American Fuel & 
Metals Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

John LeMoirrey Tait, consltg. engr., St. Lambert, Que. 

James Weir, B.Sc, (McGill Univ.), asst. professor of geodesy and 
surveying, McGill University, Montreal, Que. 

Samuel Raymond Weston, B.Sc, (Univ. of N.B.), asst. chief 
engr., N.B. Electric Power Commission, St. Johns, N.B. 

Associates 

William Charles Franz, President, Algoma Steel Corporation, 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

David Livingstone McKeand, asst. director, Northwest Territo- 
ries and Yukon, Department of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont. 

Donald Minto McLean, Dominion Engineering Works, Ltd., 
Montreal, Que. 

Juniors 

Arthur Dale Bishop, B.S. (C.E.), (Univ. of Vermont), dftsman., 
Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd., Walkerville, Ont. 

Jean B. Garneau, Bach, in Surveying (Laval Univ.), chief of Labor- 
atory for testing materials, Dept. of Highway, Prov. Govt., Quebec, 
Que. 

Wilder Clifford Goodwin, field engr., St. John Dry Dock & Ship- 
bldg. Co., East St. John, N.B. 

Charles A. Grupp, office man, Dept. Public Highways of Ont., 
at Waterdown, Ont. 

Francis Stewart Hartle, of Winnipeg, Man. 

Thomas Haliburton Henry, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.). asst. engr. : 
J. P. Porter, Standifer & Porter Bros., St Catharines, Ont. 

Francis Joseph Igoe, (Rensselaer Poly. Inst.), Chemist, Canadian 
General Electric Co., Peterborough, Ont. 

George Dean Maxwell, B.A.Sc (Univ. of Toronto), demonstrator 
in drawing, Faculty of Applied Science and Engineer, University of 
Toronto, Ont. 

William Cecil Elwood Robinson, of Coldwater, Ont. 

Keltie Wilson, instr'man., Dept. P.W. Canada, St. John, N.B. 

Kenelm Molson Winslow, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), dftsman., motive 
power and car dept., C.P.R. Winnipeg, Man. 

Transferred from the class of Associate 
Member to that of Member 

Ewart Gladstone Home, B.A. (Dartmouth Univ.), vice-pres. and 
managing director, Lockewood Greene & Co., of Canada, Ltd., Montreal 
Que. 

Percy Oscar Gordon Janes, vice-pres., gen. mgr., and chief engr., 
Canadian S.K.F. Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Ibbotson Leonard, (Grad. R.M.C., Kingston), B.Sc, (McGill 
Univ.), vice-pres. and gen. mgr., E. Leonard & Sons Limited, London, 
Ont. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



103 



Louis William Klingner, (Univ. of Toronto), district irrigation 
officer, special projects, Baghdad, Mesopotamia. 

Charles Joseph Harrison Townsend, B.A.Sc, (Univ. of Toronto), 
member of firm, Russell Constrn. Co. Ltd., and mgr., Drifting Sand 
Filter Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Junior 
to that of Associate Member 

Alexander Alderson Anderson, (Grad. R.M.C. Kingston), B.Sc. 
(McGill Univ.,), asst. engr., chief engr's branch, London District, 
Dept. P.W., London, Ont. 

Henry Gerald Angell, canal supt. in charge of the Bassano Division 
of the C.P.R. Eastern section irrigation project, Bassano, Alta. 

Chiles Manly Barnes, checker, Lackawanna Bridge Co., Buffalo, 
N.Y. 

Byron Conrade Berry, res. engr., sewer section, dept. of works, 
City of Toronto, Ont. 

Paul Raymond Boese, chief engr., Nevada Northern Railway, 
Ely, Nevada. 

Fitz James Bridges, junior engr., district engr's office, London 
District, Dept. P.W. Canada, London, Ont. 

John Brooke Molesworth Parnell, Lord Congleton, B.Sc, (McGill 
Univ.), Montreal, Que. 

Louis Wilfrid DesLauriers, asst. engr. in charge of designing frogs, 
switches and track materials, C.P.R. , Montreal, Que. 

Sydney Dawson Fawcett, D.L.S., topographical surveys branch, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Christopher Edwin Fraser, B.Sc. (Queen's Univ.), res. engr., 
James, Proctor & Redfern Ltd., Consltg. Engrs., Toronto, Ont. 

Meliton C. Garroni, Bach, of Engr'g. and Arch'ture (Malta Univ.), 
office engr. and dftsman., mtce of way dept., C.N.R. Winnipeg, Man. 

Walter Griesbach, B.Sc. (Queen's Univ.), office engr., The Found- 
ation Company Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

George Aubrey Jenkins, B.Sc. (Queen's Univ.), supt. in Northwest 
States and Western Canada, on street and highway constrn. work for 
Warren Bros. Company (Engineering) Laboratory, Portland, Oregon. 

Samuel Ralph Keemle, chief engr., Chatham, Wallaceburg & 
Lake Erie Rly., Chatham, Ont. 

Albert John Kelly, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), asst. professor of survey- 
ing and head of the dept. of surveying and geodesy, McGill University, 
Montreal, Que. 

Henry Fairweather Morrisey, M.Sc. (Univ. of N.B.), district engr., 
Marine Dept., St. John, N.B. 

Charlie Berford Shaw, i/c of dfting office, Abitibi Power & Paper 
Co., Iroquois Falls, Ont. 

Osborne Harris Shenstone, B.S. (Mass. Inst, of Tech.), supt., 
Weston Works, Massey-Harris Company, Toronto, Ont. 

Ronald Harrover Stenhouse, res. engr., C.P.R., Kipawa, Que. 

Harold Heard Vroom, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), Northern Electric Co., 
Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student 
to that of Associate Member 

Chester Winfield Boast, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), of Richmond, Que. 

Edgar C. Cowan, B.A.Sc, (Univ. of Toronto), munic engr., 
Municipality of Springfield, for Good Roads Board, Winnipeg, Man. 

Charles Hibbert Donnelly, B.Sc. (Queen's Univ.), Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

Harry L. Dowling, B.A.Sc. (Univ. of Toronto), struct '1. Engr., 
Barber, Wynne-Roberts & Seymour, Toronto, Ont. 

Alan Ferrier, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), of Ottawa, Ont. 

Leon Fernand Mackay, B.Sc, C.E. (Laval Univ.), divn. engr., 
Quebec Roads Dept., Montreal, Que. 



Donald Keith Macleod, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), i/c of installation 
and operation of Canadian Branch of Ohio Brass Co., Barberton, Ohio, 
at Toronto, Ont. 

William Miles Miller, (Grad. R.M.C. Kingston), Capt., Royal 
Corps of Signals, Maresfield Park, Uckfield, Sussex, England. 

Paul Emil Mathias Rosenorn, estimator, Graham & Windsor, 
General Contractors, Montreal, Que. 

Francis Edward Weir, B.A.Sc. (Univ. of Toronto), asst. engr., 
Dept. Public Highways of Ontario, Hamilton-Queenston Highway, 
Beamsville, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Student 
to that of Junior 

William Herbert Bennet, B.Sc. (Queen's Univ.), res. engr., Backus 
Brooks Co., Kenora Power Development, Kenora, Ont. 

Edgar Jabez Buckingham, B.Sc. (Univ. of Man.), asst. dist. 
Good Roads Board, Winnipeg, Man. 

John Campbell Elder, B.Sc, (McGill Univ.), salesman, J. A. Elder, 
Montreal, Que. 

Lawrence Edward Cokayne Frith, B.Sc, (Univ. of Man.), Mani- 
toba Govt. Telephones, Winnipeg, Man. 

Paul Gilles Gauthier, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), demonstrator, McGill 
University, Montreal, Que. 

Thomas Stanley Glover, 4th year student, Univ. of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. 

Douglas John Ludgate, B.Sc, (Queen's Univ.), res. engr., Schroeder 
Mills & Timber Co., Pakesley Ont. and Key Valley Rly. (private line). 

Albert Edward Macdonald, B.Sc, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), studying 
for M.Sc. at McGill University, Montreal, Que. 

Brouard Hunter Tyndall Mackenzie, (Grad. R.M.C. Kingston), 
B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), junior engr., Coverdale & Colpitts, Consltg. 
Engrs., New York, N.Y. 

James O'Halloran, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), asst. mech. engr., Abitibi 
Power & Paper Co. Ltd., Iroquois Falls, Ont. 

Basil C. Salamis, B.Sc. (McGill Univ.), with Jas. Atsalinos, General 
Contractor, Montreal, Que. 

Raynond Donald Stiles, B.Sc. (N.S. Tech. Coll.), inspr. for Jack- 
son & Moreland, Boston, Mass., taking inventory of equipment of N.S. 
Tramways & Power Co., Halifax, N.S. 

John LeRoy Underhill, Riviere du Loup Station, Que. 

British Industries Fair 

The function of the British Industries Fair is to 
bring buyers and sellers together and to facilitate business 
between them. Goods can be inspected, prices compared 
and definite orders placed at the Fair. 

Since its inception in 1915, the British Industries 
Fair has grown until it is to-day the most important 
national trade fair in the world. For the 1922 Fair it 
has fortunately been possible to secure enough additional 
accommodation both in London and Birmingham to 
provide not only for the annual growth of the Fair, 
but also to find room for the great industries which have 
hitherto been exhibited at Glasgow. Textiles, however, 
will not be included in the 1922 Fair. 

A very large number of industries will be represented 
at the Fair and a descriptive pamphlet containing a list 
of such will be mailed to intending visitors, together 
with a complimentary admission card, on application to 
the British Trade Commissioners in Canada. Their 
addresses are: — 248 St. James Street, Montreal; 260 
Confederation Life Building, Toronto; and 610 Electrical 
Railway Chambers, Winnipeg. 



104 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Toronto Meeting, 

American Association for the Advancement 

of Science 

By Horace L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C., 
Secretary of the Local Committee. 

The Toronto Meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science and of the Associated 
Scientific Societies, which was held during the last week 
of the year just ended, was the 74th meeting of the 
Association, and the second time that such meetings have 
been held in Toronto. The total number of those who 
registered was 1,832, geographically distributed as shown 
below: — 

England, Belgium and Japan 12 

United States (including Hawaii 

and Philippine Islands) 867 

Canada 953 

From the City of Toronto there were registered 686, 
but practically every province and state in Canada and 
United States was represented. A number, and probably 
a considerable number, attended some of the meetings 
without registering. And the writer had the pleasure of 
talking to a man of science from Denmark, who apparently 
forgot to register. 

The object of this article is to indicate the part 
played by members of The Engineering Institute of Canada 
and also to indicate in some way the value of such meetings 
to engineers. 

The meeting of the Association was held in Toronto 
on the invitation of the University of Toronto and the 
Royal Canadian Institute. The sessions were held in 
the various buildings of the University, the majority of 
the members being conveniently housed in the various 
University Dormitories. Meals were served in the 
University Dining Hall. The visitors, one and all, 
seemed to be delighted with the arrangements which 
they declared were almost ideal for a meeting of this size. 
In recent years the engineering section has not been 
at all active. There are several reasons for this which 
need not be mentioned here. However, this year the 
section was revived, its programme being considered a 
very important part of the meeting of the Association. 
Great credit is due to the very efficient work of Mr. J. B. 
Tyrrell of Toronto, Vice President of the Engineering 
Section and Chairman at the meetings. He was ably 
assisted by Professors Robt. W. Angus, M.E.I.C., and 
Peter Gillespie, M.E.I.C., as well as by Prof. C. R. Young, 
M.E.I.C, who represented the Society for the Promotion 
of Engineering Education, which met with Section "M" 
(the Engineering Section). 

The Engineering Programme began on Tuesday, 
Dec. 27th, 1921, with an address on "Natural Resources 
and National Welfare" by Sir Clifford Sifton, formerly 
Chairman of the Commission of Conservation. To 
relieve the fuel situation, Sir Clifford advised the coking 
of coal where possible from the mines of Nova Scotia 
and Alberta, the value of the by-products being pointed 
out. He expressed the belief that peat deposits would 
yet be found of real value. 



Then followed papers as below: — 

"Optical Determination of Stress Distribution in 
Engineering Problems," by Paul Heymans, University of 
Ghent. 

"Return Current along Submarine Cables," by Chas. 
Manneback, University of Louvain. 

On Wednesday morning, John Murphy, M.E.I.C., 
electrical engineer, Department of Railways and Canals, 
Ottawa, employed moving pictures to illustrate his 
excellent talk on "Ice Formation and Prevention with 
Special Reference to Frazil and Anchor Ice." 

R. J. Durley, M.E.I.C, Secretary of the Canadian 
Engineering Standards Association, Ottawa, addressed the 
meeting on "Engineering Standardization". 

The following papers on Mining were then delivered: 

"Fifty Years of Progress in Mining in Canada," by 
John E. Hardman, M.E.I.C, consulting mining engineer, 
Montreal, Quebec. 

"Metal Mining in Canada," by Thos. W. Gibson, 
Deputy Minister of Mines, Ontario. 

"Gold Mining in Ontario," by A. F. Brigham, 
General Manager, The Hollinger Mine, Ontario. 

"Nickel Mining and Smelting," by W. L. Dethloff, 
M.E.I.C, chief engineer, The Mond Nickel Company, 
Ontario. 

On Thursday, Geo. T. Clark, A.M.E.I.C, chief 
designing engineer of the Toronto Harbour Commission 
gave an illustrated address on "Toronto Harbour Develop- 
ment" followed by an address on "Industrial Research" 
by R. A. Ross, M.E.I.C, Chairman, Honorary Advisory 
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Canada. 

Other Thursday papers were as follows: — 

"Railway Development in Canada," by H. K. 
Wicksteed, M.E.I.C, formerly chief locating engineer, 
Canadian Northern Railway. 

"Exploration for Oil in Western Canada," by A. M. 
McQueen, Vice-President, Imperial Oil Company, Toronto. 

"Coal Mining in Alberta," by James McEvoy, 
M.E.I.C, consulting coal mining engineer, Toronto. 

Sir Adam Beck, Chairman of the Hydro-Electric 
Commission of Ontario addressed a general session on 
Thursday afternoon, under the auspices of Section "M" 
(Engineering). His subject was "Hydro-Electric Devel- 
opments in Ontario". These developments, he said, had 
been due to the men of pure science as well as to those 
of applied science — the electrical and hydraulic engineers. 

Following the illustrated address by D. B. Dowling 
of the Geological Survey of Canada on "Engineering 
Features of the Development of the Mackenzie River 
Oil Field" Friday was devoted to some consideration of 
the problems of engineering education. 

A great deal of interest was shown in and considerable 
discussion aroused by the following papers:— 

"Relation of Industry and the Practicing Engineer 
to Engineering Education," by R. C Harris, commis- 
sioner of works, Toronto. 

"Professional Engineering Education for the Indus- 
tries," by Prof. Chas. F. Scott, President of the Society 
for the Promotion of Engineering Education. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



£05 



"Engineering Education versus Vocational Training," 
by F. W. Merchant, director of industrial and technical 
education, Province of Ontario, and Dugald C. Jackson, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

On Friday evening the meetings of the Engineering 
Section were concluded with a dinner. In this dinner 
the Geological Section joined as well as the following 
technical bodies: — 

Society of Promotion of Engineering Education, 
The Engineering Institute of Canada (Toronto Branch). _ 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Ontario 

Branch). 
The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (Toronto 

Branch). 
The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 

(Toronto Branch). 
The Society of Chemical Industry (Toronto Branch). 

Among the guests at the dinner were Sir Robert 
Falconer, President of the Universiy of Toronto; Dr. 
R. T. McDougal, General Secretary, and Prof. B. E. 
Livingston, Permanent Secretary, of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. The 
engineers considered themselves extremely fortunate in 
entertaining such honoured guests, as several dinners of 
other Sections and Societies were being held on the same 
evening. It was on the other hand, an indication of the 
importance attached to the Engineering Section. 

A meeting of this magnitude requires a great deal of 
attention to numerous details. In attending to these 
engineers had a prominent part. On the Local Com- 
mittee, there were included the following members of the 
staff of the Faculty of Applied Science:— Dean C. H. 
Mitchell, M.E.I.C; Professors G. H. C. Wright, J. W. 
Bain, J. R. Cockburn, M.E.I.C, E. W. Banting and 
S. G. Bennett. Horace L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C., was 
Secretary of the Local Committee with A. M. Reid, 
S.E.I.C., as assistant. 

The Toronto Meeting has meant a great deal for the 
advancement of science in this country. To engineers it 
has afforded the opportunity of meeting with men of 
science under very happy auspices. 

The Toronto Meeting has been declared a success, 
and undoubtedly engineers and members of The Engineer- 
ing Institute of Canada helped to make it so. 

Meeting of Practising Engineers in Chicago 

The American Association of Engineers will hold a 
conference of practising engineers at the Congress Hotel 
in Chicago on Wednesday February 22, Washington's 
birthday. 

The tentative programme includes the following 
subjects: 

How to sell engineering service, 

Experience of the practising engineer with licensing, 

(a) State reciprocity, 

(b) Licensing of engineering corporations, 
Publicity for practising engineers, 

Cost accounting for engineering service, 
Bookkeeping for an engineering office, 
How to uphold the standards of services and fees, 
Amendment of schedules of services and fees, 

(a) Providing for other branches, such as mining 
and mechanical, 



(b) To fit them to the practice appertaining to 
the several parts of the country, 

Computing the practising engineer's income tax. 

An invitation to attend the conference will be extend- 
ed to all practising engineers whether members of the 
Association or not who are interested in the subjects on 
the program. 

That the conference may be of the greatest benefit 
to' the profession depends to a considerable extent on a 
large attendance and if you will announce the meeting 
in an early issue of your paper, we shall appreciate it. 



OBITUARIES 



a 

! 
I 

•■a 



Eugene D. Lafleur, B.A.Sc, C.E., M.E.I.C. 



The distinguished career of an eminent member of 
the profession came to a close on December 14th last in 
the sudden death of Eugene Damase Lafleur, Chief 
engineer of the Department of Public Works of Canada. 

Born at Montreal on August 5th, 1861, the son of the 
late Edouard Lafleur, notary and of Eliza Holmes, the 
late Mr. Lafleur was educated at Montreal College, 
afterwards taking a course in Engineering at the Poly- 
technic School, from which institution he graduated in 
1881, with high honours, winning the Peter S. Murphy 
gold medal for proficiency. 

For over forty years Mr. Lafleur was connected with 
the Department of Public Works, having entered the 
employ of the Government upon the completion of his 
studies in 1881 as assistant to R. Steckel, who was 
then engaged on Geodetic Surveys and Precise Levelling 
Operations in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces. His 
remarkable talent and sterling qualities soon won him the 
esteem and appreciation of his superiors. In a few years 
he became chief of party, conducting important surveys 
for Harbour and River Inprovements, later on supervising 
the construction of Departmental works in the Eastern 
Provinces. Following the retirement of Louis Coste in 
1899, Mr. Lafleur became acting chief engineer, being 
subsequently appointed chief engineer, December 1st, 1904. 

Mr. Lafleur had charge of the Hydrographic Survey, 
River St. Lawrence 1897-1898, was chief engineer of the 
Georgian Bay Ship Canal survey, 1904-1905 and in 1906 
reported favourably on the feasibility of the P.E.I. Tunnel. 

The many important public works, such as deep 
water wharves, graving docks, harbour improve- 
ments, etc., etc., built during the last twenty-five years 
throughout the Dominion bear strong testimony to the 
engineering ability and sound judgment possessed by the 
late Mr. Lafleur. 

Mr. Lafleur was a Member of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada since its foundation in 1887, and 
Councillor of The Institute 1916-17-18. Members will 
learn with profound sorrow of the loss of one of their most 
sympathetic and kind hearted confreres. 

Mr. Lafleur is survived by his wife, formerly Miss 
DuPlessis, daughter of the late T. C. DuPlessis, and three 
daughters, Mrs. Edouard Cholette, of Montreal, and the 
Misses Eugenie and Gabrielle Lafleur, living at home. 



103 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 





I 






^^^B ^ 










^^^^™ 



E. D. LAFLEUR, M.E.I. C. 
Late Chief Engineer, Public Works of Canada. 

The funeral, which took place on the 17th instant, 
was largely attended by the staff of the Department, the 
members of the Ottawa Branch of The Engineering Ins- 
titute and by many prominent citizens of the Capital. 

Thomas Drummond, A.M.E.I.C. 

The death occurred early in the morning of December 
22nd 1921 of Thomas Drummond, A.M.E.I.C. Mr. 
Drummond was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1856 
and came to Canada at an early age where he engaged 
in the profession of surveying. After having obtained 
the diplomas of Dominion Land Surveyor and Dominion 
Topographical Surveyor, Mr. Drummond graduated in 
1883 with the degree of B.A.Sc, from McGill University. 
Following graduation Mr. Drummond engaged in his 
profession as surveyor and was employed on many im- 
portant surveys by the Dominion Government. He was 
also interested in mining engineering in British Columbia, 
acting as a surveyor and mining engineer in connection 
with various Western mines. 

During his later years Mr. Drummond was resident 
in Montreal and was prominent in promotion of amateur 
sport. He was a life member of the Montreal Amateur 
Athletic Association, one of the most prominent members 
of the Montreal Ski Club and an active member of the 
Kanawaki Gold Club of which he was one time president. 
He was elected an Associate Member of The Institute 
in 1899. Mr. Drummond was highly respected by all 
who knew him and his loss is greatly felt in Montreal. 

Byron Hallock, A.M.E.I.C. 

Byron Hallock, A.M.E.I.C, died at Winnipeg 
General Hospital, November 27th 1921. He had been 
a victim of diabetes for a number of years and death 
resulted from a complication arising therefrom. 



Mr. Hallock was born 46 years ago at Forrest, 
Ontario; came West in 1902 and was employed by the 
Winnipeg city engineer as leveller; remained with the 
department until his death, having risen gradually to the 
position of field engineer, in charge of all field work in 
connection with construction of Local Improvements. He 
was elected an Associate Member of The Institute in 
October 1919. 

Mr. Hallock was interested in many branches of 
sport. When he first came to this part of the country, 
he was one of the best amateur baseball pitchers, for 
the last fifteen years he has been one of our most prominent 
curlers, his greatest success being the winning of the 
Grand Championship and two other trophies in 1916, 
he served on the Council of the Manitoba Curling Asso- 
ciation for several years. He was a great sportsman 
and never failed to be out after the birds when shooting 
season opened. 

Mr. Hallock was a widower, and leaves two daughters 
aged 16 and 14, to mourn his loss. 

Arthur E. B. Hill, M.E.I. C. 

It is with very sincere regret that the Vancouver 
Branch advises the members of The Institute of the 
death of Arthur Edmund Breton Hill, B.A.Sc, M. Inst., 
C.E., B.C.L.S., M.E.I.C., which occurred at his residence 
1622 Parker St., Vancouver, B.C., on Wednesday, 28th 
December 1921. The news of his sudden decease, which 
was the result of a paralytic stroke, came as a distinct 
surprise to many of his friends. He is survived by his 
wife, Marion R. Graham, and one daughter, Annie G. 
Hill, B.A; also two sisters, Mrs. C. H. Harrington of 
Sydney, C.B., and Mrs. G. W. Boggs of Vancouver, B.C. 
The burial took place at New Westminster. 

Mr. Hill was the son of the late John Lewis Hill of 
Sydney, C.B., being born at Hillside, Nova Scotia. He 
was 76 years of age, and came of United Empire Loyalist 
stock, whose sterling characteristics were deeply stamped 
into his personality. In 1875 he graduated from McGill 
University and joined the engineering staff of the C.P.R. 
in 1881. Five years later he came to British Columbia 
to take a position as engineer and manager of the Coquil- 
stam Waterworks Company, and subsequentlyde signed 
and supervised the construction of the waterworks 
system of the City of New Westminster. 

He was employed on the final location and construct- 
ion of the Canadian Pacific Railway when that line was 
being completed through the Rockies, and later spent 
a number of years on the construction of the Grand 
Trunk Pacific Terminals at Prince Rupert. He was also 
engaged on the original Sumas Dyking Project and the 
last eight years of his active life were spent in the service 
of the B.C. Electric Railway in the capacity of land sur- 
veyor for that Company. 

In 1896 he set an example for the younger members 
of The Institute, by entering public life as alderman for 
the City of New Westminster, during which time he served 
as chairman of the railway committee. 

Mr. Hill was a member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers and a charter member of the Corporation of 
British Columbia Land Surveyors. It is interesting to 
note that he became a member of the Canadian Society 
of Civil Engineers two days after its incorporation. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



107 



During his long residence in British Columbia, Mr. 
Hill was a keen student of its development in reference 
to public works. He was the originator of the much 
discussed project for connecting the North and South 
shores of Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, by means of a great 
rock and earth filled bulkhead across the second Narrows. 

By constructing such a bulkhead or causeway," he 
proposed to furnish unlimited facilities for highway and 
rail communication between the north and south shores 
of Burrard Inlet at practically zero grade, and at re* 
latively low cost. 

Mr. Hill married in 1890 Jane Harden Graham 
daughter of Hugh Graham of Huntingdon, Que., and 
cousin of Sir Hugh Graham. She died in 1904, leaving 
one daughter, Anne Graham Hill. He married in 1909 
Marion Robina Graham, youngest daughter of the late 
Hugh Graham, by whom he is survived, also by his 
daughter, Anne Graham Hill, B.A. 

Mr. Hill was a man of aristocratic appearance and 
clean, manly character. His tall, erect figure and sterling 
personality will be sorely missed by all his professional 
and business associates, among whom he was held in the 
very highest admiration and respect. In his death 
Canada has lost one more of her rugged pioneers, and The 
Institute a loyal and trusted friend. 



PERSONALS 



F. A. Chisholm, A.M.E.I.C, is now with the Southern 
Canada Power Company Limited. 

V. F. Murray, A.M.E.I.C, is returning to Great 
Britain and will be resident in Cupar-Fife, Scotland. 





A.M. ROBERTSON, S.E.I.C. 
Winner of Students' Prize 



P. ACKERMAN, A.M.E.I.C, 
Gzowski Medal Winner. 

J. M. Morton, A.M.E.I.C, is now with the Manitoba 
Power Company, Limited, Winnipeg, Man. 

J. A. Moody, A.M.E.I.C, has recently moved to 
West Vancouver, B.C. 

R. J. Lecky, A.M.E.I.C, has returned from Porto 
Rico and is at present resident in Toronto, Ont. 

R. G. MacKenzie, Jr.E.I.c, has been transferred 
by the Canadian National Railways and is now resident 
engineer at Stanley, Ont. 

U. R. Moore, Jr.E.I.C, is at present with Division 
No. 4, Hydro-Electric Power Commission, Niagara Falls, 
Ont. 

J. W. Smith, A.M.E.I.C, has been appointed struct- 
ural engineer with the Toronto Transportation Commis- 
sion. 

E. Hughes, A.M.E.I.C, has obtained leave of absence 
from his employers and is at present taking a course at 
Alberta College South, Edmonton South, Alta. 

J. M. Purcell, S.E.I.C, is now with the Anglo- 
Newfoundland Development Company at Grand Falls, 
Nfld. 

Major J. C Craig, D.S.O., M.E.I.C., has been 
appointed assistant chief engineer, Gold Coast Harbours 
and has sailed for Accra, Gold Coast Colony, West Africa. 

C G. Cline, A.M.E.I.C, of the Dominion Water 
Power Branch, Department of the Interior, is now 
resident in Ottawa, Ont. 

H. S. Philips, A.M.E.I.C, for some time past in the 
city engineer's department of London, Ont., is now with 
the City of Hamilton, Ont., under E. R. Gray, A.M.E.I.C 

G. R. Heckle, M.E.I.C, formerly vice-president of 
D. G. Loomis and Co., has severed his connection from 
that firm, and has opened up an office in the McGill 
Building, Montreal, as consulting engineer. 

Prof. C R. Young, member of the Advisory Board 
of Consulting Engineers for the Detroit-Windsor bridge 
addressed the Hamilton Branch of The Institute on 
January 13th, on the engineering features of the project. 



108 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




D. M. FRASER, M.E.I.C, 
President, Dominion Engineering Agency. 

Brig.-General A. G. L. McNaughton, C.M.G., D.S.O. 
A.M.E.I.C., General Staff Branch, Militia Headquarters, 
Ottawa, Ont., has returned from spending a year in Eng- 
land and is at present in Ottawa. 

S. R. Frost, A.M.E.I.C., was elected an alderman 
of the City of Niagara Falls at the recent elections. The 
congratulations of Niagara Peninsula Branch are extended 
to Mr. Frost on his success in heading the polls. 

J. F. Wickenden, Jr.E.I.C., has served his connection 
as contracting engineer with the Horton Steel Works 
Limited and has joined the engineering and sales staff 
of The Barrett Company Limited. Mr. Wickenden 
expects to be located in Montreal. 

E. C. Little, A.M.E.I.C., who for sometime past 
has occupied the position of construction engineer with 
D. G. Loomis & Sons, Montreal, has gone to Europe 
on an extended trip, at which time he proposes invest- 
igating hydro-electric development possibilities in France. 

H. W. B. Swabey, M.E.I.C, recently construction 
engineer with Lockwood Greene and Company of Canada 
Limited, has organized the Service Engineering Co., of 
Canada, 603 New Birks Bldg., which handle a line of 
special engineering equipment and supplies. 

At an investiture held at Government House 
recently, Brig.-Gen. H. N. Ruttan, M.E.I.C, a pioneer 
in Winnipeg military circles, was made a companion of 
the Order of St. Michael and St. George. Seven other 
local military men received the Order of the British 
Empire. Long service medals and the Distinguished 
Service Order were also awarded. 

J. E. Vanier, A.M.E.I.C, has returned from a lengthy 
trip to Europe during which he investigated the use of 
lime on soils for increased crop production. Mr. Vanier 
has turned in a report on relative yields of the different 
crops, to the Quebec Government and will be pleased to 
supply figures to anyone writing to him at 590 Union 
Avenue, Montreal. 



D. M. Fraser, M.E.I.C, who for a number of years 
has specialized as a consulting engineer on power plant 
work, has organized the Dominion Engineering Agency 
Limited, of which he is president and managing director, 
with offices at 24 Adelaide Street, East, Toronto, handling 
electrical equipment. The firm represents the Cutter 
Electrical and Manufacturing Co., and Schweitzer and 
Conrad Inc. Mr. Fraser is a graduate of Heriot Watt 
College, Edinburgh, in electrical engineering. 

At the meeting of Council held on January 10th 
the Governor General of Canada, Baron Byng of Vimy 
G.C.B., G.C.M.G., M.V.O., was elected an Honorary 
Member of The Institute. Lord Byng is no stranger to 
Canadians, having commanded the Canadian Expedition- 
ary Force in France during 1915 and 1916. The work 
of Canadian engineers during the Great War was parti- 
cularly noteworthy and it is particularly fitting that His 
Excellency has now become an Honorary Member of 
the representative Canadian engineering organization. 

Lord Byng was born on September 11th, 1862, the 
seventh son of the Second Earl of Strafford. He was 
educated at Eton and joined the army at the age of 
twenty-one, his first regiment being the 10th Hussars. 
Lord Byng rose rapidly and was placed in command of 
the British troops in Egypt from 1912 till 1914. During 
the Great War, his advance was still more rapid, he 
commanded first the Cavalry Division, the Canadian 
Expeditionary Force and finally the Third British Army. 
At the conclusion of the Duke of Devonshire's term of 
office, he was appointed Governor General of Canada. 
Lord Byng has also shown an interest in the activities 
of The Institute, particularly the Ottawa Branch and we 
offer him a hearty welcome as our newest Honorary 
Member. 




BARON BYNG OF VIMY, 
G.C.B., G.C.M.G., M.V.O., Hon. M.E.I.C. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



109 



BRANCH NEWS 

Victoria Branch 

H. M. Bigwood, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary. 
Report of Annual Meeting 

The Annual Meeting of the Victoria Branch was held 
on Wednesday, 14th December 1921, at Belmont House. 
About twenty members were present. 

Before the business of the meeting opened, an address 
was given by Harry Plaskett on 'Super-Helium' in 
the Stars'. The methods adopted at the Dominion 
Government Observatory were illustrated, and slides 
showing spectra of various stars and elements, by which 
such were identified, were exhibited. The different 
characteristics as depicted by the spectroscope was 
explained, and also the discoveries of great scientists 
who had made spectroscopy their special study. 

The address which was listened to with great interest, 
called forth a very hearty vote of thanks, which was 
proposed in a fitting manner by E. E. Brydone-Jack. 

After the lecture was finished, a short interval followed 
during which Dr. and Mrs. Plaskett and Mr. and Mrs. 
Harry Plaskett were introduced to the members present. 

The chairman, E. G. Marriott, then called the meeting 
to order for the business before it: viz. the consideration of 
reports for the past year and the election of officers for 
the coming year. 

F. G. Aldous and C. F. P. Faulkner were named the 
scrutineers to count the ballots for officers. 

HP The treasurer, E. P. Girdwood read his financial 
statement, duly audited, which was adopted. 

H. M. Bigwood, secretary, read his report of the 
year's work, which was also adopted. 

Reports from the conveners of the committees on 
Papers and Branch By-Laws were received. 

The result of the ballot for officers was now announced 
by the chairman, as follows:— 

Chairman, P. Philip, A.M.E.I.C. 

Vice-Chairman, E. F. Cooke, A.M.E.I.C. 

2 Executive members, E. E. Brydone-Jack, M.E.I.C, 

J. P. Forde, M.E.I.C. 
Treasurer, E. P. Girdwood, M.E.I.C. 
Secretary, H. M. Bigwood, A.M.E.I.C. 

The Chairman congratulated Mr. Philip upon his 
election, and he also complimented the Branch upon its 
choice. He knew that the Branch could not be in better 
hands than those of the gentlemen who had been chosen 
to guide it during the year, he also expressed his pleasure 
that the Secretary had decided to remain in that arduous 
position for a further period. He now had great pleasure 
in calling upon the new chairman. 



Mr. Philip, in taking the chair, thanked the members 
for the great honour shewn him in electing him to the 
very important position of Chairman of the Branch, which 
was second to none in importance. He wished to propose 
a very hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Marriott and his 
fellows on the executive, for the very able manner in 
which they had conducted the Branch during the past 
twelve months. The proposal was carried after other 
members had also added their mede of praise, and was 
replied to in a few words by the retiring Chairman and 
Secretary. 

Vancouver Branch 

P. H. Buchan, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

H. Rindall, M.E.I.C, district engineer of the Can- 
adian Pacific Railway at Vancouver, B.C., has been loaned 
to the City of New Westminster for a week to make an 
independent report on the problem of rebuilding the 
pipe-lines which supply the New Westminster water- 
works from Lake Coquitlam. 

During the abnormal rainfall accompanying the 
storms of the last week in October, the Coquitlam river 
overflowed, and carried away approximately two miles of 
both pipe-lines. The destruction was complete and 
necessitated the rebuilding of the washed-out portions 
involving heavy expenditure which the city is having 
considerable difficulty in financing. In the meantime 
the water situation is serious, even though the neighbour- 
ing municipalities have been rendering every assistance 
in their power, at considerable voluntary inconvenience 
to their residents. The problem as yet does not appear 
to have met with a satisfactory solution either from an 
engineering or financial standpoint; hence the report of 
Mr. Rindall will be received with no little interest by 
the public and the engineering profession. 

Calgary Branch 

Arthur L. Ford, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Floyd K. Beach, A.M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

Annual Banquet 

The annual banquet held on December 30th at the 
Board of Trade was a function which has rarely been 
equalled in the history of the Branch. Teamwork on 
the part of the executive and programme committees and 
a number of other members may be given the credit for 
its success. 

The menu and toast list, appearing as blue prints 
neatly tied in blue ribbon, were prepared by W. J. Gale, 
A.M.E.I.C. B. L. Thome, M.E.I.C, chairman, called on 
George W. Craig, M.E.I.C, to act as toastmaster, and 
after the toast to the king was drunk, the following 
toasts were heard. 

The veteran engineer, proposed by V. Meek 
A.M.E.I.C, acting commissioner of irrigation, and 
responded to by Lewis Stockett, M.E.I.C 



110 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The civil engineer, proposed by R. S. Trowsdale, 
A.M.E.I.C., and responded to by J. A. Spreckley, 
A.M.E.I.C, and by R. S. L. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C, professor 
of civil engineering at the University of Alberta. 

The mechanical engineer, proposed by L. F. Fyles, 
A.M.E.I.C, and responded to by J. F. McCall, A.M.E.I.C. 

The mining engineer, proposed by A. Griffin, 
M. Am. Soc. C. E., and responded to by B. L. Thorne, 
M.E.I.C. 

The electrical engineer, proposed by A. S. Chapman, 
A.M.E.I.C, and responded to by H. J. McEwen, 
A.M.E.I.C, and by R. B. Baxter, of the Alberta Tele- 
phones, a councillor of the Alberta Association of Profes- 
sional engineers. 

The prospective engineer, proposed by P. Turner 
Bone, M.E.I.C, and responded to by Stuart Dawson, 
student at the University of Alberta and a son of A. S. 
Dawson, M.E.I.C. 

Angus Smith, M.E.I.C, newly elected commissioner 
of the city of Calgary thanked the engineers for the 
support they gave him recently when he was elected to 
a very important post in the city. 

Our guests, proposed by B. L. Thorne, M.E.I.C, 
and responded to by P. L. Naismith, manager of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway department of natural resources. 

Interspersed with the toasts were songs by G. H. 
Patrick, A.M.E.I.C, W. J. Gale, A.M.E.I.C, and others, 
and popular songs by the gathering led by A. S. Chapman, 
A.M.E.I.C 



With such a toast list it is possible to touch on only 
a few of the many valuable remarks. The whole sense 
of the meetings was an appreciation of the place in our 
social fabric occupied by the engineer — not merely the 
civil engineer, but by engineers of all kinds. 

A number of outsiders were specially invited, among 
them a number of students in the University of Alberta, 
and the toasts and their responses gave the visitors an 
outline of the aims and aspirations of The Institute. 

The Institute so recently ceased to be merely a society 
of civil engineers and widened its scope to include all 
branches that many still have too narrow a view of its 
activities, and the banquet assisted materially in spreading 
the idea of its present breadth of outlook. 

The tribute paid to the civil engineer by R. S. 
Trowsdale was to the point. Coming from a mechanical 
and electrical man of high standing in his branches, it 
was a valued appreciation. He cited as an example of 
the achievements of this branch of engineering, the 
Queenston Chippawa hydro-electric project, which v/hile 
calling for great talent in mechanical and electrical lines, 
would have been impossible without the talent of the 
civil engineer. 

Professor Wilson in replying spoke of the training of 
the civil engineer and pointed out that he could hope to 
turn out a man with a mere ground work for his calling. 
The real engineer must follow only after some years of 
application of the underlying principles taught in college. 








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Spirat Sp'ifv} CKicit.cn. 

-DE5ER.T — 

FV<ȣlc let s^ttcddo^ 





The. Nij4<3. - 

■TKe-'Ovi*' Engineer 



• TKe. >Te£>2i3r\iccil Endirzeej- 

• TKe 7 / Un\n.<i %ja.<S\n&er — 

• TheE.\er_mca\ E*2<5\rue«- - 
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Menu. Calgary Branch Annual Banquet. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



111 



B.L.Thorne, M.E.I.C. touched on some of the problems 
to be met by the mining engineer in Alberta. Among them 
is the difficult problem to be solved if platinum is to be 
recovered from the Red Deer river, owing to the small 
part by weight or size contained in the raw ore. 

R. B. Baxter spoke very ably on some recent achieve- 
ments in telephone communication in the province, 
including automatic dialing from the Calgary office to 
any subscriber in Edmonton or Lethbridge and vice versa 
as well as from a number of minor offices in the province ; 
of carrier lines which permit four telephone conversations 
and sixteen telegraph messages on one copper circuit 
between Calgary and Edmonton at one time, and he 
forecasted the achievements that are to be demanded of 
the telephone engineer in the near future. 

Stuart Dawson in replying to the toast to the 
prospective engineer spoke both ably and modestly. 
One feature, very well put, was that most of the engineer- 
ing students graduate without knowing much of the 
activities of The Institute and if addressed during their 
student days on the aims of The Institute, a large number 
of them could be enrolled as student members to the 
mutual benefit of themselves and The Institute. 

The Branch was highly honoured in the presence of 
P. L. Naismith, M.E.I.C. and he paid glowing tributes to 
the efforts of the engineer. One of the charter members of 
The Institute, Mr. Naismith joined as a student member 
on the formation of the Canadian Society of Civil Engin- 
eers, while a student at McGill. After graduation, he 
went to the United States for several years and let his 
membership lapse, but because of his early association, 
he has always felt kindly toward the members of the 
profession, and in his career, which has largely been one 
of an executive character, he has had much to do with 
engineers of all branches of the profession and esteems 
them very highly. In touching on the calibre of the 
men who were the founders of the original Society, 
Mr. Naismith pointed out some of the illustrious names 
that adorn the charter roll and he called on the present 
members to live up to the standards set by them. 

On January 6th, Captain C. J. McKenzie, M.C., 
A.M.E.I.C., addressed the Branch on "Developments in 
Sanitary Engineering," giving a very carefully prepared 
paper which is being submitted to The Journal for 
publication. 

His treatment of this very important subject was 
most thorough considering the limitations imposed by 
time for a single lecture, and much discussion was provoked 

Montana Irrigation and Drainage Institute Convention 

The third annual conference of the Montana Irrig- 
ation and Drainage Institute was held at Great Falls, 
Montana, On December 8 to 10. The convention was 
an outstanding success. .A large number of delegates 
were present representing many of the irrigation projects 
of the state, the U. S. reclamation service, and various 
agricultural and educational institutions. Among the 
members of The Institute present from the Province of 
Alberta were: — 

William Pearce, M.E.I.C, Dept. of Natural Resources, 
C. P. R. 



A. S. Dawson, M.E.I.C, chief engineer, C P. R., 
Dept. of Natural Resources. 

V. Meek, A.M.E.I.C, acting commissioner of irrig- 
ation, Dominion Government. 

Major H. B. Muckleston, M.E.I.C, chief engineer, 
Lethbridge Northern Irrigation District. 

R. S. Stockton, M.E.I.C, Supt. operation and main- 
tenance, C P. R. Dept. of Natural Resources. 

The object of this Institute is to advance knowledge 
pertaining to irrigation and drainage and to encourage 
improvement in irrigation practice and a more complete 
use of the water resources of the state of Montana. 
Many excellent addresses were delivered, and a number 
of irrigation and drainage problems fully discussed. One 
of the most interesting subjects dealt with was colonization 
on both dry and irrigated lands. This is one of the im- 
portant problems facing the Province of Alberta at the 
present time. E. F. Benson, chief colonization agent 
of the Northern Pacific Railway, opened the discussion 
on this subject with a very able address. Mr. Benson 
stated that among settlers on new land the number of 
failures averaged 50%, largely because new settlers were 
obtained by nothing more nor less than land selling 
. schemes. State supervision was advocated and the 
formation of some organization to assist the land settler 
both financially and educationally, also lower land prices 
with the terms of payment spread over a long period. 
At the close of the convention, William Pearce who 
was called "The Grandfather of Irrigation in Montana 
and Alberta" was appointed an Honorary Life Member 
of the Institute. 

Winnipeg Branch 

Geo. L. Guy, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
E. V. Caton, A.M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

On Friday, the 19th. January, the annual meeting 
of the Association of Professional Engineers of the Prov- 
ince of Manitoba was held in the University Building. 
The Secretary's report and reports of Committees 
were presented and approved. The Secretary's report 
showed a most satisfactory condition of the Association; 
there are 288 members of the Association and 21 applica- 
tions are pending. The Library Committee reported on 
progress in the organizing of a technical library for use 
of members, 100 books already having been purchased. 

Letters of appreciation and thanks were received 
from the University Faculty and Undergraduates' Asso- 
ciation, thanking the Association for their offer of an 
annual scholarship. 

Election of officers to replace those retiring resulted 
in the election to Council of: — 

Messrs. George L. Guy, M.E.I.C, 

E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, M.E.I.C, 
A. A. Young, A.M.E.I.C, 
E. V. Caton, M.E.I.C, 
which together with the sitting members : — 
Messrs. W. M. Scott, M.E.I.C, 
D. A. Ross, M.E.I.C, 
H. A. Dixon, A.M.E.I.C, 



112 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



constitute the Council for the ensuing year. The Council 
elected Messrs. D. A. Ross, M.E.I.C, President, A. A. 
Young, M.E.I.C, Vice-President, and George L. Guy, 
M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer and Registrar. 

Border Cities Branch 

J. Clark Keith, A. M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The first meeting of the Executive for 1922 was 
held on December 21st when the following committees 
were appointed for the year: — 

Papers and Entertainment: — 

F. H. Kester, A.M.E.I.C, Chairman. 

E. J. Mclntyre, A.M.E.I.C. 

W. J. Fletcher, A.M.E.I.C 
Membership: — 

J. E. Porter, A.M.E.I.C, Chairman. 

D. A. Molitor, M.E.I.C. 

M. E. Brian, A.M.E.I.C. 

Advertising: — 

L. E. Collins, Jr.E.I.C 

Nominating: — 

H. Thorne, M.E.I.C. 

J. J. Newman, M.E.I.C, is the Branch Representative 
on the Ontario Provincial division. 

The opening meeting for this year was held in the 
Cadillac Cafe on Friday, January the thirteenth, Chairman 
Geo. F. Porter, L.L.D., M.E.I.C, presiding. 

All present participated in the opening exercises — 
a substantial dinner — and twenty-five plates were cleared 
with the proficiency peculiar to the profession. 

The desirability of changing the night of meeting 
was discussed and the Secretary was instructed to send 
a questionnaire to each member to secure an expression 
of opinion from the entire Branch. 

On behalf of the retiring Executive, M. E. Brian, 
A.M.E.I.C, presented J. E. Porter, A.M.E.I.C, past 
Secretary, with a memento in appreciation of the service 
he had rendered to the Branch during the past two years. 

Engineering Legislation was discussed and the policy 
to be followed was placed in the hands of the Executive 
Committee in co-operation with J. J. Newman, M.E.I.C, 
Ontario Provincial Division Representative. 

W. H. Baltzell, M.E.I.C, chief engineer of the 
Canadian Steel Corporation, addressed the meeting on 
the manufacture of T.N.T. The speaker kept his 
address remarkably free from the technical chemical 
phrases which would ordinarily be involved in such a 
paper. He dealt with its manufacture from the original 
source of toluol from the balsam of tolu but now obtained 
as a by-product from coke ovens, to its final rectification 
with alcohol and its packing in paper lined wooden kegs 
ready for shipment. By means of charts the progressive 
stages of manufacture of T.N.T., the sulphonation of 
benzine, synthetic phenol fusion and the manufacture 
of picric acid were clearly shown. Very interesting 
comparisons were drawn in the total quantity of am- 



munition used in the American Civil War and in single 
battles in the battle area in France. The destructive 
effects of aerial bombs and long range guns were clearly 
presented. The amount of high explosives manufactured 
in the U. S. for commercial purposes in 1909 was about 
one half the quantity used by Great Britain during four 
years of war. 

D. A. Molitor, M.E.I.C, contributed further to a 
profitable evening by giving the Branch a paper on 
"The Evolution of Matter in the light of Modern Science". 
It has seldom been the privilege of the members to listen 
to a more interesting paper. It dealt with a subject, 
ultra-scientific in its nature, delving into the realms of 
probability on the formation of elements and compounds 
from the protyle, which antedated the nebulae, to the 
present time. The time for the formation of various 
elements and compounds ranged from billions of years 
to a matter of minutes. An explanation was sought for 
the beginning and end of all things and the conclusion 
drawn by the speaker was that the primal form of matter 
was not created but that "it always was and never can be 
destroyed, there was no beginning and there is no end". 

Both papers were thoroughly enjoyed and a hearty 
vote of thanks was tendered by the Chairman. 

Much interest will be created in engineering circles 
in the Border Cities by the announcement that borings 
for the Windsor-Detroit Bridge piers will be commenced 
immediately. 

Local News 

On December 29th, to Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Porter — 
a son. Congratulations. 



London Branch 

Geo. C. Wright, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary- Treasurer. 
0. L. Olmsted, A.M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

On December 21st, a regular meeting was held at 
which fifteen members were present. By-Laws as amended 
were adopted and the nominating committee elected as 
follows: — H. B. R. Craig M. E. I. C was appointed 
representative, following the receipt of his report of the 
meeting of the Ontario Division. 

The Secretary of the Branch was authorized to 
attend the Annual Meeting in January 1922, and in 
this connection the suggestion of the Montreal Branch 
Secretary regarding a meeting of Branch Secretaries 
was approved. 

At a meeting^held on Jan. 20th, the following officers 
were elected for trie forthcoming season: — 

Hon. Chairman, Dr. J. Davis Barnett, M.E.I.C. 

Chairman, H. A. Brazier, M.E.I.C. 

Vice-Chairman, W.J. Forbes-Mitchel, M.E.I.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Geo. C Wright, A.M.E.I.C. 

(F. A Bell, A.M.E.I.C, 
Executive Commitee,- Chas. Talbot.A.M.E.I.C, 

(H. B. R.Craig, M.E.I.C. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



113 



Hamilton Branch 

W. F. McLaren, M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 

Detroit-Windsor Bridge 

The meeting held on January 13th in the Conserva- 
tory of Music Hall was addressed by Professor C. R. 
Young, M.E.I.C., member of the Advisory Board of 
Consulting Engineers for the Detroit-Windsor Bridge, 
on the engineering features of this project. E. H. Darling, 
M.E.I.C., Chairman of the Branch, presided. 

Professor Young in introducing the subject traced 
the development of the present bridge project, pointing 
out that efforts had been made for the last 30 years to 
construct a bridge across the Detroit river, but without 
success until the present undertaking was inaugurated. 
Several of the previous schemes had been based on the 
crossing of the river between Ouelette Avenue, Windsor 
and Woodward Avenue, Detroit, but Charles Evan 
Fowler, M.E.I.C., who had been called in by a group of 
business men of the two cities in the summer of 1919 had 
shown this crossing to be financially impracticable and 
had proposed the crossing of the river at a narrower point 
lower down. The economic practicability of this gave 
a spur to the project, resulting in necessary legislation 
being secured at Ottawa and Washington and in the form- 
ation of the American Transit Co., and the Canadian 
Transit Co., to undertake the work jointly. Mr. Fowler, 
who had developed the essential features of the design 
for a wire cable suspension bridge of 1803 ft. central span 
by this time, asked that an Advisory Board of Consulting 
Engineers be established to pass upon the preliminary 
design and on other points of design and construction as 
they might arise throughout the work. This board, of 
which Mr. Fowler is chairman and chief engineer, con- 
sists_ of George H. Pegram, chief engineer, Interborough 
Rapid Transit Co., New York; Professor Wm. H. Burr, 
consulting engineer, New York: Lieut. -Colonel C. N. 
Monsarrat, M.E.I.C., formerly Chairman of the Board 
of Engineers of the Quebec Bridge and Professor C. R. 
Young, M.E.I.C., of the University of Toronto. 

In referring to the economic basis for a bridge at 
this crossing, the speaker pointed out that a large increase 
in traffic might normally be expected within the next few 
years, in view of the very rapid rate of increase in popu- 
lation of Detroit and the Border Cities. It is a well 
known fact, he said, that traffic normally increases at a 
much more rapid rate than population. Thus, steam 
railway traffic for Canada from 1901 to 1919 increased, so 
far as passengers are concerned, over twice as fast as the 
population, whereas, in the matter of freight, it increased 
over three times as fast. The electric railway traffic 
during the same period increased eight times as fast as the 
population. For the United States, during this period, 
the steam railway passenger traffic increased five times 
as fast as the population and the freight traffic four times 
as fast. The vehicular traffic across the East River 
Bridges at New York city increased from 1912 to 1919 
over twelve times as fast as the population did for Greater 
New York, although no additional facility had been pro- 
vided during the period. The passenger ferry traffic 
across the Delaware River between Philadelphia and 



Camden between 1900 and 1920 increased over four times 
as fast as the population, while the vehicular traffic in- 
creased nearly four times as fast. Between San Francisco 
and the opposite cities of Oakland, Berkeley and Alameda, 
the passenger ferry traffic, despite the discouraging eight- 
mile trip, increased during the period between 1912 and 
1920 over twice as fast as the population. With the pro- 
vision of a new facility for crossing the Detroit river, the 
speaker asserted, the rate of increase of traffic, even though 
it must cross the international boundary, should be very 
large. As an instance of what happens when an attractive 
new traffic facility is offered, the speaker referred to 
Toronto-Hamilton Highway on which the vehicular traffic 
had increased from 1914 to 1920 by 1,520%. 

Professor Young discussed in some detail the alter- 
native types of structure that had been considered by Mr. 
Fowler in making his recommendation of a wire cable 
suspension bridge for this crossing. While the cantilever 
type possesses great rigidity, it is essentially uneconom- 
ical for the existing situation. An interesting corrobor- 
ation of the results of the comparative study of the 
cantilever and suspension types has occurred, said the 
speaker, in the publication of the report of the Board of 
Engineers for the Philadelphia-Camden bridge. Very 
careful comparative estimates have shown for that struc- 
ture the cantilever type would cost over 7% more than the 
suspension type. Other disadvantages of the cantilever 
for the Detroit-Windsor crossings are that a longer span 
would be necessary for it than for a suspension bridge to 
obtain the same clear waterway with a minimum height 
of 110 ft. at the harbor lines, the curvature necessary on 
the Detroit approaches beginning with the main piers 
could not be obtained, and the constructing of a highway 
bridge which might later be transformed into a combined 
highway and railway bridge would be impossible. 

While the arch type had appealed very much to Mr. 
Fowler in his original studies, he had not felt like taking 
the chance of recommending its adoption for a span so 
much greater than any that had actually been built here- 
tofore. The Fidler, or am Ende, type of three-hinged 
arch actually works out to be a very economical structure, 
but the hazards of erection and the absolute necessity of 
having rock foundations had rendered its adoption inad- 
visable. 

The speaker described, with the aid of many slides, 
the various forms of suspension bridges to which consider- 
ation had been given. Because of the necessity for a 
Curved approach on the Detroit side, it was necessary to 
employ a structure with unloaded back stays, and this 
incidentally contributed to the rigidity of the main span. 
Two-hinged stiffening trusses are proposed in preference 
to three-hinged ones, because of greater rigidity, and pivot- 
ed towers have been adopted so as to obviate the large 
bending moment with towers fixed to the masonry. The 
weight of these hinged towers had actually worked out to 
be less than half that of fixed towers. The articulated 
anchorage proposed for this structure was described by 
the speaker as a most economical type of construction 
where rock foundations are available. 

Full justification for the adoption of wire cables as 
against braced eye-bar cables was given by the speaker. 
He pointed out that as eye-bar cables would weigh nearly 



114 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



three times as much as wire cables to carry the same stress 
and the pound price erected of such cables would probably 
not be less than three-fourths of that for wire cables, eye- 
bar cables themselves would cost much more than those 
of wire and would impose a heavier load on the towers, 
piers and anchorages. The uncertainty concerning the 
erection of such cables which had not been employed on 
any structure with a span having a greater length than 
about half of that of the Detroit-Windsor bridge ruled 
out cables of this type. 

Discussing details of the design, Professor Young 
explained the factors that had governed the adoption of 
the cross section, instancing the experience of those in 
charge of the East river bridges of New York with respect 
to the value of roadways with various numbers of lanes 
of traffic. He discussed the relation of the adopted 
loadings to the working stresses comparing them with 
loadings and stresses adopted for similar long span bridges. 

Discussion of the address followed, in which E. H- 
Darling, M.E.I.C., Chairman of the Branch, R. K. Palmer, 
M.E.I.C, chief engineer of the Hamilton Bridge Works 
Co. Ltd., and F. W. Paulin, A.M.E.I.C., vice-president 
and manager of the Canadian Engineering and Con- 
structing Co., took part. 



Toronto Branch 

F. B. Goedike, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
C. R. Young, M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

Highway Construction in Ontario 

The first meeting of the Toronto Branch after the 
holidays was held on January 12, when Hon. F. C. Biggs, 
minister of public works and highways, Ontario, and 
Geo. Hogarth, M.E.I.C, chief engineer of highways, 
spoke on highway development in Ontario. 

Hon. Mr. Biggs in addressing the meeting 
confined his attention to a discussion of the policy which 
was being developed by the Ontario government in the 
matter of highway development. He described the dif- 
ficulties experienced twenty years ago by these who were 
endeavouring to create good road sentiment in the 
province. Although the "Highway Improvement Act" 
had established an advantageous system of aid for 
municipalities wishing to improve their roads, there 
were many cases of by-laws submitted for the purpose 
of undertaking good roads work defeated at the polls. 

A strong effort is now being made, said Hon. Mr. 
Biggs, to reconstruct the important roads to carry the 
heavier and denser traffic that now exists. Primary 
attention is given to the problem of drainage and sub- 
base, although the public is not aware of the wisdom of 
this plan, and clamors for a hard-surfaced road at once. 
There are now about one hundred miles of highway in 
the provincial system about to the point where hard 
surfacing can be provided and credit thus derived for 
the work already done. The minister expressed the hope 
that the construction record of seventy-five miles during 
1921 would be exceeded in 1922. 



The speaker paid a tribute to the services of engineers 
in the work of his department, and reminded his hearers 
that he had been instrumental in having a measure put 
through the House whereby all county road superin- 
tendents must be graduate engineers. He outlined the 
system of organization maintained in the department for 
handling the 1800 miles of provincial highway. 

Matters of importance requiring attention, according 
to the minister, include the separation of grades at 
dangerous level crossings and the carrying of lights on 
all vehicles at night. The possibility of legislation on 
the latter question was pointed out. 

The value of good roads in maintaining an equable 
market for perishable products was stressed by the Hon. 
Mr. Biggs. It now happens that producers, in order to 
avoid the muddy season, force perishable commodities 
on the market too early, thus congesting it and creating 
a period of scarcity at the time when normally such 
products would be plentiful. He looked forward to the 
time when Niagara fruit would be laid down in Toronto 
by motor the morning after it was picked. The economic 
range of the motor vehicle, said Hon. Mr. Biggs, is about 
one hundred miles, whereas with the horse-drawn vehicle 
it is only eight or ten miles. He was of the opinion that 
in the next ten years freight would be handled very 
commonly by motor truck for distances of fifty or sixty 
miles. 

Mr. Hogarth confined his address to the methods of 
construction of the provincial highways. Cross-sections 
of typical roadways were displayed by lantern slides and 
many excellent views of roadways, both before and after 
reconstruction, were exhibited. The equipment and 
methods of placing the material as well as the side drain- 
age and elimination of sharp curves and heavy grades 
were fully discussed. Previous to the meeting, Hon. Mr. 
Biggs, W. A. McLean, M.E.I.C, deputy minister of 
highways, and Mr. Hogarth were entertained at dinner 
by the Executive of the Branch. 

At the meeting of the Executive held the same 
evening, the Chairman and Secretary of the Branch 
were appointed to attend the annual meeting of The 
Institute in Montreal, on January 24-25. 

Revision of Branch By-Laws 

At the meeting on January 19, J. M. Oxley, M.E.I.C, 
Chairman of the Branch Committee on by-laws, gave 
notice that he would move at the next regular meeting 
of the Branch that certain amendments to the by-laws 
be made. These, he explained, were necessitated general- 
ly by the present policy of ending the winter session about 
the middle of March. As a result, the date of the annual 
meeting provided in the existing by-laws, and other dates 
depending thereupon, required to be changed. An informal 
preliminary discussion of the proposed changes took place, 
in which A. H. Harkness, M.E.I.C., R. O. Wynne-Roberts, 
M.E.I.C, Wm. Storrie, M.E.I.C, F. B. Goedike, 
A. M.E.I.C, C R. Young, M.E.I.C, and others took part. 

Construction Industry in Canada 

Following the discussion of by-laws, H. W. Pepper 
of the MacLean Building Reports, Ltd., addressed the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



115 



Branch on the condition of the construction industry in 
Ontario, illustrating his remarks by a large chart showing 
the variation of the volume of construction from 1910 to 
1921. According to the speaker, the construction industry 
ranks above any other in Canada, except agriculture, and 
is the greatest single industry in terms of the amount of 
labour employed. He stated that because of the high cost 
of materials and labour, there was now a deferred volume 
of construction amounting to one and one-quarter billion 
dollars which would, sooner or later, have to be overtaken. 
The excellent technical position in which the construction 
industry now found itself, said Mr. Pepper, was bound 
to result in great ac cavity, once public confidence is 
restored. That this activity has shown signs of arrival 
is indicated by the fact that the volume of construction 
for December, 1921, is over double the amount for the 
same month in any of the preceding three years. 

Mr. Pepper discussed at length the trend of prices 
of construction materials and of common labour, pointing 
out that labour was only about 10% under its peak price 
for 1920, whereas materials were off about 50%. 

J. M. Oxley, M.E.I.C., supplemented the address of 
Mr. Pepper by exhibiting a chart showing the variation 
of the Engineering News-Record construction cost index 
from 1913-21, the variation of wages for common labour 
and the variation of the cost of living for the same period. 
It was pointed out by Mr. Oxley that labour is now 
obtaining in terms of the cost of living one and one-half 
times that which it obtained in 1913. 

On account of the illness of the Chairman of the 
Branch, Wm. Storrie, M.E.l.C, Vice-Chairman, presided 
at the meeting. 

At the Executive meeting held prior to the general 
meeting, the report of the Library Committee was re- 
ceived, and a grant of $125. made for purposes of carrying 
out necessary extensions to the library. 



Ottawa Branch 

F. C. C. Lynch, Associate E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 

The close of a year of exceptionally satisfactory 
results was celebrated on the evening of the 12th January 
by a gathering of about 100 members of the Ottawa 
Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, the 
occasion being the Annual meeting of the Branch. Lieut.- 
Commander C. P. Edwards, M.E.l.C, the retiring 
Chairman, presided and presented a report which was 
received with many expressions of appreciation. Comman- 
der Edwards stated that the Branch had held four 
luncheons and twelve evening meetings during 1921, and 
that among those who addressed the meetings were 
Senator Robertson, Hume Cronyn, ex-M.P., and J. M. R. 
Fairbairn, M.E.l.C, President of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada. 

The report further showed the impetus and support 
which the question of legislation to protect the public 
and the engineer had received and emphasized the need 
of consistent effort to bring all provinces in line. The 
success of the first year of the Professional Institute of 



Civil Servants was a reminder of the useful part played 
by many engineers in the Government Service in the 
growing and useful organization. 

From the financial standpoint, the situation of the 
Branch was shown to be sound and healthy, the treasurer's 
report showing a substantial balance. The membership 
has been well sustained, forty-one new members having 
been accepted during the year. 

The Chairman's remarks regarding the valuable 
assistance rendered by the local press in regularly and 
faithfully reporting the activities of the Branch during 
the year were unanimously endorsed by the members, 
and a motion was adopted thanking The Ottawa Journal 
and The Citizen for courteously opening their columns 
for this purpose. Appreciation was also expressed of the 
courtesy of Dr. William Mclnnes, Director of the Victoria 
Memorial Museum, for the use of the hall in that building, 
and to R. S. Peck, Director Exhibits and Publicity 
Bureau, Dept. of Trade and Commerce and Mr. J. B. 
Harkin, Commissioner of Dominion Parks, Dept. of the 
Interior, for valuable assistance in making the evening 
meetings successful by the use of motion pictures. 

The officers elected for the coming year were as 
follows: — ■ 

Chairman, K. M. Cameron, M.E.l.C, assistant chief 
engineer, Dept. of Public Works; Secretary-Treasurer, 
F. C C Lynch, Associate E.I.C, superintendent, Natural 
Resources Intelligence Branch, Dept. of the Interior; 
Executive Committee: — O. S. Finnie, M.E.l.C, director, 
Northwest Territories Branch, Dept. of Interior; A. 
Ferguson, M.E.l.C, assistant chief engineer, Highways 
Branch, Dept. of Railways and Canals; A. B. Lambe, 
A. M.E.l.C, engineer, Dominion Power Board, Dept. of 
the Interior; C McL. Pitts, A.M.E.I.C, engineer, Pitts 
Construction Company; J. L. Rannie, A.M.E.I.C, super- 
visor of triangulation, Geodetic Survey of Canada. 

The new Chairman in outlining the activities for the 
ensuing year announced the "Engineers' Ball" which is 
to take place at the Chateau Laurier on the 26th January 
under the distinguished patronage of the Governor- General 
and Lady Byng of Vimy; also the following lectures and 
addresses: — 

Geo. Hogarth, M.E.l.C, chief engineer, Provincial 
Department of Highways, Toronto, on "Good Roads"; 
R. J. Durley, M.E.l.C, Secretary, Canadian Engineering 
Standards Association, on "Standards"; Major D. H. 
Nelles, M.E.l.C, on "Canadian Forestry Corps in 
France; Col. H. C. Boyden, of Chicago, on "Concrete"; 
and other interesting items. The semi-technical lectures, 
as usual, will be illustrated by moving pictures and lantern 
slides and the general public will be invited to attend. 

Geo. A. Mountain, M.E.l.C, chief engineer of the 
Board of Railway Commissioners, moved a vote of thanks 
to the retiring Chairman and on behalf of the Branch 
presented him with a large gold watch and chain which 
was an excellent ""representation of the real thing and for 
which Commander Edwards thanked the Branch in a 
few well chosen words. 



116 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



On the conclusion of the regular business the meeting 
took the form of an entertainment, including singing, 
lantern slides, cartoons and two reels of motion pictures, 
after which refreshments were served. 



Jef. Chapleau's slides of the evolution of the engineer, 
particularly the phases of "hydraulic" and "sewage 
disposal," were received with a roar, while the film 




President Fairbairn goes to Ottawa 



Smoker 

The "Smoker" was run off on schedule on January 
15th, in the Palm Room of the Chateau Laurier; 225 
tickets were printed and 240 engineers were packed into 
the room — then a "standing room only" sign was hung 
outside the door. 

The arrangements were in charge of a committee 
under K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C., assistant chief 
engineer of public works, and Lieut. -Commander C. P. 
Edwards, M.E.I.C., Chairman of the Branch, acted as 
Chairman in his usual happy manner. 

As described in the local press, "Music and song, 
farce, comedy and caricatures, with a bounteous repast, 
all went to provide a delightful evening." 

Jules Brazil, the famous Toronto entertainer, was 
brought specially to Ottawa for the evening and proved 
as pleasing and inimitable as ever. His ability to con- 
duct community singing raised the enthusiasm of even 
the "refrigerating engineers" and the climax was reached 
when he called upon Commander Edwards to sing a song, 
and followed up with G. Gordon Gale, M.E.I.C., vice- 
president of the Hull Electric Company, and then George 
Mountain, M.E.I.C., chief engineer, Railway Commission. 

Edwards' efforts were received with applause, Gale's 
with a roar, while Mr. Mountain's brought down the 
house with a regular ovation. 

By way of variety, a one act comedy was put on by 
the Ottawa Drama League, entitled "Suppressed Desires," 
the players taking part being Miss Edith Gardner, Mrs. 
Louis White and W. D. Cromarty. The acting was 
excellent and was received with much approbation. 

Local interest was provided by George Phillips, 
A.M.E.I.C., Inspecting engineer of the Naval Service, who 
sang the "Engineers' Song" and as each verse extolling, 
the virtues of each brand of engineer was sung, lantern 
slides of local celebrities in cartoon were put on the 
screen. It was afterwards voted that Burton Burney's 
reproduction of Gordon Gale, with his "service at cost" 
and decrepit horse, vying with Mr. George Mountain's 
song, was the hit of the evening. 



G. Gordon Gale in a thoughtful mood, 

produced by our esteemed friend Ben Norrish, entitled 
"The Dancing Dusky Belles," was everything that the 
name implies. 

It was necessary to cut short the entertainment at 
11 o'clock, when an excellent supper was served in the 
main dining room, and all agreed that "a pleasant time 
was spent by one and all." 

The Branch took advantage of this opportunity to 
entertain people of prominence, among them being Fraser 
S. Keith, Ben Norrish and A. McAllister, of Montreal, 
J. B. Hunter, Deputy Minister of Public Works, Charles 
Camsell, Deputy Minister of Mines, Dr. D. J. McLean, 
Dominion Railway Commissioner, and a few others. 

The stage manager were Clarence Pitts, who under 
the title of "Chief Bohunk" conducted his Department 
with efficiency and considerable noise. 

The Branch was particularly pleased to have with 
them Fraser S. Keith of Headquarters, and a cordial invi- 
tation is extended to him to visit us more frequently. 

Montreal Branch 

J. L. Bus field, A.M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
Modern Telephone System 

The 1922 season started with a regular meeting on 
Thursday evening, January 5th, at which Norwood M. 
Lash, chief engineer of The Bell Telephone Company 
addressed the meeting on the complexities of the Modern 
Telephone System. J. A. Duchastel, M.E.I.C., the 
Chairman of the Branch presided. In the course of his 
address the speaker dealt with the subject of the long 
distance telephone system, stating that the open wire will 
soon be replaced by wires in cable to care for heavy 
demands. The actual productive talking time on long 
distance was also discussed, and it is said that the time is 
constantly being increased as a measure of economy and 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



117 



operating efficiency improved, but each advance along 
these lines called for bigger expenditure on new equipment. 
Moving pictures were used to illustrate the address. The 
theme taken was that of a subscriber receiving a bill and 
feeling very angry at the extent of it. He then fell asleep 
in his chair and made a journey through his own end of 
the phone to the connecting link at central. The sub- 
scriber in his dream managed to get through the connection 
of his house to the cables and carried his messages under- 
ground through intricate works until he reached the cen- 
tral station where he found the operators all at work, 
taking and distributing calls from far and near. He 
searched for his own line and was shown it by the super- 
intendent. 

The Town Manager Plant 

On Thursday, January 12th, a departure was made in 
the regular Branch meetings by having a paper presented 
in french, with a resume in English. Henri Ortiz, town 
manager of Grand 'Mere Que., was the speaker, taking as 
his subject The Town Manager Plan. J. H. Hunter, 
A.M.E.I.C., presided. During the course of his address 
Mr. Ortiz dealt in a masterly way with the advantages of 
the Town Manager Plan, and explained in detail the 
workings of this system. He also explained how this 
method of City Management had grown within the last 
few years. Following his address, he exhibited a series of 
lantern slides showing the Town of Grand'Mere, and also 
by means of a moving picture film indicated to the audience 
ce the main features of the town and the surrounding 
country. 

Explosives, and Steam by Electricity 

On Thursday evening, January 19th, a joint meeting 
was held with the Montreal sections of the Society of 
Chemical Industry and of the Canadian Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgy. The meeting was presided over 
by W. G. Matheson, John T. Farmer, M.E.I.C., and Sir 
Stopford Brunton, A.M.E.I.C., representing the Society 
of Chemical Industry, The Engineering Institute of Canada, 
and the Mining Institute respectively. The meeting was 
held in the Queen's Hotel and preceded by a dinner, which 
gave the members of the different Societies an excellent 
opportunity of becoming acquainted. Following the 
dinner, Lieut.-Col. G. Ogilvie of Ottawa, chief inspector 
of explosives, read a paper describing the operations of 
the Explosive Act of Canada, following which F. T. Ka- 
lein, M.E.I.C, read a paper, illustrated by lantern slides, 
describing the methods of generation of steam by elec- 
tricity. It is expected that this paper will be published in 
The Engineering Journal. 

Quebec Branch 

Hector Cimon, A. M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

A luncheon-meeting was held at the Chateau Fron- 
tenac, on Monday the 9th of January 1922, presided over 
by the Chairman, A. R. Decary, M.E.I.C, and attended 
by 63 out of a Quebec membership of 90. 



Mr. Decary, after greeting the members present at 
the meeting and expressing his pleasure at the large 
number of the members of the Quebec Branch present, 
said it had been decided that there should be two meetings 
held every month during year, at which papers would be 
read, and at this initial meeting, O. H. Cote, A.M.E.I.C., 
industrial commissioner for the Quebec Board of Trade 
would read a paper dealing with "The Shipbuilding 
Industry at Quebec, in the Last Century". He introduced 
Mr. Cote who spoke in French and dealt at length on 
the construction of wooden ships of the past which gave 
employment to thousands of Quebec workmen, until 
James Watt, by his invention, gave a death blow to 
sailing ships. 

Mr. Cote said that the first to advocate the construc- 
tion of ships in Canada was Samuel de Champlain, but 
it was the celebrated Intendant Talon who first started 
to develop this industry. He quoted from the King's 
expense account for the year 1671 an item regarding 
shipbuilding and the expenditure of 40.000 livres to be used 
for that industry in Canada. He then went into details 
of shipbuilding that followed and quoted from the late 
James Lemoine, in his book "Quebec, Past and Present," 
which records that the first ship built in Quebec to cross 
the ocean was modelled on the shore of the Riviere 
Saint Charles in the year 1703. 

From information gathered in 1722, ships of a fairly 
good tonnage were launched in the St. Charles River from 
a place which was designated on the map of the city, fifty 
years ago, under the name of "Marine Hospital Cove". 
It is also near this cove that, in 1825, the famous sailing 
ship called the "Baron of Renfrew", of 5294 tons, with 
one deck and four masts and over three hundred feet 
long was built. 

It is claimed that the title of father of the industry 
of shipbuilding in Canada should be given without 
hesitation to the Intendant Hocquart, who occupied that 
important position in Canada from 1729 to 1748. He 
was well seconded in his enterprise by Abbe Louis Lepage 
de Ste-Claire, Seigneur de Terrebonne. 

In 1730, Abbe Lepage addressed to the Intendant 
a long memorandum setting forth the advantages of the 
industry of shipbuilding in Canada. After elaborating a 
vast plan of naval construction, he offered to supply the 
wood necessary for the enterprise at a price 50% less 
than the King was paying for the same wood in France. 

About 1740, more important constructions were 
started, "man of war" frigates carrying 26 to 30 guns 
were built. In 1748, it is noted from the registers that 
a Royal Shipyard existed at Quebec, with a construction 
engineer in charge and all the necessary workmen, directed 
by Sieur Levasseur. 

From 1787 to 1797 there were 173 ships built, with 
a total tonnage of 13,056 tons, the total value of the 
production in the ten years being $525,000, a very im- 
portant figure if we consider that the population of 
Quebec, in 1790, was 14,000 inhabitants. 

In 1799, the first ship was built for the commercial 
trade in Quebec. 



118 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The most active period of the industry was from 
1800 to 1900. From the registers of the time it is seen 
that 2,542 ships were built here between 1797 and 1896, 
that is during 100 years, with a total tonnage of 1,377,079 
tons, which gives an average of 540 tons per ship, the 
smallest being 100 tons and the largest 5,294 tons. The 
total value of ships built in Quebec during the last 
century was $55,200,000, of which $16,535,000 represented 
the wages paid. From 1850 to 1875, an average of 48 
ships per year were built in Quebec. 

Mr. Cote concluded in saying that the industry of 
wooden shipbuilding in Quebec exists no longer; it is a 
thing of the past and the workingmen of Quebec have 
lost a principal source of revenue. 

Alex. Fraser, A.M.E.I.C., Vice-Chairman of the 
Branch, then moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Cote which 
was unanimously carried. 

Mr. Decary announced that it had been arranged 
that the speakers at the subsequent meetings would be 
alternately English and French, in keeping with the 
spirit of entente cordiale which always existed in the 
City of Quebec between the French and English speaking 
people. He also made other comments in the interest of 
the profession and the holding of the next Annual and 
Professional Meeting at Montreal. He again expressed 
his pleasure at the large attendance of the members of 
the profession at this first luncheon-meeting. 

E. A. Evans, M.E.I.C., moved a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Decary for the able manner in which he had presided 
at the meeting, and his arrangements in carrying out of 
the same. 

The company closed by singing O Canada and God 
Save the King. 

The next meeting is to be held on the 30th of January, 
at 8 p.m.; the speaker will be R. H. Nisbet, chief of the 
Aviation Department of Price Brothers & Company, 
Limited, and his talk will deal with "Aviation and Its 
Use by Engineers". 



Moncton Branch News 

M. J. Murphy, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Moncton Branch of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada held its monthly dinner at the Happen Inn Tea 
Shop at 6 o'clock, Thursday evening, December 1st, 1921. 

J. D. McBeath, M.E.I.C., presided and there were 
about forty present including the speaker of the evening. 
K. H. Smith; M.E.I.C, also Dr. J. A. L. Henderson, 
who at the meeting of the local Branch, lectured on 
Natural Gas; Dr. Fred. E. Burden and Prof. Wm. 
McKeil, of Mt. Allison University. 

Immediately after the dinner an altogether delightful 
vocal solo, "Joggin' Along The Highway," was rendered 
by Mrs. Clyde Stevens and was heartily encored. Vincent 
Doucet, formerly of Bathurst, but now of this city, 
delighted the gathering with a violin solo, "Souvenir," 
and also was heartily encored. Major W. A. McKee 
accompanied both artists and afterward rendered on the 



piano, the new national song "Canada", recently from 
the pens of George Ross, Mus. Bac, A. R. C. O., and 
Dr. Fred E. Burden. 

K. H. Smith, M.E.I.C, chief engineer of the Nova 
Scotia Power Commission, consulting engineer of the New 
Brunswick Electric Power Commission, gave a splendid 
lecture on Hydro-Electric Power. This lecture he illus- 
trated with lantern slides. In beginning his address, 
Mr. Smith drew the attention of his audience to the fact 
that in the old days in the Maritime Provinces, when a 
man got a grant of land from the Government, it included 
the waterways; the newer or Western provinces profited 
by their experience and do not include the streams or 
lakes in their grant, which clause has assisted the people 
of the Western provinces a great deal in their develop- 
ment of Hydro-Electric power. 

The Waterway Commission of the Department of 
the Interior has over fifty stations on different streams 
in the Maritime Provinces, where readings are taken 
every day of the water flow, and are reported daily to 
the central office. It is essential to collect data of stream 
flow over a long period of years on any waterway which 
promises a chance of hydro-electric development. 

With aid of his lantern slides Mr. Smith showed the 
progress of the development from maps of the country 
surrounding the present developments where enormous 
water storage is to be had, along the line of progress 
showing the different plants in course of construction, 
the dams and huge pipes which store and carry to the 
plants and finally the plants themselves as they look 
when completed. He also showed some of the machinery 
and of the power lines which are now in operation. 

Speaking of the powei that is propoced to bring to 
Moncton, he said that it would come from the Musquash 
plant and that a power line was being surveyed now 
from St. John up the Kennebecasis Valley to Moncton. 
It had not yet been definitely settled as to the horsepower 
it would carry, he stated. 

The lecture was a very interesting and instructive 
one and showed conclusively what great advantages the 
country will derive from this new power. 

A very hearty vote of thanks was moved by Mr. 
MacKenzie and seconded by Mr. Tisdale and presented 
to Mr. Smith by S. B. Wass, A.M.E.I.C. 

A regular monthly meeting of the Branch was held 
in the City Hall on January 19th, 1921. S. B. Wass, 
A.M.E.I.C, Vice-Chairman, presided. 

E. G. Evans, M.E.I.C, district engineer, Canadian 
National Railways, read a very interesting and instructive 
paper on the "Toredo Navalis" ("The Ship Worm"). 
Mr. Evans having spent considerable time in the study 
of this animal was well able to go into details on his 
subject. 

By the use of lantern slides he was able to show in 
minute detail the destruction that this small animal had 
done to different wood structures that it came into contact 
with; also different views of the animal itself, especially 
the boring and cutting shell with which it enters the wood. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



119 



After considerable discussion by the members present, 
the Chairman extended Mr. Evans, on behalf of the 
Moncton Branch, a hearty vote of thanks for the manner 
in which he presented so instructive a paper. 

Cape Breton Branch 

Kenneth G. Cameron, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

A regular monthly meeting was -held January 16th, 
in the rooms at the Bank of Commerce Building, Sydney. 
The business of the evening was a paper by R. M. Mac- 
kinnon, A.M.E.I.C, city engineer of Sydney, on the 
"Development of Sydney's Water Supply". 

At that time the City Council were about to ask for 
authority by means of a plebiscite for an expenditure of 
$150,000 on the water system, — the work to be under- 
taken at this time in order to alleviate the unemployment 
situation. The paper, therefore, was of immediate public 
interest, and by the invitation of the executive several 
members of the City Council were present, and took part 
in the discussion. Unfortunately the attendance of 
members was rather small, giving the members of the 
City Council perhaps rather a wrong impression of our 
interest in civic affairs. 

Mr. Mackinnon traced the history of the City's water 
supply from the earliest days, when Sydney's population 
was only 2,500, through the time of its increasing popula- 
tion, and the especial period which followed the "boom". 
This was the period during the establishment of the 
Dominion Iron and Steel Company's plant here, which 
caused very rapid growth. At this time the original 
reservoir became wholly inadequate, both in capacity and 
head, and it was necessary to seek a new source of supply. 
Accordingly in 1902 another site was chosen, further up 
the same valley. Work was begun in the early spring on 
laying water pipes, constructing dykes and a concrete core 
dam across the narrow gorge. The clearing of the ground 
was begun a little later, but a portion of the site was 
overlaid with peat to a depth in parts of seven feet, and 
owing to the pressing need of the new reservoir several 
pockets of this were allowed to remain. These later, in 
1920, gave trouble. This new reservoir, with a capacity 
of 200 million gallons gave ample supply to the city, 
which at that time numbered 12,000, with a daily con- 
sumption of 623^2 gallons per capita. 

There was no indication of a shortage until 1908, 
when a dry summer reduced the water level to its lowest 
limit, and the need of further extensions was apparent. 
Several schemes were considered, and in 1912 a severe 
drought produced conditions demanding immediate action. 
Two large lakes lying further out were connected by open 
ditch, and the water pumped from the lower one over the 
divide to the existing reservoir. This work met all needs 
up to a recent date, but the steadily increasing population 
created such a demand that in 1920 a dry summer reduced 
the level of the water in the reservoir and occasioned 
further trouble. This developed from the peat pockets 
referred to above ; and took the form of a very strong 
taste and smell of decayed vegetable and fishy character. 
Investigation and analysis, however, showed that while 



decidedly objectionable in this way, the water was not 
actually harmful, and treatment by dissolving copper 
sulphate, to the extent of ten pounds to the million 
gallons, removed the objectionable features in a week or 
ten days. At the same time attention was drawn to the 
necessity of removing the pockets, and the work under 
consideration at present, is that of providing a by-pass 
from the supply lakes direct to the distributing system, 
so that the reservoir may be emptied and properly cleaned. 

One or two schemes have been suggested and Mr. 
Mackinnon outlined a further suggestion of his own, which 
he had recently submitted to the City Council, demon- 
strating his layout on a large scale plan of the system. 

Considerable discussion followed the conclusion of 
Mr. Mackinnon 's paper, in which the members of the 
City Council took part. On the motion of D. S. Morrison, 
A.M.E.I.C, seconded by K. H. Marsh, M.E.I.C, Mr. 
Mackinnon was given a very sincere vote of thanks. 

Following the paper and discussion, a short business 
meeting was held, at which the Secretary outlined the 
proposed conference of Branch Secretaries, and asked 
that all members would give this matter serious considera- 
tion, in order that the best possible results might result 
therefrom. The conference had been heartily endorsed 
by the executive committee, who considered that such a 
meeting should do much to co-ordinate the efforts of the 
Branches and forward the interests of The Institute. 

Town Planning Notes and Comments 

Horace L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C. 

Note: — In order to make this column of wide 
interest to members of The Institute, personals and 
items of town planning interest will be appreciated. 
Address: Horace L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C, Ifi Jarvis 
Street, Toronto. 

Education in Town Planning 

To the students in the Social Service Course at 
McGill University, Messrs. Buckley and Cromarty of 
the Federal Town Planning Division, Ottawa, are lectur- 
ing on Housing and Town Planning. 

The short course in Civics and Town Planning at 
Toronto University is now being held with a registration 
of some fifty members. These are from various places 
in Ontario, as well as from Toronto itself and besides 
students, practising architects, engineers and surveyors, 
there are several civic officials. The experiment seems 
assured of success and those attending seem well pleased 
with the opportunities afforded. During or after the 
lectures there is generally free and pertinent discussion. 
The course comes at an opportune time, as interest in 
town planning is being evidenced to a greater extent 
than ever before. 

American Society of Civil Engineers 

The writer 'received recently a notice of meetings 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers, New York 



120 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



City, to be held early in January. The programme for 
the meetings indicates the interest that is being evidenced 
in that technical Society in the matter of Housing and 
Town Planning. The subjects were as follows: — 

The National Housing Problem; Broad Economic 

Phases. 
Planning and Zoning. 
Utilities. 
Legislation and Finance. 

Nearly all those mentioned as taking part in the 
programme are men who have made their names in the 
Housing or Town Planning world. 

It is encouraging to note that considerable interest 
in Town Planning is being evidenced in several of the 
Branches of The Engineering Institute of Canada, so that 
in this respect we are, at least, keeping up with our 
cousins across the border. 



Town Planning in Salonika 

In August, 1917, some of us probably remember that 
Salonika was totally destroyed by fire. At least, so few 
buildings remained that it was decided that they might 
be ignored in the preparation of a new plan. Here was 
an opportunity for the town planner to plan de novo. 
Apparently the opportunity has been well used. 

In the "Town Planning Review" for December, 1921, 
there is found an article that deals with the Salonika 
Town Planning Act. The Greek Government appointed 
a commission of English and French Town Planning 
experts to prepare a town planning scheme, while a Town 
Planning Act and other legislation was drafted by a 
special commission. Important Town Planning legisla- 
tion of other countries was reviewed in great detail, and 
recommendations were considered from various sources 
including the property owners. John W. Mawson, the 



writer of the article, who was town planning advisor 
to the Ministry of Communication, states that:— 

"The new Salonika may truly be said to stand 
for the very highest point of scientific, economic 
and aesthetic development yet achieved on a 
comprehensive scale in the construction of 
towns." 

To compare the Salonika with the Halifax disaster, 
it might be mentioned that over 4,500 buildings were 
totally destroyed and 70,000 people rendered homeless. 
In Halifax the disaster in December of the same year 
actually destroyed only a portion of the city and while 
many buildings had to be repaired, new development was 
confined to a comparatively small area as compared with 
Salonika. 

General Town Planning News 

The reading of current literature indicates increasing 
activity in town planning throughout the world. 

Miss Theodora Kimbal in her review of "City 
Planning in United States" states that ten years ago 
the term "City Planning" was little known and less 
understood. She then mentions the States that have 
passed laws relating to city planning and zoning and 
mentions the particular cities that have made progress 
along these lines, details of which in some instances 
have been described in the Engineering News-Record 
during the past year. There are probably a hundred 
cities that have zoning plans started or completed and 
probably over a hundred and fifty cities in the United 
States that in one way or another are interested in city 
planning problems. 

Considerable progress has been made in some of the 
States in Australia and a recent article by Chas. C. Reade, 
Government Town Planner to South Australia, describes 
also the progress in town planning in British Malaya. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



121 



Preliminary Notice 

of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



20th January 1922 

The By-laws now provide that the Council of the Institute shall 
approve, classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer 
from one grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate member 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of his 
references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list 
submitted herewith and to report promptly to Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and election of any of the candidates. 
In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known to any 
member, such member is specially invited to make a definite recom- 
mendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 

The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
February, 1922. 

Fraser S. Keith, Secretary. 

*The professional requirements are as follows: — 

Every candidate for election as MEMBER must be at least thirty years of age, 
and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least twelve years, 
which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office 
or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by the Council. The 
term of twelve years may, at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years 
in the case of a candidate who has graduated in an engineering course. In every case 
the candidate must have had responsible charge of work for at least five years, and this 
not merely as a skilled workman, but as an engineer qualified to design and direct 
engineering works. 

Every candidate for election as an ASSOCIATE MEMBER must be at least 
twenty-five years of age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering 
for at least six years, which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified 
engineers' office, or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by 
the Council. In every case the candidate must have held a position of professional 
responsibility, in charge of work as principal or assistant, for at least two years. 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, shall be required to pass an examination before a Board of Examiners 
appointed by the Council, on the theory and practice of engineering, and especially 
in one of the following branches at his option. Railway, Municipal, Hydraulic, 
Mechanical, Mining or Electrical Engineering. 

This examination may be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidat. 
has held a position of professional responsibility for five years or more years. 

Every candidate for election as JUNIOR shall be at least twenty-one years oe 
age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least four yearst 
This period may be reduced to one year, at the discretion of the Council, if the candidate 
is a graduate of some school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not 
Jemain in the class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years. 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the first year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in the following subjects. Geography, History 
(that of Canada in particular), Arithmetic, Geometry Euclid (Books I. -IV. and VI.), 
Trigonometry, Algebra up to and including quadratic equations. 

Every candidate for election as ASSOCIATE shall be one who by his pursuits 
cientific acquirements, or practical experience is 'qualified to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names 
of certain members as references does not 
necessarily mean that their applications 
are endorsed by such members. \ ] u 



FOR ADMISSION 

ANGUS — ROBERT, of 550 Princess Avenue, London, Ont. Born at Kingston, 
Ont., Jan. 11th, 1842; 1865-69, machinist ap'tice, E. Leonard; 1869-71, Haggert 
Bros. Agricultural Machinery (foreman for one year); 871-74, machinist, E. Leonard; 
1873, also designed and superintended constrn. and install'n of waterworks in the 
town of St. Thomas, also supt.' f of Haggert Bros, at St. Thomas, designed and 
constructed steam engines; 1875-76, design, constrn. and install'n of waterworks for 
town of Sarnia; 1876-89, foreman, E. Leonard & Sons engine works; 1889-91, 
master mechanic and chief dftsman., Standard Oil Co., Cleveland, asst. to Herman 
Frasch, chemist, in the perfection of process eliminating sulphur from crude oil; 
1891-1900, supt., E. Leonard & Sons; 1900 to date, consulting engineer, at present 
for C. S. Hyman & Sons, Tanners, London, Ont. 

References: H. A. Brazier, H. B. R. Craig, E. I. Leonard, R. W. Angus, W. J. 
Forbes-Mitchell 



BANG— CLAUS MARIUS, 161 Laviolette Avenue, Three Rivers, Que. Born 
at Copenhagen, Denmark, July 21st, 1882; Educ, B.Sc. (Mech.Engr.), The Poly- 
technical Academy, Copenhagen, 1906; 1906-08, asst., and 1908-10, senior asst., to the 
professor in charge of the electrotechnical laboratory, The Poly. Academy, Copen- 
hagen; 1910-11, travelled in Europe for two travelling scholarships; 1911-12, dftsman. 
and engr., telephone switchboard dept., Nor. Elec. Co., Montreal; 1912-13, designing 
elec. dftsman. The Cedars Rapids Power and Mfg. Co.; 1914 (June-Sept.), dftsman., 
bridge dept., C.P.R.; 1914 (Sept.-Noy.), surveying, Foley Bros., Sudbury; 1915 
(May-Nov.) and 1917 (Sept. -Nov.), designer and checker, tool design, Canadian Allis- 
Chalmers, Rockfield; 1915-16, designer and checker, tool design, Montreal Munition 
Co., Lachine; Sept. 1916-Aug. 1917 and Nov. 1917-1918, chief dftsman., on tool 
design, Montreal Tramways Co., munition dept.; 1918 (May-Dec), chief dftsman. 
and office engr., on tool design and plant layout, Caron Bros., Montreal; 1918 to 
date, designer (electrical) on eng'g. staff, Wayagamack Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd., Three 
Rivers, Que. 

References: D. E. Blair, P. E. de la Cour, O. J. Hein, A. T. Perrin, S. Svenningson, 
A. Wilson. 

BRUNET— LEON, of Quebec, Que. Born at Quebec, Feb. 13th, 1887; Educ, 
C. E. Polytechnic School, Montreal, 1909; Q.L.S. 1913; 1907 (summer), N.T.C.Rly.; 
1908 (summer), Dept. Public Works; 1909 to date, with the Dept. Public Works, 
Quebec, as junior engr., Quebec District Engr's. office, asst. engr. and at present senior 
asst' engr. in charge of engineering staff. 

References: A. R. Decary, A. G. Sabourin, J. H. A. E. Drolet, I. E. Vallee, 
J. A. Buteau, T. E. Rousseau. 

CAMERON— NORMAN KEITH, of 860 Waterloo Street, London, Ont. Born 
at Strathroy, Ont., Jan. 7th, 1883; Educ, R.M.C. Kingston, 1899-1901; 1902-04, 
field and office work with F. W. Farncomb, C.E., O.L.S., London, Ont.; 1905, leveller 
and transitman on location work in "C" district, T.C.Rly.; 1906 (July-Dec), location 
transmission lines, H.E.P.C.; 1907-12, engr., Messrs. Larkin & Sangster, Contractors, 
Section I, Trent Canal; 1913, sub-contract from Larkin & Sangster on Section 1, 
Trent Canal; 1913-15, contract on section 4-A Welland Ship Canal; 1916-19, over- 
seas; 1919-20, contracts on Cornwall Canal, Cornwall, Ont.; 1921 to date, in charge of 
concrete work for The St. John Dry Dock & Shipbldg., Co., St. John, N.B. 

References: K. M. Cameron, H. B. R. Craig, E. B. Jost, W. J. Forbes-Mitchell, 
F. S. Lazier, E. G. Cameron, V. S. Chesnut, L. Sherwood. 

CLENDENING-CHESTER SCOTT, of Lethbridge, Alta., Born at Walkerton, 
Ont., June 21st, 1886; Educ, 3 years, applied science, Univ. of Toronto; 1908-09, tran- 
sitman, Detroit tunnel; 1909, Geodetic Survey of Canada; 1910-11, concrete inspr., 
Smith, Kerry & Chase in Ontario and City of Winnipeg plant; 1911-13, office dftsman 
and transitman, G.T.P.Rly.; 1914, res. engr., P.G.E.Rly.; 1915-19, overseas; 1919-20, 
engr. in charge revision G.T.P.Rly.; 1921 to date, res. engr., Lethbridge Northern 
Irrigation District. 

References: H. B. Muckleston, C. M. Arnold, P. M. Sauder, E. K. Hall, M. A. 
Burbank, A. M. Ross, W. S. Fetherstonhaugh. 

DUB UC— ANTONIO E., 326-A St.Zotique Street, Montreal, Que. Born at 
Nicolet, Que., Aug. 12th, 1896; Educ, Montreal Technical School, 1917; 1913-14, asst. 
foreman, gen. constrn. work, Special Constrn. Co.; 1910-12, ap'tice. machinist, Ames 
Holden & United Shoe Machinery; 1915-17, dftsman., Canadian Car & Foundry; 
1918, designer, Caron Bros.; 1918-19, gen. mgr., Garage Dubuc; 1919-20, designer, 
Eugene F. Phillips Electric Works; 1921 to date, dftsman., Montreal Water Board. 

References: C. J. Desbaillets, F. E. Field, R. W. Mitchell, F. Y. Dorrance, P. 
Leclerc 

FLETCHER— HUGH MURRAY, of 377 Hess Street South, Hamilton, Ont. 
Born at Hamilton, Ont., Sept. 8th, 1883; Educ, Grad. S.P.S. Univ. of Toronto, 1906; 
1906-15, not engaged in engineering work; 1915-19, overseas. Lieut., Can Forestry 
Corps; 1919-20, responsible charge of diamond drilling operations, at Morrisburg", 
Ont., under engr. in charge, M. C. Hendry, for H.E.P.C. of Ontario; 1920 to Nov. 
1921, asst. engr., Dept. of Public Highways of Ontario, latterly with J. M. Empey, 
res. engr. at St. Mary's, Ont.; Not employed at present. 

References: M. C. Hendry, T. R. Loudon, R. E. Chadwick, A. V. Trimble, A. L. 
MacLennan. 

FORGUES— JOSEPH ARTHUR, of 8 Montcalm Avenue, Cartierville, Que. 
Born at Montreal, Que., June 29th, 1892; Educ, C. E. Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 
1915; 1917 (June-Oct.), Montreal Water Works; 1915-17, chief dftsman., A. H. Ader- 
berg; 1917-19, reinforced concrete designing engr., John S. Metcalf Co.; 1919-20 
reinforced concrete designing engr., Canada Cement Co.; 1920-21, reinforced concrete 
designer, J. M. Robertson Ltd.; May 1921 to date, reinforced concrete detailing engr., 
Montreal Water Board. 

References: C. J. DesBaillets, F. E. Field, J. M. Robertson, F. Y. Dorrance, H. W- 
Fairlie, P. Leclerc 



122 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



FOURNIER— OVIDE CYRILLE EDOUARD, 48 Daly Avenue, Ottawa, Ont. 
Born at Coaticook, Que., Sept. 10th, 1890; Educ, B.A.So. (C.E.) Laval Univ. 1910; 
1908-1909, with the Credit Munic. Canadien on waterworks; 1910-14, tech. em- 
ployee, topog'l surveys branch, Dept. Interior, Ottawa; 1914-15, asst. to the inspr. 
of surveys (Dom. Lands) in Alberta; 1917-19, overseas; May 1920 to date, 1st asst., 
drainage location party, reclamation service, Dept. Interior, Ottawa, Ont. 



McKENZIE— WILLIAM L., of Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Middlesex County, 
Ont., Nov. 10th, 1876; Educ., Strathy Collegiate Institute. Model School, 1897. 
1898-1900, public school teacher; 1901-04, ap'tiee electrician, Algoma Steel Corpn.; 
1904-07, electrician and foreman, Electric Supply Co., Hamilton, Ont.; 1907-09, 
member of firm, McKenzie & Roy, electrical contracting business; 1909 to date, 
owner and mgr., W. L. McKenzie & Co., Electrical Engrs., Dealers and Contractors, 
Lethbridge, Alta. 



References: G. F. Richan, J. S. Tempest, H. R. Cram, L. J. Gleeson, W. C. Gillis, 
W. C. Warren. 



References: S. G. Porter, C. Raley, H. J. McEwen, H. W. Meech, C. M. Arnold, 
G. H. Thompson, C. D. MacKintosh. 



FREEMAN— MANFRED, of Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Hamilton, Ont. July 
18th, 1864; Educ mech. elect'l. course, I.C.S.; installed and operated electric plant 
in Lethbridge for the Lethbridge Water Works & Electric Light Co., in 1894. With 
this company until 1908, reconstructing their plant in 1903. 14 years as mgr. of 
above company, designing and erecting their plants; 1915 to date, commissioner of 
public utilities for the City of Lethbridge, in charge of electric light power and street 
railway. 

References: W. H. Meech, S. G. Porter, C. M. Arnold, H. B. Muckleston. 



MERRICK— JAMES, of Ste. Agathe des Monts, Que. Born at London, England, 
Nov. 24th, 1887; 1904-07, various buildings for G. Merrick & Sons, Bldrs. and Contract- 
ors; 1907-13, supt. of constrn. for P. Lyall & Sons; 1913-14, gen' supt. on constrn. 
Ross & MaeDonald; 1914-19, overseas; 1919-21, gen.supt., Riordon Co. Ltd.; At 
present, mgr., Eadie, McNeilly Constrn. Co. Ltd., Ste Agathe des Monts, Que. 

References: A. K. Grimmer, G. L. Freeman, E. S. M. Lovelace, H. G. Hunter, 
W. L. Ketchen, C. B. Thorne. 



HOLLAND— FRANKLIN ERNEST, of 4214 Western Avenue, Westmount, 
Que. Born at New Britain, Conn., U.S.A., Aug. 23rd, 1890; Educ., C. E. Cornell Univ. 
1912; Mech. Engr'g. course, Baltimore Poly. Inst.; 1 year rodman, and transitman, 
Baltimore & Ohio Rid.; 7 mos. dftsman. and transitman, C.P.R.; 114 years, asst. engr. 
and asst. special engr., to the President, C.P.R., Montreal; 1 H years, 1st. Lieut., 
Corps of Engrs., U.S. Army; 2 years to date, sales engr., The Sherwin-Williams Co. 
of Canada Ltd., Montreal. 

References: J. M. R. Fairbairn, J. W. Orrock, F. W. Cooper, H. B. Stuart, J. A 
Shaw. 



MOORE— JOHN MACKENZIE, of 489 Richmond Street, London, Ont. Born 
at London, Ont., Oct. 1st, 1857; Educ, served 5 years with Robinson & Tracy, Civil 
Engrs., Architects and Prov. Land Surveyors; 1891-1910, engr. in charge, water 
work system. City of London; 1910 to date, consulting engineer and architect, London, 
Ont. 



References: T. H. Tracy, R. P. Fairbairn, J. A. Bell, H. A. Brazier, H. B. R. 
Craig, E. I. Leonard, A. H. Smith. 



INGS— ERIC IAN HENRY, of Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Charlottetown, P.E.I., 
March 29th, 1891; Educ, Grad. R.M.C. Kingston, 1914; 1915-19, overseas Capt.., Can. 
Machine Gun Corps; 1920-21, dftsman, and April 1921 to date, instr'man., Lethbridge 
Northern Irrigation District. 

References :.H. B. Muckleston, C. M. Arnold, F. S. Dyke, P. M. Sauder, F. M 
Wood. 



MOREY— HAROLD ARTHUR, of 780 Wellington Street East, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont. Born at Windsor Mills, Que., Feb. 19th, 1886; Educ, B.Sc, Dartmouth 
Univ., 1908; 1908-09, rodman and leveller, R.P., survey, and inspector on constrn. 
of-bldgs., Dartmouth College; 1910, in charge of engr'g. office, Llovd & Mann, Concord, 
N.H.; 1910-11, dftsman., Vermont Marble Co.; 1911, dftsman., B. F. Sturtevant Co., 
and inspr. on replacement of bridges, Boston & Albany R.R.; 1911-12, asst-engr., Dart- 
mouth College; 1912-13, dftsman., International Paper Co.; 1915-18, chief dftsman., 
Spanish River Pulp & Paper Mills Ltd.; 1918 to date, mill engr., Spanish River Pulp 
& Paper Mills Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 



References: G. H. Kohl, C. H. E. Rounthwaite, B. E. Barnhil 
Smallwood. 



A. W. Sinnamon, 



JENKINSON— JOHN HAYES, of 20 Herrick Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
Born at Leytonstone, England, April 10th, 1889; Educ, 4 years, Univ. of London. 
Passed intermediate science exam.; 1909-11, works chemist, Burt Boulton & Haywood, 
Silvertown, England; 1911-14, works chemist, for Dominion Tar and Chemical Co. 
Ltd., at Sydney, N.S. and Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.; 1914-15, works chemist, F. J. Lewis 
Mfg. Co., Chicago, III.; 1915-17, chemist in charge of rectification for The Toronto 
Chemical Co., Sault Ste. Marie (Benzole recovery plant); 1917 to date, mgr., The 
Dominion Tar & Chemical Co. Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

References : F. T. Gnaedinger, K. G. Ross, C. H. Speer, B. E. Barnhill, R. S. 
McCormick, A. W. Sinnamon, C. H. E. Rounthwaite, W. L. McFaul. 



KEITH— HOMER PASHA, Box 514, Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Comber, 
Ont., Aug. 30th, 1883; Educ, Grad. in C.E. Univ. of Toronto, 1907; D.L.S., A.L.S.. 
1905 (summer), Instr'man., C.P.R., constrn., Kenora, Ont.; 1907-09, in charge of 
survey parties, Nor. Alta.; 1910-16, private practice, general surveying and engin- 
eering, Edmonton; 1917-20, district surveyor and engr., Prov. of Alberta; 1920 to dati 
dist. Highways engr., Lethbridge, Prov. of Alberta. 



PAOLI— AMBROSE ALOYSIUS, of Kingston Ont. Born at Charlottetown, 
P.E.I., July 13th, 1892; Educ, B.A. Queen's Univ. 1915. At present in 4th year 
civil engr'g., Queen's Univ.; 1913 (summer), rodman on city surveys, Charlottetown, 
PEL; 1914 (summer), conduit constrn. foreman. Bell Telephone Co., Peterborough, 
Sudbury, Sault Ste. Marie; 1916 (May-Sept.), asst. to chief chemist, Armstrong 
Whitworth Co. of Canada Ltd., Longueuil ,Quc; 1916-17, testing engr. and insper.. 
Imperial Munitions Board; 1917 (April-Aug.), melter foreman, pit foreman, testing 
engr and metallurgist for British Forgings Ltd., Ashbridge Bay, Toronto; 1917 (Aug.- 
Dec), night supt., Charleston Alloy Steel Co., Belle, W. Va.; 1917-18, night foreman, 
John A. Crowley Co., Detroit, Mich.; 1918 (May-Sept.), supt., open hearth and 
elec. furnace dept., Union tool Co., Torrance, Cal.; 1918-20, supt., steel and iron smelt- 
ing, Moreland MotorTruck Co., Burbank ,Cal.; Sept. 1920 to Mar. 1921, furnace supt , 
California Electric Steel Co., Wilmington, Cal. 

References: A. Macphail, G. J. Smith, W. R. Hughson, G. Hemmerick, L. T. 
Rutledge, W. P. Wilgar. 



References: J. D. Robertson, L. C. Charlesworth, A. W. Haddow, G. W. Mac- 
Leod, F. V. Seibert. 



LAPLANT — John .Frederick, of Simcoe, Ont. Born at Cornwall, Ont., Sept. 
26th, 1888; Educ, prelim, exam., O.L.S.; previous to 1913, asst. engr. in county and 
township bridge constrn. etc.; 1913, asst. to G. R. Marston, engr. in charge of disposal 
plant etc., town of Simcoe; 1914 to date, res. engr. in charge of munic constrn. work 
under G. R. Martson, in town of Simcoe, Ont. 



ROWLEY— HARRY WILLIAM, of Coaldale, Alta. Born at Byron, Mich., 
U.S.A., Dec. 23rd, 1887; Educ, B.Sc. Mich. Agric College, 1912; 1914-17, district 
hydrometric engr., under P. M. Sauder, Dept. of Hydrometric Surveys, Dept. Interior, 
Calgary, Alta.; Also during summer 1917 acted as irrig. inspection engr., and dist., 
watermaster in conjunction with the hydrometric work; At present, district water- 
master, under S. G. Porter, C. P.R., Dept. Natural Resources. 

References: S. G. Porter, F. H. Peters, R. S. Lawrence, C. Raley, G. S. Brown. 



References: E. H. Darling, W. Chipman, A. M. Jackson, G. R. Marston, A. 
Timbrell, T. T. Black, F. W. Thorold, W. B. Redfern. 



McCRAE— DONALD GORDON, Box 638, Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Monf real 
Que., Feb. 7th, 1890; 1907, with C.P.R.; 1907-09, instr'man., N.T.C.Rly.; 1910-11. 
dftsman., 1912-14. instr'man-, (' I' 1! ; 1916, in charge of private drainage work, 
.Manitoba; 1917-18, asst. engr., and 1918 to date, canal supt., C.P.R., Lethbridge, 
Alta. 



RUSSELL— ALLAN HUGH, of Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. Born at Renfrew, 
Ont., July 12th, 1SS8; 1907-08, opera r in hydro. -elec power plant and i/c of meter 
dept.; Renfrew Power Co., Renfrew, Ont.; 1909-12, asst. in meter dept. and operator 
in hydro-elec. power plant, Lake Superior Power Co., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.; 1913-14, 
asst lo field engr., water power dept., Algoma Steel Corpn., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.; 
L915, senior operator, hydro-elec power plant for above company; 1916-17, dftsman. 
and ass1 to field engr., Spanish River & Paper Mills Ltd.; 1918-21, asst. to res. engr. 
of Soo Mill for above company; Oct. 1921 to date, asst. to city engr., Sault Ste. Marie, 
Ont. 



References: A. S. Dawson, S. G. Porter, H. B. Muckleston, H. G. Cochrane, 
C. Raley, R. S. Lawrence. 



References: J. S. H. Wurtele, W. S. Wilson, J. G. MacLaurin, F. T. Gnaedinger, 
LeR. Brown, K. G. Ross, A. E. Pickering, J. W. LeB. Ross. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



123 



RUTLEDGE— PERCY R., of 252 Trent Avenue, Winnipeg, Man. Born at 
Rutledge P.O., Que., May 5th, 1891; Edue., B.Sc., Queen's Univ., 1914; Vacations 
with Can. Westinghouse Co. ; 1914-18, acting divn'l. sunt, Eastern Canada, and from 
1918 to date, divn. supt., Central Canada, Gas and Electricity Inspection, Dom. 
Govt. Member Board of Examiners under Gas and Electricity Inspection Act. Consltg. 
Electrical — Board of Grain Commissioners. 



References: E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, G. L. Guy, L. W. Gill, P. A. Borden, E. V. 
Caton. 



FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBER TO THAT 
OF MEMBER 

CUMMIFORD— SHIRLEY ARMSTRONG, of 49 Wellington St. East, Toronto, 
Ont. Born at London, Ont., Jan. 26th, 1888; Educ, 2 years Univ. of Toronto, 
1907-09; 1909-11, rodman, T. C. Rly.; 1911 (2 mos.), dftsman., and 1911-14, instr'- 
man., T. C. Rly.; 1914 (Oct.-Dec), instr'man., C.N.R.; 1915 to date with Toronto 
and Hamilton Highway Commission as follows: — 1915-16, instr'man., 1916 (Feb. -May), 
res- engr., 1916-18, asst. to chief engr., 1918 to date, chief engr. 



SMITH— ERNEST, of 1005-14th. Avenue, Edmonds, B.C. Born at Goudhurst, 
Kent, England, Sept. 26th, 1883; Educ, Senior Cambridge Local Exam. Short 
Course, C.E., Seanley College, Kent, 1900-01; 1904, rodman, with S. B. Hall, Sumas 
Reclamation Scheme; 1905-06, land survey work, and road constrn. Prov. Govt. 
B.C.; 1907-08, topog'l., hydro'l. and instrument work under Francis LeBarron, Sumas 
Development Co.; 1909, instr'man., B.C. Electric Rly.; 1910-11, instr'man., Kettle 
Valley Rly.; 1911-12, instr'man, 1912-14, asst. engr., B.C. Electric Rly.; 1915-19, over- 
seas, C.F.A ; 1919 (Mar-July), instr'man., Piov. Govt. B.C.; 1920 (Feb.-March), 
in charge of party .prelim, survey, B.C. Electric Ply.; Mnrch 1920 to date, engr. for 
the Corpn. of the District of Burnaby. 

References: A. C. Eddv, F. J. Whittaker, G. H. Burnett, H. Stewardson, F. N. 
Sinclair, A. E. Hill. 



References: W. A. McLean, G. Hogarth, H. S. VanScoyoc, V. E. A. Belan<?er, 
H. G. O'Leary. 



HAWKINS— EDWARD EWON, of Avonmouth, England. Born at Shrews- 
bury, England, Aug. 18th, 1883; Educ, 1900-05, Crewe Technical Institute. 1900-05, 
premium ap'tice, London & North Western Rly., Crewe, England; 1905-07, dftsman., 
leveller and transitman in charge of survey party, and 1907-13, res. engr. on various 
sections, N.T.C. Rly.; 1913-15, res. engr. on 100 mile section N.T.C. Rly., all bridges, 
large culverts and bldgs., including Doucet Divn. and yard; 1915-19, overseas. Major, 
Royal Engrs.; 1920-21, contractor's engr. in charge of erection of reinforced bldgs., 
High Wycombe & Egham, England; At present, outside supt. of constrn., reinforced 
concrete work, Port of Bristol, for Messrs. W. Alban Richards & Co. 



SPELLER— FRANK NEWMAN, of Pittsburg, Pa. Born at Toronto, Ont , 
Jan. 1st, 1875; Educ, B.A.Sc Univ. of Toronto, 1893; 1899-1901, mining work, Can. 
Bank of Commerce; 1901, Ontario Bureau of Mines; 1905 to date, metallurgical 
engr.. National Tube Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

References: R. W. Angus, C. B. Hamilton, C. H. Mitchell, J. M. R. Fairbairn, 
W. J. Francis, J. M. Robertson, A. F. Macallum. 



STEPHENSON— HERBERT ARMSTRONG, Box 1125, St. John, N.B., 
Born at St. John, N.B. June 23rd, 1890; Educ, I.C.S.; 1906-08, ap'tice., with Fred 
Thomson & Co., Montreal, elec mach. repairs and install'n.; 1908-1909, asst. to supt. 
of electr'l. apparatus, McGill University; 1909-11, installing and repairing elect'l., 
controlling apparatus, Otis-Fenson .'Elevator Co., Montreal; 1911 to date, chief elec- 
trician, and at present vice-pres., E. S. Stephenson & Co. Ltd., Engrs. and Machinists, 
St. John, N.B. (Assoc. Member, A.I.E.E.) 

References: F. P. Vaughan, C. H. Wright, G. H. Waring, B. Wilson, A. R. Crook- 
shank. 



TABOR— AUBREY CLIFTON, 895 Charlotte Street, Fredericton, N.B. Born 
at Fredericton, N.B., Sept. 10th, 1875; Educ, B.Sc. Univ. of N.B. 1897; (3 mos), 
rodman on location, Columbia & Western Rly., 1898-99, instr'man on constrn., Co- 
lumbia & Western Rlv.; 1900-01, transitman, Algoma Central Rly.; 1903-04, transit- 
man, C.P.R.; 1899-1900, res. engr., Great Northern Rly., Spokane, Wash.; 1901-02, 
res. engr., Algoma Central Rly.; 1902-03, res. engr., Wabash Rly. branch lines, Ohio, 
U.S.A.; 1905-08, res. engr., double track, C.P.R., Winnipeg — Fort William; 1909-10 
walking boss, constrn., 6.T.P. Rly.; 1911-14, res. engr., Can. Nor. Pac Rly.; 1914-15, 
engr., constrn. of substructures of bridges, Can. Nor. Pac. Rly.; 1917-20, transitman, 
C.N.R., Edmunston, N.B.; 1920-21, res. engr., constrn., Seotts branch, Quebec Cen- 
tral Rly. Not employed at present. 

References: W. K. Gwyer, J. R. C. Macredie, H. L. Johnston, F. H. Hibbard, 
W. A. James, W. N. Cann. 



References: A. E. Doucet, C. L. Hervey, H. E. Huestis, R. M. Charlton, J. H. 
Ilolliday. 



MACKINTOSH— COLIN DUGALD McTAVISH, of Lethbridge, Alta. Born 
at Auckland, New Zealand, Sept. 24th, 1882; Educ, Civil Engr., Glasgow and West 
of Scotland Tech. Coll., 1905; 1899-1905, ap'ticeship, Messrs. Kyle, Dennison & 
Laing, Glasgow; 1905-09, rodman, dftsman., transitman and instr'man, on constrn., 
C.P.R.; 1909-15, locating engr., asst. engr., constrn. and divn. engr., Sask. Divn., 
C.P.R.; 1915-18, supt., Medicine Hat Divn., and 1918 to date, supt., Lethbridge 
Divn., C.P.R. 

References: J. G. Sullivan, W. A. James, F. Lee, F. W. Alexander, S. G. Porter. 



WRIGHT— ATHOL C, of 160 Third Avenue, Ottawa. Born at Hull, Que., 
Sept. 2nd, 1879; Educ, Ottawa Collegiate Institute; 1899-1903, mining and surveying. 
Western Ontario & British Columbia; 1903-04, leveller, Brockville, Westport & 
Sault Ste. Marie Rly.; 1904-08, instr'man., 1908-11, res. engr., N.T.C. Rly.; 1912-14, 
res. engr., C.P.R. ; 1915-16, in charge of roads and bridging operations, Petewawa 
Internment Camp, for Dept. of Militia; 1916-19, overseas., Capt., Can. Engrs.; 
1919 to date, asst. hydraulic engr., reclamation service, Dept. of the Interior, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

References: J. S. Tempest, G. Grant, H. H. Charles, F. H. Emra, M. H. Marshall, 
C. L. Hervey. 



FOR TRANSFER FROM CLASS OF JUNIOR TO HIGHER GRADE 

ALLEN— ROBERT WILLIAM, of Regina, Sask. Born at Middlesborough, 
England, April 8th, 1889; Educ, Civil Engr'g., I.C.S.; 1906-08, arch'l.i dftsn an; 
1908-11, dftsman and rodman, City of Regina; 1912-14, chief dftsman., engr'g. dtpt., 
Regina; 1914-15, instr'man on munic works (roadways and sewers divn.), Regina; 
1916, supt., Regina sewage disposal works; 1917 to date, asst. city engr., City of 
Regina. 



WHITFORD— JOSEPH HUGH, of 40 Weldon Street, Moncton, N.B. Born 
at Bridgewater, N.S., July 22nd, 1899; Educ, I.C.S.; 1914-15 (summers), rodman, 
N.S. Prov. Highways; 1917-19, overseas; 1919 (Mar.-June), rodman and dftsman, for 

E. March, engr., for town of Bridgewater; 1919 (June-Dec), chairman and Dec. 1919 
to May 1921, rodman, C.N.R., Bridgewater; May 1921 to date, dftsman on bldg. 
work, chief engr's office, C.N.R., Moncton, N.B. 

References: A. F. Stewart, F. B. Tapley, S. B. Wass, H. J. Crudge, J. Murphy, 

F. W. Forbes, J. G. Dryden 



References: D. A. R. McCannel, IT. G. McVean, D. W. Houston, J. M. Mackay, 
C. S. Cameron, W. T. Daniel. 



LONGWORTHY— WILLIAM EARLE, of 2035 Hamilton Street, Regina, 
Sask. Born at Regina, June 21st, 1891; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1915; 
1912 (5 mos), 1913 (5 mos.), and 1914 (5 mos.), bridge inspr., Sask. Prov. Govt.; 
1915, on prelim, survey for the Sask. Water Commission; 1916-19, overseas, Lieut., 
C.F.A., Awarded M.C.; 1919 to date, sewerage engr., City of Regina. 



WILSON— H. ALTON, of 2662 Park Avenue. Montreal. Que. Born at Glenora, 
Ont., April 17th, 1890; Educ, Grad. in Mech. and Elect'l Engrg., Univ. of Toronto, 
1911; 1905-11 (part time), ap'ticeship to machinists trade; 1911-13, dftsman., J. C. 
Wilson & Co., Glenora, Ont.; 1913, asst. tool engr., Cadillac Motor Gar Go., Detroit. 
Mich.; 1914, engr., hydraulic turbines and power transmission machinery, J. C. 
Wilson & Co., Glenora; 1915-18, engr. tool designer, supt. and mgr., J. C. Wilson 
Mfg. Co. Ltd., Belleville, Ont., manufacturing shells, and 1918-20, engr. on all contract 
work for same firm; 1920-21, equipment engr., North East Electric Co., Rochester, 
N.Y.; At present technical editor of the following publications: Canadian Machinery 
& Mfg. News, Power House, Canadian Foundryman, and Marine Engineering of 
Canada. 



References: D. A. R. McCannel, H. S. Carpenter, R. W. E. Loucks, A. P. Linton, 
H. N. Macpherson, A. J. McPherson, J. McD. Patton. 



LYOX— ERNEST NORMAN, of Bombay, India. Bum at Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, July 21st, 1886; Educ, 1904-08, ap'ticeship with Messrs. Kyle, Dennison & 
Laing, Civil Engrs. and Land Surveyors, Glasgow. Certs, in mechanics and sanitary 
science, Heriot Watt College; 1908-10, chief asst., Kyle, Dennison & Laing; 1911-15, 
field dftsman. and last 39 mos. chief dftsman., C.P.R. Engr'g. Dept., Western Lines; 
1915-18, Royal Engrs., Capt.; 1919, asst. engr., The North Britisli Rly. Co., Edin- 
burgh; 1920, engr. in charge, The Irish Glass Bottle Co. Ltd., Charlotte Quay, Dublin; 
At present, asst. engr., Indian Construction Co. Ltd., Bombay, India. 



References: A. Bertram, W. deS. Wilson, W. H. Winterrowd, G. E. Bell, L. T. 
Rutledge, F. S. Keith. 



References: A. E. Sharpe, C. D. MacKintosh, II. C. Carter, V. Michie, H. J. 
DeSavigny. 



124 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PAPINEAU— AUGUSTIN JEAN, of Amqui, Que. Born at Coaticook, Que., 
July 12th. 18S8; Educ., C.E. Ecole Polytechnique, 1909. Architect, Board of Exam- 
iners of Architects, Prov. of Man., 1914; 1909, dftsman., Western Steel & Iron Co. 
Ltd.; 1910-12, designer. J. A. Senecal, Architect; 1913-16, member of firm, Senecal 
& Papineau, Architects; 1917, estimator. J. H. Tremblay Co. Ltd., contractors; 
1918-19, dftsman., Shawinigan Water & Power Co.; 1920, office mgr. of bldg. dept. 
for Banque d'Hochelaga; 1921 to date, local mgr. at Amqui, for St. Lawrence Lumber 
Co. Limited. 

References: F. C. Laberge, O. O. Lefebvre, S. Svenningson, O. H. Cotf, J. A. 
Meindl, J. A. Buteau. 



WHITE— DONALD ALEXANDER, of Montreal, Que. Born at Ottawa, Ont., 
Jan. 30th, 1889; Educ, Grad. R.M.C. Kingston, 1909, passed prelim, exam, for 
D.L.S.; 1909-10, asst. engr. on staff of River St. Lawrence Ship Channel, Dept. of 
Marine; 1910-11, with contractor on rly. constrn. (C.N.R.); 1912-14, in business, 
constrn. materials, etc., Ottawa, Ont.; 1914-19, overseas, Brigade Major. Awarded 
D.S.O.; 1919 to date, in business in Montreal, now president, Taylor, White & Co. 
Ltd., Manufacturers Agents. Also employed as technical salesman for Penbcrthy 
Injector Co. Ltd., of Windsor, Ont. 

References: C. J. Armstrong, F. W. Cowie, V. F. W. Forneret, F. A. Wise, 
F. L. Wanklyn. 



FOR TRANSFER FROM CLASS OF STUDENT TO HIGHER GRADE 

CHAUSSEE— PIERRE MAURICE, 84-A Lasalle Road, Verdun, Que. Born 
at Letellier, Man., Aug. 1st, 1896; Educ, Montreal Tech. Inst. 1912-14; 1914, dfting. 
and designing, tel. switchboards, Northern Elec Co.; 1914-16, on complete layout 
of switchboards, etc., Dominion Guarantee Co. Ltd.; 1916-17, with Montreal Quota- 
tion Co. (Montreal Stock Exchange), on preparation of plans for complete layout 
of elect'l. install'n. for stock ticker system; 1917-20, with Electrical Comm. of the 
City of Montreal on engr'g. staff, in connection with constrn. of underground con- 
duit system; May 1920 to date, chief dftsman., Montreal Water Board on design 
and constrn. of a new pumping station for the City of Montreal. 

References: L. A. Herdt, C. J. Desbaillets, F. E. Field, F. Y. Dorrance, P. Leclerc, 
G. E. Templcmati. 



DESSANE— DESPRES, of 40 Angele Street, Quebec, Que. Born at Quebec, 
Oct. 1893; Educ, I.C.S.; 1914-15, surveying, subdi\-ision of lots, etc.; 1917-18, 
overseer of constrn. works, highway dept., Parliament Bldgs., Quebec; 1919-20, 
in charge of constrn. work, highways dept.; 1920 to date, in charge of constrn. works, 
asst. engr. of Quebec Roads Commission of Quebec. 

References: R. J. L. Savary, B. Rocher, T. E. Rousseau, J. O. Montreuil, J. P. 
Piche, L. G. Papineau, J. E. Gibault, J. Dumont, S. D. Desmeules. 

RANCE— CHARLES CLARANCE, of 26 Albany Avenue, Toronto, Ont. 
Born at Kenora, Ont., July 17th, 1892; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1915; 
1912 (summer), rodman, C.N.R.; 1913 (summer), asst. on highway work, Routly 
& Summers; 1914 (summer), asst. on motor survey, Essex and Kent Counties, Dept. 
Public Highways, Ontario; 1915 (May-Sept.), inspr. of component parts, Canadian 
Inspection Co.; 1915-16, chief inspr. on Primers, W. Beardmore Co., Toronto; 1916- 
17, district guage examiner on component guages in Toronto, and 1917-18, in charge 
of a staff of guage examiners on component parts in Ontario, Imperial Munitions 
Board; 1918-19, with D.S.C.R., making industrial surveys of manufacturing institu- 
tions to locate openings for training disabled soldiers; later in charge of "paid courses" 
in Ontario, vocational branch, under H. E. T. Haultain; 1919-20, asst. engr., Dept. 
Public Highways, Ontario; 1920 (Feb. -Aug.), in factory of United Drug. Co., Toronto, 
and Sept. 1920 to Dec 1921, city salesman for same company; At present, asst. engr. 
in office, H. T. Routly. 

References: H. T. Routly, W. A. McLean, G. Hogarth, H. E. T. Hauttain, 
P. Gillespie, J. E. Porter, LeR. Brown. 

ROBERTSON— ANDREW MURRAY, of 2432 St. Urbain Street, Montreal, 
Que. Born at Keewatin, Ont., July 18th, 1894; Educ, B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1921; 
2 summers, dfting dept.. Northern Electric & Mfg. Co.; 1 summer, special ap'tice, 
C.P.R. Angus shops; 1915-19, overseas, Capt. Can. Engrs.; 1920 (May-Sept.), res. 
engr. on constrn. of reinforced concrete dam and power house for City of Sherbrooke 
on St. Francis River, employed by the Foundation Co. Ltd.; At present, divisional 
traffic engr., Bell Telephone Co., Montreal. 

References: C. J. Armstrong, A. Macphail, H. M. MacKay, E. Brown, F. B. 
Brown, F. P. Shearwood, L. C. Jacobs. 

ROGERS— HUBERT DAVID, of Gananoque, Ont. Born at Gananoque, Ont., 
July 31st, 1892; Educ, B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1913; 1909 (4 mos.), with Gananoque 
Electric Light & Water Supply Co.; 1911, asst. on Geol. Survey of Canada; 1912, 
asst. to town engr., Gananoque, on permanent walks; 1920, concrete inspr., Kingston- 
Prescott section, prov. highways; Oct. 1920 to date, supt., Gananoque Waterworks 
and Sewerage System. 

References: W. H. Boyd, A. F. Byers, D. S. Ellis, A. Macphail, W. L. Malcolm. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



125 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 




MARCH 1922 



CONTENTS 



Volume V, No. 3 



GENERATION OF STEAM BY ELECTRICITY, F. T. Kaelin, A.M.E.I.C 127 

THE NEW 41,000 H.P. UNIT AT SHAWINIGAN FALLS. Julian C. Smith, M.E.I.C 134 

RISE AND FALL IN PRICES, H. A. Goldman, A.M.E.I.C 140 

INSTITUTE COMMITTEES 147 

EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS:— 

Montreal and Winnipeg 148 

Mining and Metallurgical Institute Meeting 148 

Papers Committee 149 

Leonard Medal Award 149 

Research Problems 149 

Engineers Not Employed 150 

Assisting Student Members 150 

Canadian Engineering Standards Association 150 

MEETING OF BRANCH SECRETARIES 150 

GEORGE MONTEFIORE FOUNDATION 151 

EMPLOYMENT BUREAU AND MEMBERS' EXCHANGE 152 

TRADE PUBLICATIONS 153 

OBITUARIES 154 

PERSONALS 155 

BRANCH NEWS 159 

TOWN PLANNING NOTES AND COMMENTS, Horace L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C 177 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 179 

ENGINEERING INDEX (facing page 182) 31 

The Institute does not hold itself responsible for the opinions expressed by the 
authors of the papers published in its records, or for discussions at any of its meetings, 
or for individual views transmitted through the medium of The Journal. 



Published by 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



176 Mansfield St., Montreal 



BRANCHES: 



Halifax Branch, Halifax, N.S. 

Cape Breton Branch, Sydney, Cape Breton. 

Moncton Branch, Moncton, N.B. 

St. John Branch, St. John, N.B. 

Quebec Branch, Quebec, Que. 

Montreal Branch, Montreal, Que. 

Ottawa Branch, Ottawa, Ont. 

Kingston Branch, Kingston, Ont. 

Peterborough Branch, Peterborough, Ont. 

Toronto Branch, Toronto, Ont. 

Hamilton Branch, Hamilton, Ont. 



Niagara Peninsula Branch, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

London Branch, London, Ont. 

Border Cities Branch, Windsor, Ont. 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Winnipeg Branch, Winnipeg, Man. 

Saskatchewan Branch, Regina, Sask. 

Lethbridge Branch, Alta. 

Edmonton Branch, Edmonton, Alta. 

Calgary Branch, Calgary, Alta. 

Vancouver Branch, Vancouver, B.C. 

Victoria Branch, Victoria, B.C. 



126 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Members of Council for 1922 



•II. G. ACRES, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
LT.-Col. R. W. Leonard, 



tA. C. D. BLANCHARD, Niagara Falls. 
•F. A. BOWMAN, Halifax, N.S. 
•FREDERICK B. BROWN, Montreal. 
•H. M. BURWELL, Vancouver, B.C. 
H. S. CARPENTER, Regina, Sask. 
•J. B. CHALLIES, Ottawa, Ont. 
•G. W. CRAIG, Calgary, Alta. 
•A. R. DECARY, Quebec, P.Q. 
•R. L. DOBBIN, Peterborough, Ont. 
tG. B. DODGE. Ottawa, Ont. 
tJ. A. DUCHASTEL, Montreal. 



PRESIDENT 
JOHN G. SULLIVAN, Winnipeg, Man. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 
tC. H. MITCHELL, Toronto, Ont. tA. SURVEYER, 



St. Catharines, Ont. 



PAST PRESIDENTS 
R. A. ROSS, Montreal. 



•For 1922 



COUNCILLORS 
•GUY C. DUNN, Toronto, Ont. 
tJ. E. GIBAULT, Levis, Que. 
•E. R. GRAY, Hamilton, Ont. 
tA. R. GREIG, Saskatoon, Sask. 
tH. L. JOHNSTON, Victoria, B.C. 
tC. C. KIRBY, St. John, N.B. 
tGEO. MACLEOD, Montreal, B. C. 
{ALEXANDER. MACPHAIL, Kingston, Ont. 
•J. R. C. MACREDIE, Moose Jaw, Sask. 
tS. S. OLIVER, Quebec, P. Q. 
tS. G. PORTER, Lethbridge, Alta. 
tD. A. ROSS, Winnipeg, Man. 

tFor 1922-23 



Montreal 'WALTER J. FRANCIS, Montreal, Que. 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Montreal. 



tC. H. E. ROUNTHWAITE, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

tW. M. SCOTT, Winnipeg, Man. 

tF. P. SHEARWOOD, Montreal. 

•JULIAN C. SMITH, Montreal. 

tA. F. STEWART, Moncton, N. B. 

1K. B. THORNTON, Montreal. 

tGEO. A. WALKEM, Vancouver. 

tR. S. L. WILSON, Edmonton, Alta. 

tR. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS, Toronto, Ont. 

tC. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 



TREASURER 
Brig. Gen. SIR ALEX. BERTRAM, Montreal. 



tFor 1922-23-24 

SECRETARY 
FRASER S. KEITH, Montreal. 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, C. E. W. DODWELL 
Sec.-Treas., O. S. COX 

Asst. Engineer Public Works Dept., 

Halifax, N.S. 

Executive, H. W. L. DOANE 

executive, r pAULKNER j B HAYE S 

W. P. MORRISON K. H. SMITH 
L. H. WHEATON 
Ex-Officio) F. A. BOWMAN 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, C. M. ODELL 
Sec.-Treas., K. G. CAMERON 

Bk. of Commerce Bldg., Sydney, N.S. 
Executive, D. S. MORRISON 

executive, ^ p MacISAAC H. LONGLEY 

ST. JOHN 

Chairman, FRANK P. VAUGHAN 
Sec.-Treas. HARRY F. BENNETT 

P.O. Box 1417, St. John, N.B. 
Executive, G. G. MURDOCH, A. G. TAPLEY 
A. DUFRESNE 
G. N. HATFIELD 
(Ex-Officio) C. C. KIRBY 
MONCTON 

Chairman, J. D. McBEATH 
Vice-Chair., S. B. WASS 
Sec.-Treas. M. J. MURPHY 

Asst. Engr., C.N.R., Moncton 
Executive, A. F. STEWART F. O. CONDON 
R. G. GAGE R. McMANUS 

H. J. CRUDGE F. B. FRIPP 
QUEBEC 

Chairman, A. R. DECARY 
Vice-Chair., ALEX. FRASER 
Sec.-Treas. HECTOR CIMON, 

8 Laporte St., Quebec. 
Executive, L. C. DUPUIS PAUL JONCAS 

J. A. BUTEAU A. B. NORMANDIN 
(Ex-Officio) J. E. GIBAULT S. S. OLIVER 

MONTREAL 

Chairman, J. A. DUCHASTEL 
Vice-Chair., J. T. FARMER 
Sec.-Treas. J. L. BUSFIELD 

260 St. James St., Montreal 
Executive 'A. E. DUBUC 

•CHAS. M. McKERGOW 

•S. F. RUTHERFORD 

tR. BICKERDIKE 

tC. J. DESBAILLETS 

fP. B. MOTLEY 
(Lx-Officio) FRED. B. BROWN 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

W. J. FRANCIS 

J. H. HUNTER 

R. A. ROSS 

F. P. SHEARWOOD 

JULIAN C. SMITH 

ARTHUR SURVEYER 

K. B. THORNTON 

GEO. MACLEOD 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, K. M. CAMERON 
Sec.-Treas. F. C. C. LYNCH 

Dept. of Interior, Motor Building, Ottawa. 
Executive, O. S. FINNIE A. FERGUSON 

A. B. LAMBE C. McL. PITS 

J. L. RENNE 
(Ex-Officio) J. B. CHALLIES G. B. DODGE 
C. P. EDWARDS 

PETERBOROUGH 

Hon. Chair R. H. PARSONS 
Chairman, P. L. ALLISON 
Vice-Chair., P. P. WESTBYE 
Secretary D. L. McLAREN 

291 Stewart St., Peterborough, Ont. 
Treasurer, A. B. GATES 
Executive, E.R.SHIRLEY H. O. FISK 

A. L. KILLALY 
G. R. LANGLEY 
JAS. MACKINTOSH 

B. L. BARNES 
Ex-Officio) R. L. DOBBIN 



KINGSTON 

Chairman, W. P. WILGAR 
Vice-Chair., L. M. ARKLEY 
Sec.-Treas. L. T. RUTLEDGE 

262 University Ave., Kingston 
Executive, J. M. CAMPBELL A. MACPHAIL 
D. J. EMERY 

TORONTO 

Chairman G. T. CLARKE 
Vice-Chair., Wm. STORRIE 
Sec.-Treas. F. B. GOEDIKE 

201 Humberside Ave., Toronto 
Executive, PETER GILLESPIE 

G. G. POWELL 

M. V. SAUER H. J. LAMB 

J. M. OXLEY R- C. MUIR 
(Ex-Officio) C. R. YOUNG GUY C. DUNN 

R. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS 

HAMILTON 

Hon. Chair. ROBERT HOBSON 
Chairman, E. H. DARLING 
Sec.-Treas. W. F. McLAREN 
c/o Canadian Westinghouse Co , Hamilton, Ont. 
Executive, H. GRAHAM BERTRAM 

W. G. MILNE F. W. PAULIN 
J. W. TYRRELL 
(Ex-Officio) E. R. GRAY 

LONDON 

Hon.Chair., J. DAVIS BARNETT 
Chairman, H. A. BRAZIER 
Vice-Chair., W. J. FORBES MITCHELL 
Sec.-Treas. GEO. C. WRIGHT 
Kingston Construction Co. Ltd., London, Ont. 
Executive, F. A. BELL 

CHAS. TALBOT 

H. B. R. CRAIG 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, N. R. GIBSON 
Vice-Chair., F. S. LAZIER 
Sec.-Treas. REX. P. JOHNSON 

Box 245, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Executive, F. E. STERNS S. R. FROST 

W. H. SULLIVAN H. L. BUCKE 
(Ex-Officio) Lt.-Col. R. W. LEONARD 

H. G. ACRES 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, GEO. E. PORTER 
Sec.-Treas. J. CLARK KEITH 

302 Ouellette Ave., Windsor. 
Executive, L. M. ALLAN A. J. M. BOWMAN 

H. C. McMORDIE 

A. J. RIDDELL 

SAULT STE MARIE 

Chairman, K. G. ROSS 
Vice-Chair., B. E. BARNHILL 
Sec.-Treas. F. T. GNAEDINGER 

Const. Depart., Algoma Steel Corp., 

Sault Ste. Mane. 
Executive, tJ. W. LeB. ROSS 
tF. F. GRIFFIN 
tL. L. JACOBS 
•C. H. E. ROUNTHWAITE 
•J. G. McLAURIN 
•L. R. BROWN 
WINNIPEG 

Chairman, E. P. FETHERSTONHAUGH 
Sec.-Treas. GEO. L. GUY 

503 Tribune Bldg., Winnipeg 
Executive, tJ. G. LEGRAND 

tD. A. ROSS 

•A. J. S. TAUNTON 

•B. S. McKENZIE 

•J. M. LEAMY 
(Ex-Officio) GUY C. DUNN 

W. M. SCOTT 



SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, W. R. WARREN 
Vice-Chair., J. R. C. MACREDIE 
Sec.-Treas. D. A. R. McCANNEL 

City Engineers Dept., Regina, Sask. 
Executive, C. J. MACKENZIE 

W. H. GREENE 

J. W. C ALDER 

H. McIVOR WEIR 

C. W. DILL 

a. j. Mcpherson 

(Ex-Officio) H. S. CARPENTER 

J. R. C. MACREDIE A. R. GREIG 
LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, SAM G. PORTER 
Sec.-Trea. C. M. ARNOLD 

Lethbridge Northern Irrigation District, 
Lethbridge, Alta. 
Executive, G. N. HOUSTON H. W. MEECH 
C. D. MACKINTOSH 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, C. A. ROBB 
Vice-Chair. J. G. REID 
Sec.-Treas. R. H. DOUGLAS 

Railway Dep't, Edmonton, Alta. 
Executive, H. H. TRIPP 
R. W. JONES 

C. F. CORBETT 
A. G. STEWART 

D. J. CARTER 
(Ex-Officio) R. S. L. WILSON 

CALGARY 

Chairman, B. L. THORNE 
Sec.-Tre^s. ARTHUR L. FORD 

District Chief Engineer, Dominion 
Water Power Branch, Calgary, Alta. 
Executive, F. W. ALEXANDER 

P. J. JENNINGS 
(Ex-Officio) G. W. CRAIG 
VANCOUVER 

Chairman, CHAS. BRAKENRIDGE 
Vice-Chair., A. C. EDDY 
Sec.-Treas. P. H. BUCHAN 

930 Birks Building, Vancouver, B.C. 
Executive J. N. ANDERSON WM. SMAIL 

R. G. EDWARDS R. G. E. LECKIE 
'Ei-Officio) II. M. BURWELL 

GEO. A. WALKEM 
VICTORIA 

Ch irman, P. PHILIP 
Vice-Chair. E. F. COOKE 
Secretary, H. M. BIGWOOD, 
Treasurer, E. P. GIRDWOOD 
Executive, E. E. BRYDONE-JACK 

J. P. FORDE 
(Ex-Officio) E. G. MARRIOTT 
H. L. JOHNSTON 
ONTARIO PROVINCIAL DIVISION 
Chairman, Col. W. H. MAGWOOD 
Vice-Chair., Prof. C. R. YOUNG 
Sec.-Treas., A. B. LAMBE, Ottawa, Ont. 
Ex-Officio Members 
Lt.-Col. R. W. LEONARD 
H. G. ACRES 

Brig.-Gen. C. H MITCHELL 
J. B. CHALLIES G. B. DODGE 
A. MacPHAIL A. C. D. BLANCHARD 
R. L. DOBBIN C. R. YOUNG 
R. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS 
F R GRAY 

Cl H. E. ROUNTHWAITE 
H. B. R. CRAIG GEO. HOGARTH 
Representative of Branches 
P L ALLISON, Peterborough Branch 
L. M. ARKLEY, Kingston Branch 
WILLIS CHIPMAN, Toronto Branch 
REX. P. JOHNSON, Niagara Peninsula Branch 
A B. LAMBE, Ottawa Branch 
J I NEWMAN, Border Cities Branch 
F W PAULIN, Hamilton Branch 
K G ROSS, Sault Ste. Marie Branch 
g'. C. WRIGHT, London Branch 

Representatives of Non-Resident Members 
D. T. BLACK 
G. H. BRYSON 
S. B. CLEMENT 
Col. W. H. MAGWOOD 
GEO. A. McCUBBIN 
F. D. REID 



♦For 1922 



tFor 1922-23 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Published Monthly at 176 Mansfield Street, Montreal 

By 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

INCORPORATED IN 1887 AS 

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 



Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, As Second Class Matter 



Volume V 



MONTREAL, MARCH 1922 



Number 3 



Generation of Steam by Electricity 

The field of use for the electric-steam generator, its advantages to the consumer from load-factor point of 

view and to electric supply company as outlet for surplus power; discussion of types 

of electric steam generator with particular reference to water-resistance type. 

F. T. Kaelin, A.M.E.I.C. 
Chief Engineer, Shawinigan Water and Power Co. 

Paper read January 19th, 1922, before a joint meeting of the Montreal Section of the Chemical Industry, 
The Engineering Institute of Canada and The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 



The purpose of this paper is to bring before the 
engineering profession an application of electric energy 
and its conversion to heat energy by means of improved 
and inexpensive apparatus, the electric steam generator. 

This paper indicates the usefulness and limitations 
of such apparatus in supplementing, and in some cases 
in replacing existing boiler plants. A description will 
follow dealing with the design and operation of two 
variations of a type of generator which have recently 
been put into operation in this country and which maybe 
of interest owing to their capacity and compactness. 

To produce steam by electricity appears at first 
sight a reversal of common sense, but by analyzing pre- 
vailing conditions of energy production, and conversion, 
accentuated by the existing dislocation of all kinds of 



productive activities, it is found that the electric steam 
generator is quite a useful piece of apparatus where hydro 
electric power is available, and which otherwise would 
be idle or go to waste. During the time of business 
depression when the engineer's activity and thinking- 
are of necessity forced towards all kinds of improve- 
ments such as increasing efficiency of production, elimi- 
nation of waste in material, labour and power, the 
electric steam generator is one of the means to accomplish 
this, being in fact a handy and simple apparatus, and 
bringing us nearer the goal of the conservation of energy. 

Electric steam generators have been built during 
the last ten years in a number of European countries 
possessing hydro electric power, and where in the past 
five years the scarcity and high price of fuel favoured 



128 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the development and use of various methods of generating 
steam by electricity. There are more than three hundred 
installations known to exist in Italy, Switzerland, Sweden 
and France. In Canada and the United States a small 
number of generators have been in use for a short time. 
Some of these installations will be dealt with in this paper. 

Advantages 

Under prevailing conditions where electric power is sold 
on a kilowatt hour basis, electric steam generation cannot 
compete with steam produced by fuel, but it is not beyond 
the possibility that in some remote places where the 
cost of fuel and freight are high and the cost of a hydro 
electric development is low, the electric steam generator 
with its very low capital investment and operating ex- 
penses may become a competitor to the method of gene- 
rating steam by burning coal or oil, but it is not necessary 
to consider such an exceptional case to prove that the 
generator fills well its place permanently as a trans- 
former of idle power into useful heat energy. We may 
consider its usefulness mainly from two different points 
of view : 

Consumers 

1. From the point of view of the consumer of 
electric power owning a hydro electric installation, or 
purchasing blocks of firm hydro electric power on a flat 
rate power contract and using this power for manu- 
facturing purposes only during a smaller part of the 
twenty-four hours. In many manufacturing plants steam 
has to be produced for cooking processes, drying, humi- 
fying, and in all cases heat is required for heating purposes 
during six months and during the full twenty-four hours. 
Here we have electric power lying idle for twenty-four 
hours and paid for. The thought comes to us, what can 
be done with this idle power? Is there any cheap way 
of transforming this electric power into something useful ? 
It is well known that electric energy can be transformed 
into heat energy at a very high efficiency. One of the 
cheapest ways of doing this is to produce steam which 
in most cases can be used in conjunction with other 
steam generating apparatus, and where a system of piping 
for the purpose of heating or using steam for manufacturing 
purposes already exists. 

The low cost of the steam generator compared with 
other electrical apparatus for the conversion of electric 
energy into heat, and the wiring and control apparatus 
necessary for such equipment, is very much in favour 
of the steam generator. It can be shown that even in 
extreme cases where the load factor is comparatively 
high, for instance in pulp and paper manufacturing plants 
using a considerable amount of power during six days 
of the week and having it idle for the seventh day and 
at the prevailing cost of hydro electric power purchased 
in big blocks by these companies that it is economically 
quite feasible to turn the power which was used during 
six days, mainly for pulp grinding, during the seventh 
day into steam which is always required in such places, 
either for manufacturing or heating purposes. It was 
shown in an investigation made lately that the saving of 
coal during the fifty-two Sundays and three holidays 
would easily pay for the installation of the steam gene- 
rator in less than one year, and there are no doubt quite 



a number of pulp and paper plants in this country where 
similar conditions exist and where a considerable saving 
could be accomplished. 

Power Producing Companies 

2. From the point of view of the Power Company 
producing and selling hydro electric power, the present 
commercial depression and slowing up of the industrial 
activities have left hydro electric companies with surplus 
of power for disposal. How long this condition is going 
to last is uncertain but there is no doubt that a consider- 
able amount of unused power will be available for the 
next two or three years. Power companies can afford 
to sell this power at cheaper rates during such time as 
there is no other market for the power, though preferably 
under conditions which allow the power company to can- 
cel the contracts on short notice. But at the same time 
it must be clearly understood that no power company 
could afford to develop hydro electric power for the main 
purpose of generating steam electrically in competition 
with coal. 

The problem has been to find a use for this idle power 
which would not require any expensive installation, new 
machinery or additional apparatus, for instance trans- 
formers, etc., and as it was out of the question to use the 
power, for new industries or the manufacture of new pro- 
ducts which require considerable power like those pro- 
duced in the electro-chemical industry, one of the solutions 
was to turn the electric power into heat in the form of 
steam which is used to a very great extent in many in- 
dustries, especially in the pulp and paper industry. To 
do this, of course, other factors have to be favourable 
such as the transmission of the power, the proper voltage 
available that would not mean any further transformation 
and the low cost of the whole installation for generating 
steam electrically. 

Although some of these installations which are in 
operation today may be considered as quite temporary 
due to the prevailing exceptional conditions, there is no 
doubt that in many cases the electric steam generator is 
going to stay and be used at such times as there is power 
available from the power companies. This is usually the 
case during three or four summer months when the water- 
flow in the river is high and a certain amount of surplus 
power is available. It may even be feasible to use only 
night power by close co-operation of the power company 
with the power user ,and the fact that starting and stop- 
ping electric steam generators takes only a few minutes. 
These are all points which make the steam generator a 
very flexible apparatus and make it very useful to convert 
electric energy at any time at short notice and at extreme- 
ly low cost to valuable heat energy. 

Efficiency 

In the electric steam generator all electric energy is 
converted into heat energy, the electric current passes 
through a resistance either of metal or formed by the 
water to be evaporated. The whole process of conver- 
sion is therefore governed by ohmic law. 1 K.W.H. is 
equivalent to 3412 b.t.u., the total heat content of 1 lb. 
of steam at an absolute pressure of 150 lbs. per square 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



129 




Fig. No. 1 Record of Performance 

inch is 1193 b.t.u. Assuming feed water temperature 

of 150° F. the total heat to be supplied will be 1193 — 

(150-32) = 1075 b.t.u. I.K.W.H. will therefore produce 

3412 

.-t^f = 3.17 lbs. of steam, no heat loss considered. 

The efficiency of the electric steam generator is very 
high, the only losses are the radiation losses of the appatus, 
and the heat losses represented by a certain amount of 
water discharged from the generator which carries away 
a certain amount of accumulated impurities in the feed 
water. By proper lagging and regulation of this dis- 
charge water the losses become very small and depending 
on the size of the generator may be from 1 to 4% — for 
larger sizes of generators the efficiency can be taken around 
98%. On this basis 1 K.W.H. will produce 3.10 lbs. steam. 
Under average conditions 1 lb. of soft coal of about 12, 
000 b.t.u. evaporates about 8 lbs. of water. 1 ton of 
2,000 lbs. of coal evaporates 16,000 lbs. of water. The 
electric energy required to evaporate the same amount 



of water is equal to ' 1n : = 5161 KWH. 



215 KW 



days = .59 K.W. years = .8 H.P. year, or in other words 
215 K.W. in an electric steam generator is equal to one 
ton of coal per day, burned under average conditions of 
boiler efficiency. 

Comparing the capacity of an electric steam gene- 
rator with the capacity of a regular boiler in boiler horse- 
power, we find the following relations: One boiler 
horsepower is defined equivalent as the evaporation of 
34^ lbs. of water from and at 212° F. per hour and re- 
presents 33,479 b.t.u. per hour, 1 K.W. hour being 3412 
b.t.u. and at an average efficiency of 98% equal to 3342. 
These figures are almost exactly in the ratio of 10 to 1, 
therefore, an electric steam generator of 1000 K.W. 
capacity is equal to a boiler of 100 boiler horsepower. 



Classes of Electric Steam Generators 

Electric steam generators have been built during the 
last ten years in capacities up to 1,000 K.W., and only in 
the last two years sizes of 2,000 K.W. and more have 
made their appearance. Steam generators may be divided 
into two main and distinct classes: 

First — Generators in which the electric current 
passes through a combination of metallic resistors. 

Second — Generators in which the water itself forms 
the electric resistance. 

Metallic Resistance 

In the first case the metallic resistors in the form of 
wire and ribbon of some high resistance allow may be 
mounted in tubes similar to those in fire tube boilers. 
The arrangements allows the use of alternating or direct 
current as heating elements do not come in direct contact 
with water. In all other cases where the resistors are in 
contact with water and the current passes partly through 
metallic resistors and partly through water only alternat- 
ing current can be used as direct current would decompose 
water into its elements hydrogen and oxygen. Gener- 
ators of the metallic resistor type are only suitable for 
low voltages up to about 500 volts and are therefore not 
usually adaptable for very large outputs. The steam 
production is controlled by swtiching on and off of a 
number of parallel circuits and the combination of such 
circuits in parallel or series connection. To maintain 
a constant steam pressure requires, therefore, rather 
complicated and expensive electric control equipment. 
Generators of this type have been built of 1500 K.W. 
capacity, being of the tubular type construction, about 
20 ft. long and 5ft. 6 inches in diameter. The space 
occupied by this type of generator is comparatively 
large compared with the steam generating capacity. 

Water Resistance Type 

The second class of generators which will be mainly 
dealt with in this paper are built on a principle quite 
different from the metallic resistor units. The electric 
current passes through steam tight insulating bushings 
to a system of stationary electrodes partly submerged in 
water, the water to be evaporated serves as the electric 
resistance. This type of generator is known as the "Re- 
vel Generator" and has been in use principally in Italy, 
Switzerland and France for the last ten years, mostly in 
self-contained units up to about 700 K.W. For any 
considerable amount of electric power only a three phase 
alternating current system may be considered as practical 
today. For small units and of voltages up to about 
2,200 volts, the container itself forms the neutral point 
of the three phase system and is grounded. For larger 
capacity generators, especially when the voltage is in 
excess of 2,200 volts up to 12,000 volts, it will be advis- 
able to split up the generator into three single phase units 
with three containers, each containing one electrode, 
the three containers form again the neutral point and 
are metallically connected together and grounded. Owing 
to the comparatively high resistance of the water and the 
many possibilities of arranging the electrodes, it is possible 
to make use of comparatively high voltages such as are 
used in general distribution of power in industrial plants, 



130 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



and the use of step-down transformers, the cost of which 
would be greater than the cost of the steam generator 
itself is obviated. In order to maintain a constant steam 
pressure the generation of the steam has to follow closely 
the demand of the steam which means the electric power 
input has to be regulated to suit the steam demand. This 
is done by the variation of the electric resistance, either 
by changing the submersion of the electrodes, or varying 
the specific resistance of the water by suitably adjusting 
the amount of water fed to the generator and by control- 
ling the water discharged either continuously or at certain 
intervals, carrying with it the accumulated impurities 
in the water. 

The outstanding advantages of the steam generator 
of the water resistance type compared with other types 
are its simplicity in construction, compactness, easy con- 
trol, and its very low cost per kilowatt capacity which is 
very often the determining factor, especially for tempo- 
rary installations or where flat rate power is consumed 
to fatten the load factor of an industrial plant. 

Construction Details of Water Resistance 
Type of Generator 

The balance of this paper will deal only with gene- 
rators of the water-resistance type. For a long time 
water has been used as a resistor of alternating current 
in various apparatus, mainly as energy absorber for elec- 
tric generators under test and in starting devices for al- 
ternating current motors. In the latter case a salt is 
added to the water as otherwise the resistance would be 
too high. The use of water itself as an electric resistor 
for the production of steam is quite obvious though it 
requires a certain amount of investigation as to the suit- 
ability of different sources of water, the variations of the 
resistance of water at various temperatures and pressure 
and the practical limits in dimensioning the current path 
through water for various amounts of energy and voltages 
up to 12,000 volts. The resistance of chemically pure 
water is very high and of the order of an insulator, the 
resistance decreases with the contents of soluble salts — 
it is lower for spring water than river water. Condensate 
water, available in most cases where the electric steam 
generator is in use, is of a high resistance, but as it contains 
always from 20 percent to 40 percent make-up water 
drawn from the river or other sources its conductivity 
is brought up again to quite a practical figure. In general, 
it can be said, that any water satisfactory for ordinary 
boilers is also suitable for the electric steam generator. 
The resistance of water has a negative temperature co- 
efficient ; that is, the resistance is decreasing as the temper- 
ature and the pressure rise. Considerable investigations 
and tests have been made by the writer to determine the 
relations of resistance and temperature for various kinds 
of water, and special apparatus has been built for this 
purpose for currents up to 10 amperes and 6,000 volts 
for tests under atmospheric pressure. Fig. 1, shows a 
set of curves giving the relation of temperature and 
resistance for raw water from the St. Maurice River and 
for condensate water with about 25% raw water from the 
same source. Using a logarithmic scale the curves appear 
as straight lines and for many other tests not shown on 
this diagram it was found that these lines were all very 
nearly parallel. This would indicate that the same 



general law applies to any kind of water. The curves 
have been verified above 100° C. temperature by tests 
on steam generators under pressure. The curve as shown 
on diagram, Fig. 2, can be expressed mathematically as 
follows : 

C 



R = 



5_ 

V 



R = Ohms per cubic inch 

C a constant, 42,000 for curve A, 87,000 for curve 
B temperature of water in centigrade. 

In the early stages of the development of the steam 
generator it was thought that the investigation of the 
relation of temperature and resistance of different kinds 
of water would be of great importance but it has been 
found later by experience in the operation of the steam 
generator that the resistance of the water in the steam 
generator could be controlled over a considerable range 
by discharging a certain amount of water from the gener- 
ator. The purer the water and the higher the resistance 
the less water is to be discharged in order to maintain a 
suitable conductivity of the water. 



3'* 

B 
5 

«3'°°' 



I 





\ 
















\ \ 


\ 


B, 






































































































c 

•Tr* 


















A- Resistance of 
B. Resistance of' 

Chart of Resistan 


Saw River W, 
:ono£NS«TE + 

CE 


ITEH 

252 MAKE - 


jp w/atk 












Tests of Water 





Soo iooo 1500 2000 2500 3000 J5oo 4ooo 4Vw Sooo 

Re sistance - Ohms per cu. in . 
Fig. 2 

Fig. 3 shows a section of a 5,000 K.W. generator, 
it consists of a vertical cylindrical tank with an extension 
at the bottom. The upper part is flanged and to it is 
bolted a dished cover which contains three openings for 
the porcelain bushings insulating the three copper con- 
ductors leading to the electrodes. The insulator bushing 
consists of three parts, two corrugated sleeves, one of 
which is outside and the other inside the tank and a tube 
inside these sleeves which are held together by a shoulder 
and nut of the conductor passing through them. The 
faces of the sleeves are ground and are parallel and are 
made steam tight with the usual rubber steam packing. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



131 




Fig's. 4 and 5 show pictures of two sizes of 3 phase, 
one tank steam generators of the water resistance type 
both for 2,200 volt, the small one of 1,500 K.W., and the 
larger one for 5,000 K.W. capacity, both are of the same 
general design. 

Calculation of Ohmic Resistance 

As the path of the electric current is not sharply 
defined the ohmic resistance can only be calculated 
approximately. 

Let R be the ohmic resistance between electrode and 
ground 

A = Total area of submerged part of electrode in sq. 

in. 
d = Distance between electrode and ground in 

inches, 
s = Resistance in ohms per cubic inch of water at 

normal operation of generator. 
E = Voltage to neutral 
I = Current in amperes 
P = Electric power in K.W. 

Current density = — ^— (1) 



t P/x-ffA/Psr r- 



Fig. No. 3 Electric Steam Generator. — Three- 
Phase-Single Unit System. 



The packing also allows a certain adjustment for the 
difference in the expansion of porcelain and copper. The 
porcelain sleeves are subjected to considerable pressure 
and are made rather heavy for mechanical reasons and 
with electrical characteristics suitable for at least 6,600 
volts working pressure between the phases. The conduct- 
ors support through a system of adjustable links the steel 
electrodes of curved plates arranged in a circle equidistant 
from two cylinders, one outside and one inside, forming 
the neutral point of the 3 phase system, the outside fast- 
ened to the generator shell proper and the inside suspended 
from the cover and well secured in a central position. 
Both these cylinders are electrically connected to the 
body of the generator and grounded. The arrangement 
shown in Fig. 3 is for 1,300 amperes, 2,200 volts, 3 phase, 
60 cycles and for a working pressure of 165 lbs. per square 
inch. The electric current passes through from both 
sides of the electrode to the inside and outside cylinders, 
and to a much smaller amount directly from electrode 
to electrode. 



a = 



We have then R = 



d^ 
A 

_I_ 
a 



A 



s = 



E^ 
I 



(1) 



(2) 



Substituting in equation No. 1 we get 
E = d.a.s. 



(3) 




-j*«r 



Fig. 4. 1£00 K.W. Steam generator, 2200 volts, 
3 phase, 100 lbs. pressure. 



132 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




body of water between two concentric cylinders may be 
integrated and expressed as follows: 



R = 



2 TT h 



log c 



E 



r 2 



Where h means the height of the cylinder 

r i means the radius of outside cylinder 
r 2 means the radius of the inside cylinder 
From this equation the dimensions of this type of gene- 
rator may be determined in a similar way as above for 
the three electrode arrangement in one tank. 

In Fig. 7 is shown an installation of such a three tank 
unit, the general dimensions of the single tank are the 
same as above for the 5,000 K.W. single tank unit. The 
voltage is 6.600 volts, the normal power input 18,000 
K.W. with a maximum of 22,000 K.W., and at a working 
pressure of 135 lbs. — Up to 60,000 lbs. of steam per hour 
are produced. The higher the steam production from a 
certain area of water surface, the wetter the steam pro- 
duced. In the above shown installation a 10 inch stand- 
ard steam separator keeps the moisture content of the 
steam down to 1J^%. Two similar generators of 25,000 
K.W. each, and one of 12,000 K.W. are at present in 
course of construction. 



Fig. No. 5 5000 KW Steam Generator, 22000 volts, 3 phase, 
165 lbs. pressure. 

In equation No. 3 the right side contains three vari- 
ables, the choosing of which is mainly a matter of exper- 
ience and compromise to secure a satisfactory mechanical 
arrangement and safe operation. After d and a are 
chosen s is fixed — that means for a certain load and water 
level the specific resistance of the water has to be main- 
tained by adjusting the relative amounts of inflowing and 
outflowing water. The outside shell of this 5,000 K.W 
generator is 42" (107 cm.) diam. The length of the cy- 
linder part is about 70" and is designed to stand a test 
pressure of 350 lbs. per sq. in. The lower end is pro- 
vided with an inlet for the feed water and an outlet for 
the discharge and blow-off water. The generator is equip- 
ped with the customary water and pressure gauges and 
safety valves and the tank is mounted on a steel frame; 
for the larger generators is provided a gallery to give 
access to the top of the apparatus. 

Fig. 6 shows an arrangement of the three tanks 
forming one steam generator unit, each tank containing 
one cylindrical electrode connected to one phase on the 
three phase system. The tanks are connected on the 
steam side to a steam header, each tank having its sepa- 
rate inlet and bleeder for feed water. The three tank 
arrangement affords a very simple mechanical design 
and permits a more accurate calculation of the ohmic 
resistance of one phase to ground. The resistance of a 




Fig. No. 6 Electric Steam Generator, Three Phase, 
Three Unit System. 

Floor Space and Operating Details 

The floor space required by these types of generators 
is very small, the 5,000 K.W. generator with electric 
control apparatus can easily be placed in an area of 10 x 
12 ft., and the 18,000 K.W. generator, equal to 1,800 boiler 
H.P., with all its accessories will need a floor space of 
about 15 x 22 ft., and a head-room for easily dismantling 
of 25 ft. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



133 



The operation is extremely simple for the small 
generator and where they are not working in parallel 
with other steam plants, the operation can be made 
automatic by means of a regulating valve actuated by 
the pressure and controlling the amount of discharge 
water, thereby changing the water level, which, in turn, 
governs the power input and steam production and at 
the same time keeps the steam pressure constant. For 
large units and especially where they form only a smaller 
part of the existing steam plant and are therefore, not 
able to control the pressure alone, automatic regulation 
is not so simple, but the attention required is so small 
that one man could easily handle the operation of two 
to three very large units. For the electric control of the 
steam generator the usual apparatus such as disconnecting 
switches, oil switches, and preferably three ammeters to 
show the balance in the three phase, is required. Power 
measuring instruments may be added, depending on the 
nature of the power contract and supply. 

As the heat in the steam generator is produced in 
the water there are no parts subjected to a higher temper- 
ature than the temperature of the steam. This means 
that no dangerous stresses are produced by temperature 
differences and this adds further to the safety of the 
apparatus. 

There are other advantages of the electric steam 
generator over the usual coal fired boiler, for instance any 
interruptions to feed water supply simply means the shutt- 
ing down of the generator and does not introduce any dan- 
ger. The steam generator is equipped with the usual steam 
safety valves and can in addition be supplied with auto- 
matic blow-off valve which discharges the water and there- 
by shuts down the generator should the pressure go beyond 
a fixed limit. Other safety devices consist in relay pro- 
tection of the electric circuit in case of short circuit, 
unbalancing or ground on the electric system, and a 
trip for the automatic oil switch, which will interrupt 
power and therefore the steam supply. It can be seen 
therefore that the operation of the steam generator is 
just as safe as, if not safer than the ordinary boiler and the 
insurance companies have no hesitation in accepting in- 
surance on this apparatus in the usual manner. 

Conclusions 

1. The generator of the water resistance type is safe 
and easil controllyed. 

2. The apparatus can be installed in a very small 
space close to where the steam is required. Its design 
and operation are very simple and only needs the atten- 
tion of an ordinary skilled man. 




Fig. No. 7 18,000 KW Steam Generator. 6600 volts, 
3 phase, 130 lbs. pressure. 

3. The generator is the cheapest electric method 
of converting electric energy into heat. 

4. For the consumer of power the generator means 
the utilization of any idle power and thereby the improve- 
ment of the load factor. 

5. The power company is able to sell its surplus 
power for the generation of steam which is made possible 
mainly by the fact that the first cost and installation of 
the steam generator is comparatively low. 

6. By the introduction of such a simple and cheap 
device much idle electric power can be utilized, which in 
itself means a further step in the conservation of our 
natural resources. 



134 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The New 41,000 H.P. Unit at Shawinigan Falls 

Julian C. Smith, M.E.I.C. 

Description of some of the design features of the latest hydro electric development 
of the Shawinigan Water and Power Company. 

Paper presented at the Professional Meeting, Montreal, January 25th, 1922. 



In presenting a description of the latest hydro electric 
development at Shawinigan Falls it is the writer's inten- 
tion merely to describe briefly those features of design and 
construction, which because of their departure from more 
usual practice, are worthy of attention. 

Rating of Waterwheel 

The rated capacity of the waterwheel of the new 
unit is 41,000 H.P. and the wheel will operate at 138.5 
R.P.M. under a head of 145 ft. The art of 
manufacturing waterwheels has advanced rapidly 
during the last twenty years. The first wheels 
installed at Shawinigan in 1903 were rated at 
6,000 H.P. at 180 R.P.M. , and were the largest wheels 
that could be built at that time. By the time of the sec- 
ond development at Shawinigan in 1910 it was possible 
to install horizontal double runner turbines with a rating 
of 18,500 H.P. In 1922 there are wheels in operation of 
52,000 H.P., and the Hydro Electric Commission of Ont- 
ario are considering for their Queenston installation water- 
wheels having an even greater capacity. 

Water-Flow 

In order to provide the water for the unit at Shawi- 
nigan, about 3,000 cu. ft. per second additional flow is 
required. The existing canal through which the water 
flows to the head-gates is 130 ft. wide by 35 ft. deep. It 
is restricted to this width at the upper end by the bridge 
which carries the railroad spur and roadway giving access 
to the power house. Owing to the fact that the velocity 
of the water in the canal will be increased only about 25%, 
or to 3J4 ft. per second, which is not excessive, it was 
decided that the expense of widening the canal, which 
would necessitate an additional bridge span, was not war- 
ranted. The total flow for the full capacity of 220,000 
H.P. at existing load factor for the two power houses at 
Shawinigan Falls will be about 12,000 cu. ft. per second. 

Fore-Bay Extension 

The fore-bay extension begins on the downstream 
side of the bridge and is carried in a straight line to the 
end of the bulkhead extension. Excavation in this part 
of the work has been begun and will be carried in the dry 
as closely as possible to the existing crib. After the bulk- 
head and the new crib are completed and as much of the 
rock taken out as possible, the extension will be flooded 
and the old crib and remaining rock will be removed by 
dredging. 

Gatehouse 

The extension to the gatehouse is very similar in detail 
to the existing building. It is 80 ft. long and contains 
five sluiceways, each 12 ft. wide, the same width as the 



sluiceways in the existing building, thus enabling the same 
stop logs and similar gates and racks to be used. It is 
not intended to instal gates at present as it is hoped to 
regulate the flow by the Larner Johnson valve. How- 
ever, grooves will be left in the concrete so that gates can 
be installed later if necessary. 

Heating System for Prevention of Ice Formation 

One of the features of the 1910 development at Shaw- 
inigan Falls was the provision for prevention of the forming 
of ice on the racks. In the early days of the power de- 
velopment at Shawinigan the operation of the gates and 
the clearing of the racks were made very difficult in winter 
owing to the formation of ice on all iron parts in contact 
with the water. It was believed that the formation of 
this ice was due to the fact that the iron, being slightly 
colder than the water, conducted heat away from the 
water thus causing the formation of ice on the iron. In 
order to raise the temperature of the iron slightly, large 
air ducts are provided in the gatehouse floor extending 
the entire length with laterals across the building into 
the chambers leading to the penstocks so that air can be 
discharged into these chambers and blown down against 
the racks. This heating system is being extended to 
serve the addition to the gatehouse as it has been found 
that the system is very efficient. A fan with a capacity 
of 60,000 cu. ft., of free air per minute is located at the 
far end of the building. The air is drawn into the fan 
through electric heaters and discharged at a temperature 
of 150° F. into the main duct. Since the installation 
of this system there has been no ice formation inside the 
building and no tendency of the ice in the water to stick 
to the rack bars. Further, the ice has not formed around 
the gates and consequently no difficulty has been ex- 
perienced in operating the head-gates in the most severe 
weather. 

Gathering Tube 

A very interesting feature of the development is 
the tunnel intake designed by Messrs. R. D. Johnson 
and P. Wahlman of New York. It consists of five paral- 
lel water passages, one from each of the sluiceways in the 
bulkhead, which empty into a manifold, or gathering tube. 
The water passages are nearly rectangular in section and 
meet the gathering tube at an angle of about 35°. The 
upstream water passage is joined to the gathering tube 
at the control section by means of an elbow, the other 
passages join the gathering tube in long narrow slots. 
The gathering tube itself is circular in section, 20 ft. in 
diameter at the downstream and where it meets the 
tunnel and tapering to 13' 4" in diameter at the upstream 
end or control section. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



135 




Figure 1 
Plan of Extension to No. 2 Development at Shawinigan Falls 

The function of the intake is to cause a uniform flow 
of water in each of the five sluiceways and to discharge 
the water into the tunnel with a minimum of disturbance. 
The hydraulic theory of its operation is roughly as follows: 

In order to fulfill the hypothesis on which the design 
is based, the flow from the water passages into the gather- 
ing tube must be uniform per unit of length. 

The diameter of the gathering tube at any section 
was fixed by making the quantity of water flowing at 
that section proportional to the square of the velocity, 
that is at any point in the gathering tube Q/V 2 is a con- 
stant. This relationship was decided on after some study, 
as giving the most economical dimensions for the gather- 
ing tube. 

At any point beyond the control section in the 
gathering tube the water arrives from two sources, a 
small part of it from a section of the slot adjacent to the 
point considered and a large part from the gathering 
tube itself. The difference between the loss of head 
which has accumulated in the gathering tube up to this 
point and the loss which has accumulated in the water 
passage must be just large enough to cause the required 
quantity of water to flow through the slot. 

When losses up to the point under consideration 
have been determined the depth of slot at that point can 
be calculated. 

The friction loss was based on a coefficient of 130 
in the Hazen and Williams' formula, which is equivalent 
to about N = 0.12 in Kutters' formula and the coeffi- 
cient of discharge for the slots was taken as 0.98. 

The total loss of head in the intake has been estimated 
to be £%" for a discharge of 2,940 sec. ft. This loss 
may seem rather large at first sight, but the complication 
of the design necessary to effect a material reduction did 
not appear to be warranted by the gain in energy, and 
the assurance of getting even distribution of flow would 
be reduced. It was thought proper, therefore, to sacrifice 
a little head to insure nearly uniform distribution of flow 
through the racks in the belief that the total loss will 
be less than would ordinarily be the case with high local 
velocities through them. 



It is interesting to note that the uniformity of dis- 
tribution is not to any material extent, within reasonable 
limits, a function of the quantity of water drawn through 
the intake so that, with the dimensions determined for 
the maximum draft, the distribution will remain practi- 
cally uniform for other quantities drawn. 

A little study of the problems involved in the design 
will indicate that the forces dealt with are very small and 
yet their relation to each other is the only consideration 
upon which reliance can be placed to secure the desired 
distribution of flow. A slight variation of the dimensions 
determined may cause a noticeable unbalance of distri- 
bution. This was well shown in a model which was 
constructed for us by the LP. Morris Co., and tested in 
their laboratory. At the first run it was found that the 
flow was unbalanced, especially between the first, or up- 
stream, and second sluiceways. The model was emptied 
and the dimensions checked up and it was discovered 
that the throat of the control section was a little too 
large. This was corrected by placing fillets 1/8" thick 
top and bottom in the throat and the model was again 
tested with the result that a uniform flow was obtained 
in all five sluiceways. The scale of the model was 1/15 
full size so that these 1/8" fillets would correspond to a 
little less than 2" in the full sized tube. 

Tunnel 

The water passes from the gathering tube into a 
tunnel, 20 ft. in diameter, which delivers it to the steel 
penstock at the bottom. The tunnel was chosen in pre- 
ference to a steel penstock for economy both in construc- 
tion and in upkeep. The completed portion of the tunnel 
has cost less than $370.00 per foot, whereas the steel pen- 
stock, which connects the tunnel to the Larner Johnson 
valve, will cost erected about $450.00 per foot. 

The tunnel is lined with concrete averaging about 
2 ft., in thickness, which is reinforced throughout its 
length. The reinforcement for some distance from each 
end was designed to take care of the static head plus the 
surge. The allowance for surge at the lower end amounts 
to a little more than the static head, the combined pressure 
being 126 lbs. per square inch. In other words, the tunnel 
at the bottom is reinforced to take care of a bursting 
pressure of 3,600,000 lbs. per foot. This reinforcement 
consists of hoops of \%" diameter bars spaced 3 on 
centres at the lower end of the tunnel, 12" on centres in 
the central part and 6" on centres at the upper end. 
The hoops are tied together longitudinally by %" diame- 
ter bars about 2 ft. on centres which act as spacers and as 
temperature reinforcement. 

A section of steel . penstock 77 ft. long and 20 ft. in 
diameter connects the tunnel with the Larner Johnson 
valve. This penstock is built of 134" plates and is 
anchored into the tunnel by means of seven rings of 4 x 4 
x y±" angle, which are rivetted to the plates. These 
rings will also serve as seals to prevent leakage along the 
penstock. 

The loss of head in the tunnel and penstock using a 
coefficient of .012 in Kutters' formula will be about .7 
of a foot, so that the total loss of head up to the turbine 
will be about 1.1 ft. 



136 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The rock through which the tunnel was driven is 
a very hard granite, compact throughout the length of 
the tunnel except at the upper end near the surface where 
faults were encountered. 

The tunnel was driven from the lower end in the 
usual manner by first driving a heading ten to fifteen 
feet ahead of the face and then shooting down the roof. 
Most of the mucking was done by a one yard, motor 
driven, Thew shovel of a type especially designed for 
this kind of work. The muck was loaded by the shovel 
into skips, hauled to the portal and hoisted by derricks 
either to the crusher platform, or to dump cars which 
carried it to the spoil bank. 

Owing to the hardness of the rock the cost of tunnel 
excavation was high, averaging $7.22 per cubic yard. 
The cost of drilling and blasting alone was half of this 
amount, the balance being made up of handling, loading, 
hauling to dump and pumping. 

After the excavation was completed the invert for 
the lining was placed, beginning at the upper end and 
working towards the portal, the bottom being cleaned out 
and the tracks removed just ahead of this work. 

The forms were then erected on the invert and the 
upper part of the lining concreted, beginning about 30 
ft. from the portal and working towards the upper end. 

The forms for the straight portions of the tunnel 
were made of 2" B.C. fir lagging supported on structural 
steel ribs spaced 2'6" on centres. The lagging was deli- 
vered to the job in 10 ft. lengths and dressed to a 10 ft. 
radius like the staves of a tank. The steel ribs were 
composed of two 6" x 3^" angles back to back and were 
anchored to the rock by means of 1" bolts so that no in- 
ternal bracing was required and the whole interior of the 
tunnel was left clear for the dismantling and carrying 
ahead of the forms as the work progressed. 

The concrete was mixed at the upper end of the 
tunnel and delivered by means of a chute to a hopper 
part way down the slope. From the hopper it was fed 
into a pneumatic mixer which forced it under 200 lbs. 
pressure through an 8" pipe into the forms. This method 
of placing the concrete gave us a very dense lining with a 
remarkably smooth surface. 

The forms for the tunnel elbows were built outside 
on a platform near the carpenter shop and there lowered 
into the tunnel in sections about 5 ft. long. 





Figure 2 
Power-House Cross Section Through Centre line of Unit No. 6 



Figure 3 

Plan and Section of Draft Tube, showing Reinforcement 

Moody Draft Tube. 

Power House 

In designing the Power House superstructure the 
details of the existing building were followed as closely as 
possible and the only marked differences are in the ele- 
vation of the operating floor and in the height of the 
new generator room. 

The extension is 80 ft. long and the same width 
and height as the old building, that is, 115 ft. wide by 
75 ft. high. 

The new unit occupies the upstream part of the 
extension, the generator room being 50 ft. wide by 80 
ft. long and the full height of the building. It is served 
by a crane, the trolley of which is designed to lift 200 tons 
and the bridge for a load of 150 tons at either end or 200 
tons at the centre. 

The operating floor of the new unit is 16 ft. above the 
operating floor in the old part of the building. 

The downstream part of the extension will be served 
by the 100 ton crane that serves the old generator room. 

The Moody draft tube in the substructure of the 
extension presented a number of difficulties both in de- 
sign and in construction. The principal difficulty in 
design was in connection with its reinforcement. 

The draft tube block can be described as a flat plate 
with a circular hole in the middle, the bell of the drafe 
tube being suspended from the bottom of the plate. The 
walls supporting the plate are roughly in the shape of a 
horseshoe, 52 ft. in diameter and 48 ft. between the points. 
The plate is 12 ft. thick. The total load, including the 
weight of the block, is something over 12,000,000 lbs. 
The problem was to reinforce this block in such a way 
that it could be poured in sections not exceeding 250 cu. 
yds. which was about a day's run for the mixer. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



137 



The most obvious method of reinforcing it was to 
rim bars in two directions at right angles to each other 
as in an ordinary flat plate. This method, however, was 
found to be impracticable on account of the fact that 
there would have been required four layers of 1}4" bars 
on 6" centres each way which would have meant a total 
of eight layers where the bars crossed, or a net work of 
bars 4' deep like a stack of 6" mesh sieves. It does not 
require a very vivid imagination to picture the kind of 
concrete that would have been obtained at the bottom 
of that mass of steel. 

The method used was, therefore, decided upon as 
most nearly complying with all of the requirements. It 
consists of hoops and vertical bars placed near the outside 
of the bell, horizontal bars placed radially at the bottom 
of the plate and diagonal bars to take care of the shear or 
web stresses. The part of the block between the points 
of the horseshoe was reinforced as a beam in order to pro- 
vide support for the plate on that side. 

In this system the bars are in comparatively short 
lengths and easy to handle. There are at most two 
layers of bars vertically and they do not cross to form a 
grid and construction joints can be formed on practically 
any radial line as there is no shear on the radial planes. 

The stresses were limited to 12,000 lbs. per square 
inch tension in the steel, 500 lbs. per square inch com- 
pression in the concrete, and 50 lbs. per square inch bond 
stress. 

In designing and constructing the form work a great 
deal of care was taken to prevent deflection of the forms 
and to ensure smooth surfaces for the water passages. 
The construction of the draft tube bell particularly was 
a very intricate piece of work and required the services 
of several pattern makers. The ribs for the bell were all 
cut and shaped in the shop and the whole assembled 
before being set in place. We have been amply repaid 
for the care taken in this regard by the smoothness of 
the finished surfaces and the resulting accuracy of line 
and grade which will make the assembling of the machine- 
ry merely a matter of setting in place. 

Larner-Johnson Valve 

The Larner-Johnson valve which is being manufac- 
tured for this development at the Dominion Engineering 
Works is the largest valve that has ever been built. It 
is about 23 ft. in diameter and 27 ft. long and weighs appro- 
ximately 150 tons. The moving part of the valve alone 
weighs 25 tons. 

The valve will be located in a chamber outside of 
the Power House between the 20 ft. diameter penstock 
and the turbine casing. It can be operated either in the 
valve chamber or by means of a three way valve at the 
generator control board. 

The valve consists of a bell-shaped, cast steel shell, 
22'-6" inside diameter tapering to 13 ft. diameter at the 
outlet, a cylinder inside the shell 16 ft. in diameter which 
is rigidly attached to the shell and has a conical head 
pointing upstream and a plunger which slides in the cy- 
linder. The plunger terminates in a conical nose. 

Between the cylinder and the plunger there is an 
annular chamber, sealed at one end by a ring attached 
to the plunger and at the other end by a ring attached 




CLOSED OPEN 

Type A Larner-Johnson Valve 

to the cylinder. These rings are lined with brass and 
serve as guide bearings for the plunger. 

The valve is hydraulically operated by a differential 
pressure on the two sides of the plunger. When the 
valve is open and balanced, the cylinder and the annular 
space between cylinder and plunger are under the full 
penstock pressure and of course the penstock pressure 
is exerted on the nose of the plunger. To close the valve 
the penstock pressure is maintained in_ the cylinder and 
the pressure in the annular chamber is released. This 
causes the plunger to move forward and closes the valve 
in a manner similar to the action of a needle valve. An 
automatic damping device slows down the motion of 
the plunger as it nears the valve seat. 

To open the valve the operation is reversed. Water 
is admitted to the annular chamber under penstock 
pressure and the pressure in the cylinder is released. 

The pressure in the cylinder and in the annular 
chamber is controlled by means of three 12" Larner- 
Johnson valves so arranged and connected that the 
large valve can be balanced in any position from closed 
to full open. 




Figure 5 

Cast Iron Plunger of 20 ft. Larner-Johnson Valve, weight 
46.000 lbs. 

Selection of Type of Unit 

The remainder of this paper will deal with the elec- 
trical features of the installation. 



138 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



When the second hydro electric development was 
made in Shawinigan in 1910, the horizontal type of unit 
was adopted and the 18,500 H.P. double runner turbines 
then installed were among the largest machines to be built 
at that time. It was then assumed that the ultimate 
development at this plant would be carried out with 
this type of machine. When, however, the demands for 
additional power necessitated an extension of the plant 
in 1920 and a careful study was made of the more recent 
development of turbine manufacture it was decided to 
adopt the vertical type of unit as being the most econ- 
omical machine to produce the required power. 

It is not necessary here to compare at length the 
relative merits of vertical and horizontal units. In adopt- 
ing the vertical type of machine for this installation con- 
sideration was given to economy of space and material. 
The centre to centre spacing of the three 41,000 H.P. 
machines, which will be the ultimate development at 
Shawinigan is 60 feet. The centre to centre spacing of 
the present 18,500 H.P. units is 40 feet, so that there is a 
decided saving of space with the new vertical units. The 
dimensions of the vertical machines are such that an ex- 
tension of the present power house on the same dimensions 
affords ample room. In fact, were it not for the necessity 
of extending the present crane runway the downstream 
side of the power house could be narrowed considerably 
in the extension. 

The problem of bearings for vertical units has been 
successfuly solved by more than one manufacturer and 
this objection to the vertical type of construction no 
longer exists. The advantages of weight and low mechan- 
ical stresses are on the side of vertical machines so that 
the change from horizontal to vertical units in this power 
house is amply justified. 

Rating of Unit and Characteristics 

The rating of the generator is 30,000 K.W. at 75% 
power factor which is equivalent to 40,000 K.V.A. The 
power will be generated at 11,000 volts, 3 phase, 60 cycles 
and the machine will operate at 138.5 rev. per minute, 
being designed with 52 poles. 

The short circuit characteristics of the machine are 
such that the instantaneous short circuit current will be 
3.3 times full load current and the sustained short circuit 
current at normal excitation will be equal to twice full 
load current. It is interesting to note that with the high 
internal reactance necessary to give these results the 
short circuit current on light load and correspondingly 
light excitation will not exceed one-half full load current. 

The stator coils are form wound and the mica insu- 
lation is put on in the form of tape. The coils under 
test have withstood a break-down voltage test up to 
59,000 volts on the average. 

The full load regulation of the machine at 100% 
power factor will be 15% and at 90% power factor 28%. 



To facilitate handling, the rotor is constructed in 
six parts, that is there are three horizontal sections which 
are split vertically along the axis of the shaft. When the 
rotor is erected the two halves will be assembled on the 
shaft and then drawn together with 36 bolts which will 
be shrunk in place. Each pole piece weighs about one 




Figure 6 

Runner of 41.000 H. P. Turbine being Machined by 18 ft. Niles 

Bement Pond. Vertical Boring Mill. 

ton and is dovetailed into the rotor and secured by wedges 
and a retaining ring at top and bottom as is usual in this 
type of construction. In order to reduce windage, the 
spokes of the rotor are encased with steel plates. The 
generator rotor and turbine runner are mounted on sepa- 
rate shafts and coupled together on account of the enorm- 
ous weights of these parts. 

Thrust Bearing 

The main bearing is of the General Electric spring 
thrust type consisting of a lower disc with a polished steel 
surface, split into sectors and supported on a great number 
of small helical springs on which rubs an upper solid 
babbitted disc. This construction of the lower disc in- 
sures a practically uniform distribution of the weight 
over the surface of the bearing. The oil flows from an 
elevated tank up along the shaft and is drawn through 
the bearing by the centrifugal action of the rotating disc. 
The lubricating oil is cooled by a water coil which keeps 
the temperature of the oil below 55° C. and enables the 
bearing to operate with the exceedingly small oil circu- 
lation of about 4 gals, per minute. The bearing is re- 
quired to carry the weight of the rotor, the turbine runner 
and the hydraulic thrust which in this unit amount to 
about 723,000 lbs. 



Mechanical Features 

The rotor is of cast steel and is built to withstand 
the stresses which would be developed at double normal 
speed, that is at a peripheral velocity of 21,800 ft per 
minute. 



Brakes 

In order to bring the machine to rest in a short time 
when desired, a combination of air and oil actuated 
brakes is provided which operate on the underside of the 
rotor. The air pressure required for these brakes is 100 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



139 



lbs. per sq. in. and a separate oil pressure pump is provided 
so that the brakes can be used as lifting jacks to raise the 
rotor. 

Structural Features 

The structural features of the unit have been so 
arranged that the operating floor is level with the top of 
the generator frame instead of with the base as is custom- 
ary. This arrangement has several advantages as it 
not only tends to lessen the windage noises but permits 
the control of the warm air discharged from the generator. 
The cooling air which amounts to 100,000 cu. ft. per minute 
is drawn from the wheel pit through radial tunnels and 
may be discharged from the generator outside the building 
in the summer, or into the operating room in the winter 
when the warmth is desirable. 

Location of Control Apparatus 




Figure 7 
Partial Assembly, of Cast Steel Scroll Casing, 41.000 H. P. 
Showing guide Vanes and Lower Distributor Ring 



Unit, 



The control apparatus for the generator and turbine 
will be located on the generator room floor. It is worth 
noting that in modern station design there is a tendency 
to place the control apparatus on the operating floor. 
This reversion to the arrangement followed in the original 
hydro electric stations is made possible by the design of 
enclosed and quiet running machines. 

Electrical Connections 

The keynote of the electrical connections has been 
simplicity. Each generator will be connected directly 
to the low tension side of its transformer bank without any 
intermediary oil circuit breakers which virtually makes 
each generator and its transformer bank one unit. The 
11,000 volt cables from the generators to the transformers 
are carried in fibre conduits. There are nine single phase 
cables per unit arranged with the three cables of each 
phase in a vertical plane. This arrangement gives the 
best current distribution among the conductors so that 
although owing to the different reactance of the conduc- 
tors in different positions, the reactance drop is not the 
same in all cables, yet the difference is not great enough 
to cause overheating of any one conductor. 

Disconnecting switches are provided in the 11,000 
volt cables to facilitate the making of tests. 

The will be two 110,000 volt circuit breakers connect- 
ing the transformers to the high tension bus as it was 
considered inadvisable to depend on one switch for so 
large an amount of power. These breakers are each to 
be placed in a separate chamber which can be completely 
shut off so that the effect of a possible fire or explosion 
may be localised. Provision will be made to ventilate 
the switchrooms by small electric driven exhausters so 
as to prevent the accumulation of inflammable gas from 
the vaporising of the switch oil. 

Conclusion 

In a brief paper it is not possible to mention all 
parts of the installation and no attempt has been made 
to make this description complete as it is intended merely 
to touch upon the more interesting features of the 
development. 



140 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Rise and Fall in Prices. 



A study of price movements during the past hundred years with particular 
reference to effect of supply of goods and gold. 

H. A. Goldman, C.E., A.M.E.I.C. 
Advance proof of paper to be read before the Toronto Branch, The Engineering Institute of Canada March 2nd. 1922 



Outside of the Great War, there was probably no 
other subject which has created so much interest, and 
aroused so much concern in recent years, as the subject 
of rising commodity prices and the high cost of living. 

It is not merely because of its academic importance 
that the subject has gained such wide spread attention, 
but because the question of prices is one that so vitally 
and directly affects the well being of practically every 
human being throughout the civilized world, and when 
prices are carried to great extremes, considerable hardship 
to many people must necessarily follow. 

To the engineer the question of prices must be 
particularly interesting, in the first place, because as a 
consumer of commodities himself, and as a member of 
the community he is naturally concerned in any problems 
affecting the general welfare of the public, and secondly, 
because engineering is a profession that is closely allied with 
economics. Not only do engineers have to deal with 
prices of construction materials in the actual carrying 
out of their work, but the very adoption or rejection 
of certain engineering projects may depend entirely 
on the element of cost. Furthermore, the primary 
objects of many engineering projects are purely economic 
ones. The development of hydro electric energy enables 
our manufacturers to secure cheap power, thereby reducing 
the cost of the commodities they produce. The construc- 
tion and expansion of our railroads, the improvement of 
our highways and the development of our canals, all have 
the economic aspect as their ultimate accomplishment, 
tending to reduce the cost, and facilitate the carrying of 
the goods from the producer to the consumer. The same 
may be found true in case of many other engineering 
works where the ultimate economic benefit enters into 
their consideration. The enormous expansion of railroad 
construction that took place in the United States during 
the period following the Civil War has materially assisted 
in the readjustment of the country at that time by 
decreasing the cost of distribution of products. It is very 
probable that the deepening of the St. Lawrence waterway 
and similar other projects which are likely to come in 
the very near future, will similarly assist and facilitate 
the readjustment which we are undergoing at present. 

However, in the consideration of the principles 
governing the movement of prices, the writer has not 
confined himself to the prices of engineering or construc- 
tion materials, but dealt rather with commodities in 
general, because the same principles that apply to general 
commodities will likewise apply to construction materials. 

The Origin of the Recent Rise in Prices 

Many people are in the habit of thinking that the 
recent rise in prices began with the breaking out of the 
European War in 1914. Most of our comparisons in 



prices are usually made with those that prevailed either 
in 1913 or in 1914, and the blame for the increased prices 
is attributed entirely to the War. But as a matter of 
fact, a steady rise in commodity prices had been observed 
in this country as well as in Europe for a number of years 
prior to the war. Those increases were, however, com- 
paratively slow and gradual, and it was chiefly during 
the latter years of the war and particularly immediately 
after the conclusion of the Armistice that price increases 
have assumed such enormous proportions, that all our 
former standards of comparison of values were thereby 
entirely upset; resulting in considerable misery and hard- 
ship to people who were not in a position to benefit 
themselves from the rising prices but who found that 
with a given amount of money they could no longer 
obtain as many commodities as they were getting formerly. 

. The class of people that were first affected by the 
increased cost of living were naturally those whose 
incomes were of a fixed nature, such as people who 
depended on annuities or pensions for their living, or 
those whose incomes were derived from investments in 
mortgages and long term bonds, the return on which was 
a definite and constant amount that could not be changed. 
These people found it necessary to lower their standard 
of living if they were to live within the means of their 
income. As price increases gained momentum, other 
classes of the population were gradually added to the 
category of those who were compelled to reduce their 
living standards. Salaried people were probably the 
largest single class to suffer from the higher cost of living, 
because only in isolated and remote cases were salaries 
raised to any such extent as would compensate for the 
rising cost of commodities. Organized labour, by means 
of their strong organization, and because of the increased 
demand for labour as a result of war activities, were at 
first able to demand and enforce considerable increases 
in wages. But as these wage increases were in them- 
selves factors tending to raise prices still higher, the result 
was the creation of that vicious cycle of which we heard 
so much during 1919 and 1920, and which merely had 
the effect of aggravating a situation which had already 
become too serious to be ignored. 

As a consequence, wide spread discontent and rest- 
lessness developed throughout the country. Efficiency 
in industries had considerably deteriorated. Labour 
strikes were becoming a frequent occurrence, disturbing 
the trend of business and trade. Coupled as this was 
with much extravagance and extreme speculation in 
food stuffs and other commodities, a very unhealthy 
situation naturally developed. 

These conditions received careful attention from the 
press of the country where considerable prominence was 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



141 



given to the subject and much space was devoted for its 
discussion. The ills and evils of the situation were 
thoroughly discussed. The reasons for their existence 
were pointed out and various remedies for correcting 
them were suggested. The profiteer was denounced, the 
blame for the high cost of living was shifted from one 
class of business men to another, while the Government 
was urged to take steps to curb profiteering. 

Special agencies, such as the "Cost of Living Com- 
missioner" and the "Commerce Board" were appointed 
by the Government for the purpose of investigating and 
dealing with the problem, but apparently even these 
agencies failed to produce effective relief. 

The 1920 Price Collapse 

Speculation then became rife as to whether or not 
the good old prices of 1914 would ever come back. Very 
few people were willing to go as far as to admit the 
possibility of that, although some persons were under the 
impression that a halt to the upward movement of prices 
was about due and perhaps even a slight set-back. The 
great majority of people, however, were inclined to the 
belief that prices would continue climbing higher. This 
is quite evident from the fact that when finally the turn 
did come and prices assumed their downward movement, 
so many people, among them experienced business men 
and prominent corporations were caught with enormously 
large inventories purchased at high prices on the expecta- 
tion, apparently, that they were to go still higher. 

It is not surprising however, to find that such should 
be the case and that people should have expected prices 
to continue mounting higher, when it is realized that for 
almost an entire generation commodity prices, except for 
a temporary halt or occasional slight set back were 
continuously moving in only one direction, upward. 

Under such circumstances it would not be extra- 
ordinary for persons who have been observing this fact 
for the past twenty-five years, to arrive at the conclusion 
that the rising of prices is only a natural and integral 
part of our modern civilization and economic system, 



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Fig. 1 
Wholesale Price Index'of Commodities in the United States 



and that prices must continue to rise so long as our 
present economic system is maintained. 

Yet, if we were to turn the pages of economic history 
only thirty-five years back we may find that the price 
movements under our economic system are by no means 
confined to one direction. We would then arrive again 
at a period when the price question, particularly in the 
United States, was very prominent in the public eye. 
Again we would find the newspapers, periodicals and 
magazines, giving wide publicity to discussions on this 
topic and again we would find the Government being- 
urged to take legislative measures to arrest the move- 
ment of prices, but with this much difference, that in 
this period of the historic past around 1885, it was a 
continuous downward movement of prices that was 
holding the attention of the public, and it was a down- 
ward movement that it was desired to stop. Because up 
to that time, prices in the United States had been declin- 
ing continually, though gradually, for nearly twenty years. 
This decline having begun after the termination of the 
Civil War, and as it turned out later, a complete turn 
in the direction of the price movement did not occur 
until about ten years later around 1896. 

It is evident then that an extended period of declining 
prices is just as much a possibility under our economic 
system as an extended period of rising prices. 

Analysis of Price Movements 

A glance at the chart showing the index numbers of 
wholesale commodity prices in the United States during 
the past seventy years, reveals four distinct movements. 
At first we see an upward movement of prices beginning 
in 1849 and continuing up to 1865, the rise being 
particularly intensified during the period of the Civil 
War from 1861 to 1865. This is followed by an extended 
period of constantly falling prices beginning immediately 
after the Civil War and continuing until 1896. Then 
begins another movement of rising prices dating from 
1896 and extending through the period of the World War 
unit the middle of 1920. And finally we find another 
decidedly downward movement since 1920. 

The index curve of commodity prices in England 
shows similar upward and downward tendencies. Here 
we find the upward movement coinciding with the period 
of the Napoleonic Wars, and since then there is a down- 
ward tendency until 1896. This tendency was retarded 
somewhat by three wars, the Crimean War in 1855, the 
U. S. Civil War, and the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. 
The year 1896 marks the turning point in the price curve 
of England the same as for the U. S., the rise continuing 
up to 1920, and from that day a decided decline in prices 
is evident. 

From observation of these charts it would appear 
that prices have moved in certain minor and major 
cycles. The minor cycles being usually of short duration 
and representing the ordinary fluctuations following the 
periodical trade cycles of prosperity and depression, while 
the major cycle, extends for a period covering many years 
and the upward movement is usually accompanied by an 
extraordinary event such as an important war which 
carries prices to such an extreme point that the very 
height of the price level produces the reaction which sets 
the pace for the movement in the opposite direction. 



142 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




l_EVEi- or Encjush Commodity Prices i 



Fig. 2 

But what are the factors that are responsible for 
these variations in the price level? Why do prices of 
commodities climb sky high at one period and drop to 
extreme low levels at another period ? 

These questions have been extensively discussed by 
economists and various theories have been evolved and 
suggested. 

Factors Responsible for Price Variation 

The economic factors that are claimed to be chiefly 
responsible for variations in the price level of commodities 
are as follows: — Gold production, expansion of credit 
and modern banking system, production and consumption 
of goods, protective tariffs, free trade, freight rates, high 
wages, high taxes, monopolies, trusts and combinations. 

Of those mentioned, the first three factors, namely, 
gold production, credit and goods are most important, 
being fundamental in their effect on prices, while the 
other factors are probably only contributary influences, 
some of them being themselves the result, rather than 
the cause of a change in the level of prices. 

The effect of gold on the movement of prices is 
explained by the "Quantity Theory of Money". Accord- 
ing to this theory, prices in any given country will vary 
in direct proportion to the quantity of money in that 
country. As the quantity of money increases, prices 
will rise, while a reduction in the quantity of money 
will produce lower prices. Since in countries that are 
on the gold standard, the quantity of money bears a 
certain relation to the gold reserve, it follows that varia- 
tions in prices will depend on the amount of gold in the 
country. 

The direct manner whereby newly produced gold 
would exercise its influence in bringing about higher 
prices is explained by the adherents of this theory in 
the following way. 



Fresh gold produced from the mines will usually find 
its way to the banks. The banker finding his gold reserve 
increased much above the required limits established by 
experience, will naturally look for an outlet for this idle 
gold whereby he could make it work and earn a profit. 
His natural course would be to offer a reduction in money 
rates and thereby induce and encourage borrowing. 
Traders findings that they can get credit at easy rates 
will use that credit by entering the market for goods 
and thereby bidding up prices. This starts the ball 
rolling, because as soon as prices rise, profits will increase, 
and that will encourage more people to enter the market, 
thereby causing greater competition among purchasers of 
goods. Price increases will spread from one commodity 
to another until the entire level is raised. 

The "Quantity Theory of Money", however, has in 
recent years been attacked by certain economists who 
maintain that because of our modern system of banking, 
whereby many business transactions are settled by means 
of bank checks without any basic money actually passing 
from one person to another, and because of the expansion 
of our credit system, an increase or decrease in the 
production of gold cannot effect prices in any way. 
According to these economists, important changes in the 
price level are produced chiefly by a scarcity or abundance 
of goods. 

What Prices Are 

To understand more clearly, therefore, the effect of 
gold and goods on prices, it is necessary to define the 
meaning of prices and to recall some elementary principles 
in political economy. 

Prices my be defined as expressions of relative 
exchange value of commodities in terms of money. 
If the price of a bushel of wheat is one dollar and that 
of an overcoat is twenty dollars it is obvious that an 
overcoat is worth twenty bushels of wheat. It represents 
the application of our old well known mathematical axiom 
of "two things equal to the same thing are equal to each 
other". However, in order that money should act as a 
standard for comparisons of values, it naturally must in 
itself have value. Therefore, some commodity must be 
chosen as a basis for money. Most civilized countries 
have adopted gold for such basis, because gold fluctuates 
less in value than other commodities, because it is not 
very abundant in the world, and because it is not perish- 
able. 

In Canada and in the United States, where the unit 
of money is one dollar, the dollar normally represents a 
definite quantity consisting of 23.22 troy grains of gold. 
While prices, therefore, express a relation of value between 
one commodity and another, they also express a relation 
between the value of either commodity and that of gold. 
In the example cited for instance, a bushel of wheat will 
buy 23.22 grains of gold and an overcoat will buy 20 
times that amount, or approximately one ounce of gold. 
Assuming now that the general level of prices increases 
100%, the price of wheat will become two dollars a bushel 
and an overcoat will cost forty dollars. It is evident 
then that the increase in prices has not effected any 
material change in the relation between these two com- 
modities. The farmer will still have to give twenty 
bushels of wheat before he can secure an overcoat, like- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



143 



wise the clothing manufacturer will not be any better off 
when he comes to purchase wheat. But what about the 
relation of these two commodities, with regard to gold, 
after the price level was raised one hundred per cent? 
There certainly occurred a decided change in that direc- 
tion, because the dollar being always the equivalent of 
23.22 grains of gold, the farmer can now exchange his 
bushel of wheat for twice the amount of gold that he 
could have gotten under the old scale of prices, and the 
same is true of the manufacturer. The same analogy, if 
carried further to include all other commodities, will show 
a similar result. It is evident then that an increase in 
the general level of prices in the same proportion for all 
commodities will not change their value relation as 
against each other but will change their value as compared 
with gold. As commodity prices rise, the value of gold 
falls, and when prices of goods fall, the value of gold 
rises. This being so, it is difficult to see how the opponents 
of the gold theory can ignore the effect of gold on prices. 
The exchange value in the open market between one 
commodity and another, is governed chiefly by the extent 
of the demand and supply. If a commodity is scarce in 
the market at a time when there is a considerable demand 
for it, its value and price will rise as compared with other 
commodities. On the other hand when there is an 
abundance of a certain product and no demand exists 
for it in proportion to the supply, its price is likely to fall. 

Effect of Gold Supply on Prices 

Now, gold being itself a commodity, the production 
of which requires land, capital and labour, the same as 
the production of other commodities, its exchange value 
as compared with other goods must also be governed by 
demand and supply. A considerable increase in the 
supply of gold should therefore eventually cause a depre- 
ciation in its value resulting in a rise in commodity 
prices. On the other hand, a decreased supply coupled 
with a keen demand for gold should produce the opposite 
result causing lower commodity prices. 

The same should also be true in the case of goods, 
a great supply of goods should result in lower prices, 
while a scarcity of goods should have the effect of raising 
prices. 

It is obvious then, that in considering the price 
making factors we are dealing with two sets of forces of 
opposite character, which are constantly acting upon 
both gold and general goods tending to change their 
relative strength. The resultant of all those forces is the 
general price level of commodities at any given time. 
Any force that would tend to increase the production of 
gold, either through discoveries of new mines or through 
the development of new processes, whereby lower grades 
of ore could be profitably worked, or through the introduc- 
tion of new machinery and improvements in the mining 
and milling of gold, will have a tendency of raising the 
general price level, while exhaustion of gold mines, and 
high cost of producing gold through high wages and high 
cost of materials used in mining, will have a tendency 
to reduce the supply of gold and accordingly lead to 
lower prices. The employment of credit inasmuch as it 
enables the carrying on of many business, transactions on 
a small reserve of gold tends to decrease the demand for 



gold to that extent, and therefore the credit system may 
also be considered as one of the factors tending to raise 
prices. 

Of the forces, on the other hand, that work on the 
goods side of the ratio, all those that lead to increased 
production of commodities, such as substitution of ma- 
chinery for hand work, improved transportation facilities, 
increased efficiency, subdivision of labour, introduction of 
new inventions and improvements, will have a tendency 
to reduce prices. Factors causing retardation in production 
and distribution, such as decreased efficiency and poor 
transportation will lead to higher prices. 

United States Prices since the Civil War 

In the light of these economic principles let us 
examine how the major price making factors that have 
been discussed, namely, gold production, credit and 
goods, have actually operated in producing the price 
curves which we have seen. For this purpose the writer 
has chosen to analyze the price movements in the United 
States, because of the splendid opportunity it affords of 
comparing the circumstances surrounding the Civil War 
and those which have existed during the recent War. 
Insofar as recent price movements are concerned, while 
they may have varied in degree and intensity, the general 
trend, however, has been the same in Canada as in the 
United States, the discussion therefore, of the conditions 
in recent years will apply likewise to Canada as to the 
United States. 

The rising movement of prices, which began in the 
United States in 1849, coincides closely with the important 
gold discoveries in California. The gold production of 
the U. S. which was only slightly over a million dollars 
in 1845, rose to 10,000,000 in 1848, to 40,000,000 in 1849, 
and reached a figure of 65,000,000 in 1853. From that 
year production of gold was gradually declining and the 
figure of 1853 was not reached again until 1898. The 
price increase of 1849 is easily explained therefore by the 
increased gold production. The reaction in 1858 was 
probably due partly to the financial crisis of 1857, and 
partly to the uneasiness and uncertainties incident to the 
anticipated Civil War. With the outbreak of the Civil 
War prices re-assumed their vertical climb, because of the 
extreme demand for goods required for the provisioning 
of the army. This demand coming on a reduced supply 
occasioned by decreased production due to the with- 
drawal of men from the producing industries into the 
armies would naturally raise the price of the goods. 

Another element which undoubtedly contributed to 
some extent to the rise in commodity prices during the 
Civil War, was the depreciation in the currency of the 
United States. At the outbreak of that war, the Federal 
Government found itself badly in need of funds. Accord- 
ingly an issue of a large amount of paper money in the 
form of legal tender notes was authorized. As there was 
considerable uncertainty and lack of faith as to whether 
these notes would ever be redeemed in coin, their value 
naturally depreciated to a considerable extent and at one 
time the paper dollar of the United States was worth 
less than fifty cents in gold. Depreciation in the money 
of a country, nearly always leads to speculation, and 
speculation on the other hand, is practically always 
accompanied by rising prices. 



144 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Once the Civil War was over, the abnormal demand 
for goods ceased and prices began to drop. Because of 
the extreme speculation and overtrading that immediately 
preceded the conclusion of the war, the drop in prices 
immediately after the conclusion of the war was very 
steep. This was assisted materially by the fact that a 
large number of the population that were engaged in the 
prosecution of the war were now released and turned back 
into the various industries to produce goods. Further- 
more, producers and manufacturers who,_ under the 
stimulus of the war demand assisted by certain protective 
tariff measures, had considerably enlarged their plants 
and expanded their business, suddenly discovered that 
the productive capacities of their plants were far above 
that which the normal pre-war demand would have 
justified. In seeking an outlet, therefore, for their 
products, competition among producers which practically 
did not exist during the period of large demand, now 
became very keen. Special inducements in the form of 
price reductions had to be offered in order to dispose of 
materials. Under such circumstances it is evident that 
the law of "Survival of the fittest" must hold true, and 
the one who is able to undersell his competitors, would 
be the one who would remain in the field. 

Producers and manufacturers, realizing that their 
salvation existed only in being able to produce at low 
cost and sell at low prices, had to bend all their energies 
in that direction. Accordingly many economies in the 
production and distribution of goods were introduced. 
Efficiency was improved and new improvements in the 
form of machinery and inventions were adopted. These 
improvements had the effect of decreasing the cost per 
unit of product but at the same time they also resulted in 
increasing considerably the total quantity produced 
which fact tended further to bring lower prices. 

It is quite generally recognized that the fall in prices 
in the United States after the Civil War, was due to 
improvements in production caused by the introduction 
of new machinery and inventions. But what is not 
generally recognized is the fact that these improvements 
themselves were partly the result of falling prices. Neces- 
sity is the mother of invention. Introduction of improve- 
ments frequently means considerable loss of time and 
money in the way of experimenting, it means discarding 
old machinery in which considerable capital may have 
been invested. During times, therefore, when prices are 
high and profits are fair, producers are not inclined to 
undergo those losses. It is only during falling prices 
then, that the greatest stimulus is given to the introduc- 
tion of new machinery and inventions. 

It is clear then that all the forces that were operating 
on the production of goods during that period were tending 
towards lower prices. But it is also a fact that the forces 
that were acting on gold during that period were also 
operating in the same direction. In this connection it is 
well to remember that after 1873 falling prices became a 
world wide affair, and what is true after that year of the 
United States is true of practically every other civilized 
country insofar as the price making factors are concerned. 

The world's gold production was gradually declining 
since 1853, when the production of gold was 155 millions 
dollars. In 1874, gold production amounted only to 91 
millions of dollars, while between 1860 and 1889, the 



annual production never rose above 121 millions of 
dollars. The mere fact that gold production remained 
practically stationary during a period when the develop- 
ment of the commerce of the world had made tremendous 
progressive strides would in itself have been sufficient to 
appreciate the value of gold. But in addition to this, 
there were also other causes tending to enhance the value 
of gold. There was created a great demand for gold 
occasioned by the desire of one country after another 
to adopt the gold standard. 

The United States adopted it in 1853, and while 
specie payments were suspended during the War, they 
were resumed in 1879. In 1871, Germany adopted the 
gold standard, and later the countries of the Latin Union, 
Austria Hungary and other countries. 

This increased demand coming on a reduced supply, 
the result is quite obvious, it enhanced the value of gold 
and accordingly, prices continued to drop throughout the 
world. 

Gold production did not overtake production of 
goods until the early nineties of the last century, when 
due to the discoveries of the South African gold mines 
and to the successful application of the cyonide process 
in the treatment of ores, the output of gold began to 
increase rapidly. Gold production of the world which 
amounted to 120 millions dollars in 1890, rose to 180 
millions in 1894, it stood at more than 300 millions in 
1899, and was about 450 millions in 1910. 

The Rise in Prices since 1896 

The rise in prices, therefore, throughout the world, 
which began in 1896, can be easily explained by this 
enormous production in gold which resulted in a depre- 
ciation of its value. Coupled with this, came the enor- 
mous expansion of credit, whicht ended at the same time, 
to diminish to some extent the demand for gold. 

Some economists have attempted to attribute rising 
prices after 1896 to high wages and to activities of labour 
organizations in their attempt to retard production. But 
it is a fact that while prices from 1896 to 1907 have risen 
about 50 per cent, wages during the same period have 
risen only 30 per cent. So that the purchasing value of 
a day's labour actually decreased during that period. 
While during the period of falling prices, the purchasing 
value of a day's labour actually increased 80 per cent, 
from 1860 to 1892. With regard to activities of labour 
unions, it would appear that this was not a new pheno- 
menon which was confined to the period of rising prices. 
Writing on this subject in the Century Magazine, as 
early as 1887, E. Atkinson, referring to activities of 
trade union organizations, describes them in the following 
way: "The attempt is made to control the hours of labour 
by various artificial methods . . . Other attempts are made 
by establishing stated lists ofprices, by limiting the 
quantity of work to that done by any one man, by 
limiting the number of apprentices and by other similar 
methods to equalize the material conditions of men". 
These were apparently the conditions existing during 
the period of falling prices and if these activities could 
not prevent the falling of prices before 1896, how can 
they be considered to be responsible for the rise after 
1896. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



145 



A high protective tariff in any country would 
undoubtedly tend to raise the prices of certain com- 
modities in that country, because it would eliminate 
outside competition, thereby facilitating the formation 
of combines for price fixing purposes. But on the other 
hand, it is a fact that the upward movement of prices 
after 1896, appeared alike in free trade countries as well 
as in tariff countries. It is difficult therefore, to blame 
the tariff entirely for the rising of prices. 

With regard to the effect of large trusts on the move- 
ment of prices, it must be admitted that while on the one 
hand, the tendency is towards higher prices through the 
elimination of competition, there is, on the other hand, 
the fact that centralization of management, and large 
scale production makes it possible for commodities to be 
produced at a lower unit cost tending therefore, also to 
lower prices. 



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Fig 3 

The enormous increase in the world's gold production 
would appear therefore to have been the most important 
factor in producing the rise in prices which began in 1896. 

The rapid rise in prices incident to the War is familiar 
to all. It was caused by a shortage in goods and by 
speculation which was brought about by this shortage. 
This shortage first appeared in such products as were 
required for the provisioning of the armies such as food, 
clothing, boots, munitions, etc. Because of the increasing 
demand for such articles, prices rose and were accompanied 
by large profits and high wages. This induced the diver- 
sion of capital and labour from industries manufacturing 
peace time goods into those producing war materials. 
In addition to this, a large number of young men were 
withdrawn entirely from all industries, and turned into 
the armies and navies. This brought about a shortage 
of goods in all industries, raising the prices of all com- 
modities. 

Prices of commodities did not drop immediately after 
the conclusion of the Armistice. This was due to the 
fact that this war was world wide and affected the people 
of many countries and of many nations. For four years 
these people had suffered from under consumption due 
to blockades, and to the limited quantities of goods 
available. For four years they had to deprive themselves 
not only of comforts, but of actual necessities. When the 
lid was lifted, therefore, and the days of sacrifice were 
apparently over, they all began to purchase again. All 
wanted to get the things they could not get before, and 
wanted it as soon as they could possibly get it. This 



sudden increased demand, coming after a considerable 
period of under production, brought about the enormous 
rise in prices which we have witnessed during 1919 and 
1920. 

Prices began to drop in 1920, and continued falling 
for over a year. During the past six months, the price 
level remained practically stationary, declines in some 
commodities, balancing advanced in others. But it does 
not seem as if the general fall in prices had actually 
reached bottom as yet. It is more likely that the down- 
ward movement will still continue for a considerable 
number of years, although the declines may be slower 
and more gradual than they were during the past year. 
There are many indications pointing in that direction. 
The enlarged capacities of our producing plants expanded 
during a period of abnormal war demand, the decreased 
purchasing power of European countries caused by their 
adverse currency exchange, the decreased gold production 
and the probable increased demand for it as soon as the 
European countries make any attempt to correct their 
currency value by returning to the gold standard, will 
all tend towards reduced prices. The fact that the 
prices of some commodities have already come down 
very low, thereby reducing the purchasing power of the 
people engaged in those industries, will force lower prices 
in such commodities that are still kept above a reasonable 
level. There is still a considerable spread between the 
wholesale and retail costs of commodities and for this 
reason, consumers have not always enjoyed the benefit 
of the fall in prices, it is likely therefore, that many 
corrections will yet take place along that line. 

Prices and Wages 

A question which is frequently discussed in connection 
with commodity prices is, that of the price of labour. 
If prices are to continue declining for a long period, 
will wages also decline too the same extent ? 

If wage movements of the past could be taken as 
any criterion for the future, then it would seem as if 
the level of wages will not decline to any great extent. 
Wages do not appear to follow the same curve as prices. 
Following the Civil War, while prices kept on continually 
falling, wages which also rose during, and immediately 
after the war, came back but slightly, and finally remained 
on a permanently higher level. Certain data collected in 
England on this subject and covering a period of several 
hundred years would also appear to indicate that when 
wages have once risen to a higher level they never fall 
back to the original level. Perhaps this may be one of 
the secrets of our economic system which apparently 
aims and leads towards greater comforts and better 
living standards for the great masses of people. Price 
rise and _ wages follow, prices come down, but wages 
remain high. 

But, it may be asked, how is it possible to reduce 
the prices of goods while wages still remain at a high 
level? And the answer that history gives us to this 
question is this, Engineering, Science and Inventions will 
make that possible. These are the elements that were 
always chiefly responsible for the constantly increasing 
purchasing value of a day's labour, and it would appear 
that it is to the development of engineering and science 



146 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



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AS KKJ . 


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Fig 4 

which would make possible the production and distribution 
of goods at low costs that the world will have to look in 
the near future, for relief from the present economic 
difficulties. 

The significance of this statement, which would 
indicate that developments of scientific and engineering 
improvements will likely play a most predominating part 
in the economic world readjustment, is of extreme im- 
portance to the engineering profession. Because, if it 
means anything at all, it means that the opportunity 
is at hand when engineering might become the leading 
profession of the world. It is claimed that at various 
periods in the history of humanity, different professions 
have assumed leadership. At one time it was the clergy 
that occupied the leading position in the community, 
then came the medical and later the legal professions, 
which have similarly occupied leading places. Is it not 
possible, therefore, that in the coming generation when 
the entire world must look to science to extricate them 
from their economic difficulties, is it not possible that 
the engineer may be placed in that leading position? 
Is it not possible that very shortly we may find that 
conditions have so developed that the engineers and 
scientists are in a position where they are able to render 
extreme valuable service to humanity ? 

But if such are the conclusions that an analysis of 
the present and prospective economic conditions lead us 
to assume, may we not, on the other hand, ask ourselves 
the question, when that time does come, is the engineering 
profession prepared to assume such leadership? It will 
not do, of course, to ignore the fact that in recent months 
some very severe criticism has been levelled at the engin- 
eering profession, it being claimed that for some reason 
or other, the engineering profession does not develop the 
type of men that the public requires and expects it to 
furnish. When we realize that this criticism came from 
men who are friends and not enemies of engineering, 
it lends colour to the belief that there must be some 
justification for the criticism. 

How Engineers May Help 

Some five or six months ago, in an address before a 
joint meeting of Engineering Societies, Mr. Philip Cabot, 
a Boston broker, frankly and openly told his engineering 
audience that the opinion of the financial world is, that 
there is something wrong with the engineering profession, 
that it does not develop the kind of men that modern 
ndustry and the financial world demands. 



Following a similar trend in a recent address before 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
R. C. Harris, commissioner of works for the City of 
Toronto, expressed similar views when he claimed that 
the engineer does not fully appreciate the economic aspect 
in the development of engineering works. 

Both Mr. Cabot and Mr. Harris have rendered 
the profession a most valuable service by giving us an 
opportunity to see ourselves as others see us. But has 
the profession done anything to avail itself of this service 
and benefit by it? Has any engineering organization 
taken up this criticism and seriously investigated the 
causes for it or suggested any remedies that would 
eliminate it? So far as the writer is aware no such 
official action has been taken by any society and had it 
not been for a few editorials in the engineering press, the 
matter might have been ignored altogether. Yet it is 
the members in the various engineering societies who 
are most vitally concerned in this question, and in view 
of the great hopes that the future holds for the engineering 
profession, the engineering organizations cannot afford 
to ignore or remain indifferent to this criticism. If there 
is really something radically wrong with our profession, 
is it not our duty to take the necessary steps to correct it ? 
If on the one hand, the public has shown its faith in the 
engineering profession by giving it a legal status in the 
various provinces, it certainly becomes the duty of the 
engineers on the other hand, to make their profession 
one of the highest order and to develop its members to 
render the public the highest service, and anything that 
hinders such development should be eliminated. 

These suggestions are made in the hope that they may 
lead to the appointment of a special committee by this 
Branch, (Toronto) to look into this question in the 
meantime, and discuss it more broadly at some future 
date, when other Branches may take up the same question. 

In conclusion, there is only one other matter the 
writer would like to touch upon. 

Prosperity and the Falling Market 

Many people are under the impression that falling 
prices must be accompanied by hard times, unemploy- 
ment, and lack of prosperity. There is nothing to 
justify such an opinion. The greatest prosperity enjoyed 
in the history of the United States, was during the period 
following the Civil War, and up to 1873. It is true that 
during falling prices, there is no inducement for specula- 
tion, but it still has to be proven that speculation is a 
desirable element in the development of a country. 

John Moody, the well known statistical economist, 
expresses a similar opinion, when he says: "It looks like 
a parodox, but greater real prosperity can exist during a 
long period of declining costs than during a long period 
of boom .... The restoration of the price level to 1914 
or below, will mean an advance of the purchasing value 
of the dollar to the level of 1914 and above. The neces- 
sity of doing business under more direct competitive con- 
ditions and on smaller margins of profit, makes for 
efficiency in every direction. With the elimination of 
easy speculative profits, men get down to work and 
produce; and it is efficient production that builds up 
civilized countries — not speculation." 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



147 



Institute Committees for 1922 



FINANCE 

R. A. ROSS, Chairman 

H. H. VAUGHAN 

Brig.-Gen. SIR ALEX. BERTRAM 

LESSLIE R. THOMSON 

K. B. THORNTON 



STEAM BOILERS 

L. M. ARKLEY, Chairman 

W. G. CHACE 

F. G. CLARK 

R. J. DURLEY 

D. W. ROBB 

H. H. VAUGHAN 



CANADIAN ENGINEERING 
STANDARDS 

Brig.-Gen. SIR ALEX. BERTRAM 

(three years) 
WALTER J. FRANCIS (two years) 
H. H. VAUGHAN (one year) 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Chairman 
Brig.-Gen. SIR ALEX. BERTRAM 
J. A. DUCHASTEL 
R. De L. FRENCH 
J. COLIN KEMP 



LEGISLATION AND BY-LAWS 

WALTER J. FRANCIS, Chairman 
ARTHUR SURVEYER 
J. M. ROBERTSON 



PAPERS COMMITTEE 

FREDERICK B. BROWN, Chairman 

O. S. COX 

K. G. CAMERON 

HARRY F. BENNETT 

M. J. MURPHY 

HECTOR CIMON 

J. L. BUSFIELD 

F. C. C. LYNCH 

D. L. McLAREN 

L. T. RUTLEDGE 

F. B. GEODIKE 

W. F. McLAREN 

GEO. C. WRIGHT 

REX P. JOHNSON 

J. CLARK KEITH 

F. THEO. GNAEDINGER 

GEO. L. GUY 

D. A. R. McCANNEL 

C. M. ARNOLD 

R. H. DOUGLAS 

ARTHUR L. FORD 

P. H. BUCHAN 

H. M. BIGWOOD 



LEONARD MEDAL 

H. E. T. HAULTAIN, Chairman 

J. B. PORTER 

C. V. CORLESS 

F. D. REID 

H. P. DePENCIER 



PLUMMER MEDAL 

H. E. T. HAULTAIN, Chairman 

J. B. PORTER 

C. V. CORLESS 

F. D. REID 

H. P. DePENCIER 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION COMMITTEE 

H. M. MACKAY, Chairman 

ARTHUR SURVEYER, Secretary 

ERNEST BROWN 

J. M. ROBERTSON 

R. deL. FRENCH 

R. S. LEA 

A. R. ROBERTS 



CANADIAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE 
OF THE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRO - 
TECHNICAL COMMISSION 

L. A. HERDT, Chairman 

H. A. DUPRE, Secretary 

L. W. GILL 

O. HIGMAN 

J. KYNOCH 

T. R. ROSEBRUGH 

JOHN MURPHY 

A. B. LAMBE 



INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION 
H. H. VAUGHAN, Chairman 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

W. A. McLEAN, Chairman 
W. P. BRERETON 

F. W. W. DOANE 
E. A. JAMES 

J, A. DUCHASTEL 
J.E.GRIFFITH 

G. HENRY 

A. F. MACALLUM 

A. J. McPHERSON 
W. P. NEAR 

P. E. MERCIER 
G. G. POWELL 
C. H. RUST 
H. S. CARPENTER 

B. M. HILL 

ALEXANDER MACG1LLIVRAY 
L. C. CHARLESWORTH 
PATRICK PHILIP 

W. A. HENDRY 



POLICY 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

A. R. DECARY 

Brig.-Gen. C. H. MITCHELL 

WALTER J. FRANCIS 

K. H. SMITH 

J. G. SULLIVAN 

A. E. FOREMAN 

C. C. KIRBY 

A. B. NORMANDIN 

A. B. LAMBE 

W. P. WILGAR 

R. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS 

WILLS MACLACHLAN 

W. G. SWAN 

F. H. PETERS 

A. J. McPHERSON 



CONCRETE DETERIORATION 
IN ALKALI SOILS 

C. J. MACKENZIE, Chairman 

W. P. BRERETON 

J. C. HOLDEN 

J. N. FINLAYSON 

J. G. SULLIVAN 

W. Mel. WEIR 

E. A. MARKHAM 

J. R. C. MACREDIE 
G.M.WILLIAMS 
ALEX. DAWSON 
GEO. W. CRAIG 
R. S. STOCKTON 
A. W. HADDOW 
J. W. SHIPLEY 
T. THORVALDSON 

F. C. FIELD 
J. A. KELSO 



HONOUR ROLL AND 

WAR TROPHIES COMMITTEE 

Brig.-Gen. C. J. ARMSTRONG, 

Chairman 
Col A. E. DUBUC 
FRASER S. KEITH 
Brig.-Gen.SIR ALEX. BERTRAM 



CLASSIFICATION AND 
REMUNERATION 

A. H. HARKNESS, Chairman 
E. R. GRAY 

FREDERICK B. BROWN 
A. R. DECARY 
J. B. CHALLIES 



148 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Board of Management 

President 

JOHN G. SULLIVAN 

Past Presidents 

R. A. ROSS J. M. R, FAIRBAIRN 

Vice-Presidents 

WALTER J. FRANCIS ARTHUR SURVEYER 

Councillors 
K. B. THORNTON FREDERICK B. BROWN 



Editor and Manager 

FRASER S. KEITH 
Assistant-Editor 

A. W. SWAN 



Associate Editors 

J. CLARK KEITH Border Cities 

FLOYD K. BEACH Calgary 

K.G.CAMERON . Cape Breton 

R. H. DOUGLAS Edmonton 

O. S. COX Halifax 

W. F. McLAREN Hamilton 

L. T. RUTLEDGE Kingston 

C. M. ARNOLD Lethbridge 

GEO. C.WRIGHT London 

M. J. MURPHY Moncton 

J. L. BUSFIELD Montreal 

G. R. TAYLOR Niagara Falls 

F.C.C. LYNCH Ottawa 

D. L. McLAREN Peterborough 

HECTOR CIMON Quebec 

D. A. R. McCANNEL Regina 

F. THEO. GNAEDINGER .... Sault Ste. Marie 

HARRY F. BENNETT St. John 

C. R. YOUNG Toronto 

H. L. SEYMOUR Toronto 

P. H. BUCHAN Vancouver 

HORACE M. BIGWOOD . . . . Victoria 

GEO. L.GUY Winnipeg 



Vol. V. 



March 1922 



No. 3 



Montreal and Winnipeg 

Those who were fortunate enough to be present at 
the Annual and Professional Meeting, held in Montreal, 
agreed that the various functions were of an enjoyable 
nature, and would result in considerable benefit to the 
profession. It is not generally known, however, that 
practically all the details in connection with the various 
meetings were handled by the members of the Executive 
of the Montreal Branch, and that they had only a few 



weeks' notice in which to prepare their programme, and 
therefore, particular credit is due all who took part in 
connection with the arrangements for the Meeting, 
handicapped as they were on account of the time at 
their disposal. 

It should be pointed out that the postponement of 
the Winnipeg meeting to September 5th, 6th, and 7th, 
in no way detracts from the importance of this gathering, 
but rather, since it is being held at a season considered 
more opportune, it is expected that the Winnipeg meeting 
will not be second to any of the memorable engineering 
gatherings held in recent years. Not only do the officers 
of the Winnipeg Branch extend a most cordial invitation, 
but the President of The Institute, John G. Sullivan, 
M.E.I.C., being a resident of Winnipeg, is looking for- 
ward to the pleasure to meeting a large number of his 
fellow members at that time. 

At the conclusion of his retiring address, President 
Fairbairn, apropos of the absence of the newly elected 
President and of the Winnipeg meeting, said: — 

"Gentlemen, at this stage of the proceedings 
it is customary to bring to the chair of office the new 
President. I am sorry to say to-day that our new 
President is not with us. I had a letter from him 
yesterday, in which he expressed his most sincere 
regret at his inability to be present, owing to the 
fact that some very important business matters in 
Winnipeg prevent his leaving there. He also asks 
that I give one and all a most hearty invitation to 
be present at the professional meeting to be held in 
Winnipeg next September, and he specially requested 
that that be emphasized in every possible way. 

September is a most pleasant month in which 
to go to Winnipeg. It is the time of year when the 
Province is harvesting its crop, and making money, 
and I do not know of any better time to go there 
I hope everybody present will be able to go to 
Winnipeg in September, and have an opportunity 
of meeting your new President. He is a good 
fellow, and you will realize what that means." 

Mining and Metallurgical Institute 
Meeting 

Members of The Institute will note the courtesy of 
the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy through 
their Secretary, Mr. George C. Mackenzie, B.Sc, in 
inviting the executive officers and members of The Engin- 
eering Institute to their Annual and General Meeting at 
the Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, from the 1st 
to the 3rd of March, 1922. In order that this invitation 
should be received by all members before the meeting, 
a copy of Mr. Mackenzie's letter was forwarded to the 
twenty-two Branches of The Institute, and no doubt, has 
already come to the attention of a great majority of the 
members. At the recent Council meeting the action of 
the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy was 
warmly appreciated. Mr. Mackenzie's letter reads: — 
Dear Mr. Keith:— 

On behalf of our Council, I have the honour to extend 
to your Executive Officers and Members a cordial invi- 
tation to attend the forthcoming Annual and General 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



149 



Meeting of this Institute, which will be held at the 
Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, Ontario, from the 
first to the third of March, 1922, inclusive. 
Yours faithfully, 

(signed) Geo. C. Mackenzie. 

Secretary -Treasurer. 

Papers Committee 

An innovation in the personnel of the Papers Commit- 
tee has been made this year, which will doubtless react 
beneficially to The Institute. It has been customary for 
Council to appoint the Chairman,who with the Chairmen of 
the various Branches, comprised this Committee. In 
view of the importance of the work of the Branch Secre- 
taries, and the close contact they have with Institute 
affairs and of the details concerning their own Branch 
meetings, it was suggested by the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee that for the coming year, the Secretaries of the 
Branches constitute the personnel of this Committee. 
This suggestion was approved by Council, and conse- 
quently, the Papers Committee for the coming year, in 
addition to the Chairman, Frederick B. Brown, appointed 
by Council, is, O. S. Cox, K. G. Cameron, Harry F. 
Bennett, M. J. Murphy, Hector Cimon, J. L. Busfield, 
F. C. C. Lynch, D. L. McLaren, L. T. Rutledge, F. B. 
Goedike, W. F. McLaren, Geo. C. Wright, Rex P. John- 
son, J. Clark Keith, F. T. Gnaedinger, Geo. L. Guy, 
D. A. R. McCannel, C. M. Arnold, R. H. Douglas, Arthur 
L. Ford, P. H. Buchan, and H. M. Bigwood. 

Leonard Medal Award 

The Leonard Medal Committee has recommended 
and the Council has approved of the award of the Leonard 
Medal for nineteen hundred and twenty-one, to John 
Ness, for his paper on "Search for Oil in the West," 
published in the April 1921 Bulletin of the Canadian 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 

Research Problems 

An attractive pamphlet has been issued by the 
Honorary Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial 
Research, of which R. A. Ross, D.Sc, E.E., M.E.I.C., is 
Chairman, and Colonel F. M. Gaudet, C.M.G., M.E.I.C, 
Technical Executive Officer, which deals with research, 
and the problems of unemployment, business depression, 
and national finance in Canada. It points out the 
necessity for research in Canada, if this country is to 
maintain a position of leadership in the industrial world, 
and advocates the establishment of "The National 
Research Institute" to provide facilities for conducting 
research in the public interest, carry on a special confi- 
dential study of commercial problems, and provide a 
Bureau of Standards, maintaining a library for public use, 
and carry on a continuous study of Canadian materials. 

Following are some of the questions requiring to be 
answered, and which the Research Bureau might under- 
take. 

Who knows the secret of exterminating wheat 

rust? 



No one. Yet by organized and perhaps long 
sustained research it can be discovered and meantime 
lack of this knowledge costs Canada and her farmers 
millions of dollars per year. Valuable work has been 
done on this subject under the Department of 
Agriculture and the Advisory Research Council, but 
much still remains to be done. 

What should a black fox eat? 

How can this precious little fur-bearer be pro- 
tected from the ravages of worms? In the answer 
lies millions of dollars for Canada, and important 
steps towards the solution of the question have 
already been taken. 

What use can we make of our tremendous supply 
of Helium? It was greatly needed during the war 
as a gas for filling balloons. It will not burn — and 
at war-time prices, Canada is wasting $50,000,000 
worth every day of the week. 

It is contained in our natural gas and escapes 
unused into the air. Can we find another use for 
Helium besides the filling of balloons? Here is 
enough money to wipe off our railway deficit. The 
Research Council has promoted the study of this 
question; the material is available; it is now a matter 
of finding uses, in time of peace, for this gas of which 
Canada can become one of the largest producers. 

How can Canada be put into a position to meet 
its own heavy and increasing demands for fuel ? 

How can the great supply of Lignite in the West 
and of Peat all over Canada be utilized for this 
purpose ? 

The study of these questions, begun by the 
Department of Mines, at Ottawa, and pushed on 
by "the Advisory Research Council, has reached a 
point where success is in sight. 

What practical way can be found of developing 
and using the enormous quantities of low grade iron 
ore that exist in Canada ? 

This too has received attention. Much has 
been done though much remains to be done, and 
the answer cannot fail to be of immense importance 
to this country. 

What can be done with our straw? 

What can be done with our saw-mill waste? 

What should be done with our liquor from 
sulphite mills? 

What about making artificial fertilizers by the 
use of our water-powers ? 

These are some of the problems awaiting Canada's 
Bureau of Standards and Research; problems which 
have engaged the attention of the Advisory Research 
Council, with promising and even valuable results. 

Copies of this pamphlet are available to any member 
of The Institute on application to Colonel Gaudet. 



150 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Engineers not Employed 

While it is not possible to assure members that Head- 
quarters can secure positions in view of the present con- 
ditions, it is earnestly desired that all members at present 
unemployed record that fact at Headquarters, in order 
that The Institute may be better able to serve their 
interests. Although the outlook for engineering under- 
takings for the coming year is not promising, it is expected 
that the next month will see considerable more activity, 
and consequently a better opportunity of securing posi- 
tions for those not now engaged. 

Besides the actual record of those of our members 
who are out of work, it would be of interest to know the 
number of technical men not employed, and any inform- 
ation on that subject will be gladly received. 

Assisting Student Members 

In a short time the hundreds of students now attending 
engineering colleges in Canada will have concluded their 
year's studies. Most of them depend on the work they 
secure during the summer to assist them to complete their 
course. 

During the last few years a great many students 
have joined The Institute as Student members, demon- 
strating that they are ambitious to improve their standing 
in the profession. These same students realize that 
they need practical experience in engineering, and so 
desire employment in some capacity on any such work. 

A list will be published in The Journal next month 
of Student members available for this summer. Members 
of The Institute will then have a very practical way of 
assisting and guiding the future engineers along the 
difficult path of their chosen profession. 

Canadian Engineering Standards Association 

Arrangements have been made with Capt. R. J. 
Durley, M.E.I.C, whereby every Branch Secretary of 
The Institute will be placed on the mailing list of the 
Canadian Engineering Standards Association and will 
receive all publications, both past and future, issued by 
the Association. The courtesy of the Engineering Stand- 
ards Association in this connection will be appreciated by 
all Branches. 

Meeting of Branch Secretaries 

A meeting of the Eastern Branch Secretaries of 
The Institute was held at Headquarters on Jan. 26th last, 
immediately after the conclusion of the Annual and Pro- 
fessional meeting. There were present Messrs. Cox of 
Halifax, Cameron of Sydney, Bennett of St. John, Murphy 
of Moncton, Busfield of Montreal, McLaren of Peter- 
borough, Goedike of Toronto, McLaren of Hamilton, 
Wright of London, Johnson of Niagara Falls, Clark Keith 
of Windsor, and Barnhill of Sault Ste. Marie. 

The chair was unanimously tendered to Mr. Busfield 
of the Montreal Branch and J. Clark Keith, A.M.E.I.C, 



of the Border Cities was unanimously appointed secretary. 
Telegrams of regret were received from Mr. Lynch of 
Ottawa, Mr. Cimon of Quebec, and Mr. Rutledge of 
Kingston. 

The meeting was opened by each of the Secretaries 
explaining the principal features, the organization of their 
Branches and matters of general interest regarding his 
own Branch. Following which, a discussion was held on 
the standardization of Branch by-laws and the conclu- 
sions were reached that all Branches should take provision 
in their by-laws for the selection of a Vice-Chairman by 
ballot; that the Secretary-Treasurer or Secretary and 
Treasurer be appointed by the Executive committee in- 
stead of by ballot; and that all Branches should adopt the 
calendar year so as to conform with The Institute. With 
regard to this latter point it was felt that difficulties 
might ensue owing to the change of officers in the middle 
of the meetings season, but it was explained that this 
could be avoided by appointing a papers committee to 
take office in January to obtain papers for the following 
winter season. 

There was a general discussion on the relationship 
of Branch by-laws and Institute by-laws and it was felt 
that it was desirable that there should be no conflict 
between the two sets of by-laws, and a resolution was there- 
fore passed requesting Council to appoint a committee 
to deal with the question of uniformity of Institute and 
Branch by-laws. 

Ways and means of obtaining greater publicity for 
the Branches and Institute were discussed at great length, 
the various Secretaries explaining their own particular 
ways of handling this matter. Regarding personal service 
to the membership, particularly in connection with 
employment, it was thought that little could be done at 
the present time due to the abnormal conditions. How- 
ever, each Secretary pledged himself to do everything in 
his power to impress on those seeking the services of engin- 
eers the desirability of giving preference to members of 
The Institute and also to seek the advice of The Institute 
in making appointments. 

Fraser S. Keith, General Secretary of The Institute, 
joined the meeting during the afternoon session when a 
discussion was being held on the desirability of extending 
the jurisdiction of Branch membership. It was the gen- 
eral feeling that it would be desirable for non-resident mem- 
bers to be brought within the jurisdiction of the nearest 
branch but that their fees should not necessarily be changed 
from the present standard. 

It was felt that there was considerable difficulty 
in obtaining suitable speakers particularly in the case of 
the smaller Branches. Their finances did not enable 
them to contribute towards the expenses of a visitor and in 
their own Branches they only had a limited amount of 
material. A resolution was passed requesting Council 
to assist the smaller branches by suggesting good speakers 
and making an appropriation to assist in paying the tra- 
velling expenses of such speakers. 

A large part of the time was devoted to discussion 
regarding The Engineering Journal and general activities 
of the Branches particularly regarding ideas for improved 
attendance at meetings and for making the meetings as 
attractive as possible for the membership. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



151 



The Secretaries felt that the meeting was of 
great value not only to themselves but through them to 
The Institute at large, not only on account of the inform- 
ation and ideas that were being assimilated but also on 
account of the inestimable value of personal contact and 
acquaintance. It was very strongly felt that it would 
be a great pity if the co-operation being secured through 
this meeting should not be ensured for the future by 
making definite provision for all Branch secretaries to 
meet every year at the time of the Annual and Professional 
meeting. The meeting concluded with a hearty vote of 
thanks to the Montreal Branch for holding this first 
secretarial meeting and to Mr. Duchastel for the hospital- 
ity which he had extended to all present. 

George Montefiore Foundation 

It is announced by the Association des Ingenieurs 
Electriciens Sortis de l'lnstitut Electrotechnique Monte- 
fiore, Rue Saint Gilles, 31, Liege, Belgium, that a competi- 
tion under the rules of the George Montefiore Foundation 
will be held in 1923. A prize amounting to the interest 
on Belgian securities amounting to 150,000 francs is pre- 
sented for the best original work on the scientific advance 
and the progress of technical applications of electricity. 
Entries for the competition may be written in English or 
French, but must be type-written. Further particulars 
may be obtained from the Association des Ingenieurs 
Electriciens Sortis de l'lnstitut George Montefiore at the 
address given above. 

American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, Toronto Meeting, 1921 

A. M. Reid, S.E.I.C. 

The following details of the methods used in directing 
the activities of the allembracing American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and in particular the 
stagecraft employed in connection with the now historic 
Toronto Meeting, may be of interest. 

The central and permanent headquarters is small 
for an Association of such proportions. This results 
from the fact that the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science is little interested in the promo- 
tion of special policies or enterprises and so needs little 
administration during the year. Its chief object is to 
assist the many Societies, which have affiliated with it, 
to function properly and provide a medium for them for 
the expression and co-relation of ideas through annual 
meetings held in conjunction with the central organization. 

The problem confronting the Local Committee 
formed to arrange for the Toronto Meeting was, therefore, 
largely one of co-ordination, rather than the execution of 
detailed plans from Headquarters. Toronto represent- 
atives of the sixteen sections and many affiliated societies, 
representing every branch of science, pure and applied, 
were appointed by those concerned. 

Fourteen sub-committees were formed to arrange the 
many details and the Local Committee Headquarters 
became a clearing house for information which was 
passed on to those interested. 



The Obganization roe the Tobdnto Melting - 1921. 



I ',!■■ II * 




Figure 1 

After contact had been established with the affiliated 
and associated societies and the sections, the fullest 
possible information for a "Preliminary Announcement" 
was forwarded to the A. A. A. S. Headquarters for 
printing in booklet form and distribution. 

Special attention was then directed to the collection 
and compilation of data, and for this a schedule on tracing 
linen, revised constantly, was used. As information 
accumulated as to Societies attending, probable attend- 
ance, times and location of meetings, etc., it was added, 
and blue prints and photostats supplied to sub-committees 
for guidance. 



PRELIMINARY ANNOUNCEMENT 



TfeiN spoliation at Mar Esct 



Reception £Tp.anspop_wion Su&comm. 
Union Station - Touohto 



BEGIST&ATION Ar UNIVfttSITY LlbftlBY 

loo Page PeociiAM 
Location or Individual's B_oom 



Signs & Messenger Service 



Section & Society Meetings 



Social 



Functions 



The Individual in the Toronto Meeting 
A.A.A.S. 



Figure 2. 



152 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



It was speedily realized that publicity was a most 
important factor and special liaison was secured with 
this department by having the Local Committee Secretary, 
H. L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C, as Secretary of the Publicity 
Subcommittee. 

Copy was first supplied all technical periodicals and 
journals. Efforts were made to interest the Secondary 
School teachers through the University Extension organ- 
ization, and special circulars to members of the Toronto 
Board of Trade and similar boards in outlying centres 
were distributed. 

The Publicity Committee concentrated, however, on 
the daily newspapers and the general reader. To this 
end a large number of cuts of special speakers and local 
participants was made. Everyone delivering a paper, 
of which there were some seven hundred in all, was asked 
to forward abstracts. These were gone over by a staff 
of experts in the branch of science treated, and largely 
rewritten for the general reader. Then, previous to the 
delivery of the address, some hundred mimeograph copies 
were made and released for publication. That this was 
successful from the newspapers viewpoint is shown by 
the fact that the "Globe" mentioned it as "the first 
successful attempt ever made in connection with any 
convention in Toronto to provide a real publicity service". 

When the matter of temporary assistance during the 
meeting arose, it was considered that the University 
student was the logical employee. A staff of some 110 
students was built up on paper and individuals notified 
as to positions and sub-committees employing them. 
A corps of sign writers, drawn from the Faculty of Applied 
Science, designed a number of large and arresting signs, 
including ground plans on canvas, showing the University 
buildings being used for meeting places, dormitories and 
dining halls. 

At the result of these preparations, no great difficulty 
was met with in caring for the actual meeting. The 
progress of the individual delegate was scheduled from 
the time he stepped off the train. 

A special feature of the registration room was the 
"visible directory" - a series of slots for the insertion 
of slips, arranged vertically under the initial, by which 
one could ascertain whether a member was in attendance, 
and if so, his hotel or residence, etc. Students on service 
committees wore distinguishing badges. A feature which 
might be given more attention in other conventions was 
the effort to minimize the cost by placing delegates in 
University dormitories and keeping the charge for func- 
tions as low as possible. 

The value of such organization was recognized in an 
enthusiastic manner by the officials and delegates, and 
The Institute may well be proud that so much of the 
success was due to the presence on the committees of 
well-known members, mentioned in previous articles, to 
whose foresight and executive ability the smoothness of 
operation whch characterized the meeting can be largely 
attributed. 



! 
* 



EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 



I 

i 



Situations Vacant 

Representative for Montreal 

Representative for Water Tube Company (American) 
wanted for Montreal and vicinity. Company has been 
established twenty-five years. Boiler is used mainly for 
heating schools, houses, theatres and public buildings. 
Apply Box 213. 

Civil Engineer Superintendent 

Wanted a technically trained Civil Engineer Super- 
intendent who has had experience in breaking up and 
removing large masses of rock, such as very heavy railway 
cuttings, iron or copper open pit work or big hydraulic 
canals. Vacancy is for large English company in Spain. 
Single man and College graduate preferred and Steam 
Shovel experience in hard rock essential. Box 212. 

Steam Shovel Foreman 

Also wanted practical Steam Shovel Foreman to 
manage and instruct Steam Shovel drivers and manipul- 
ators. 

Reply stating full experience, salary expected, age, 
married or single, if any knowledge Spanish to — Box 
212. 

Representative for Heat Treatment 

Representative for Eastern Canada wanted for Sur- 
face Hardening and Carburizing Compounds. Attractive 
proposition offered. Apply Box 214 

Situations Wanted 

Mechanical Engineer 

A.M. E. I.C., mechanical engineer in charge of con- 
struction and maintenance for the British America Nickel 
Corporation since March 1919, owing to disbanding of 
staff desires position. Previous experience includes engin- 
eering products, pulp and paper mills, steelworks main- 
tenance. Designer of improved lines of pumping plant. 
Certified Member of American Association of Engineers. 
Age 32, married. Apply Box 89-P 

Civil Engineers 

Royal Military College Graduate 1903, A.M.E.I.C, 
At present employed in charge of responsible work. 
Would like a change. Location immaterial. Fifteen 
years in responsible charge of surveys and construction on 
canals and railways in Canada and overseas. Served 
with distinction in the Great War. Apply Box 88-P. 

B.A.Sc, (Honours) U. of T., A.M.E.I.C, married, 
age 36. Ten years experience on surveying, railway con- 
struction, reinforced concrete bridges, sewers, waterworks, 
reinforced concrete and mill construction buildings as 
engineer in charge of construction. Open for engagement 
on short notice. Would like position with firm of con- 
tractors or as sales engineer. Apply Box-90-P. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



153 



Members Exchange 

Books for Sale 

Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
from Volume 1 to 1836 to Volume 120 of 1894-5, complete 
except the years 1843 to 1854-5 inclusive. 

Engineering- Record, Volumes 9 to 1884 to Volume 
35 to 1896 complete. 

The books are in Toronto and any inquiry will be 
given full particulars at to bindings, condition, etc. 
Apply Box 21-A. 

Canadian Market for British Steel Castings 

A member of The Institute in England, is interested 
in an up-to-date company manufacturing steel castings, 
and would be glad to hear of firms requiring special steel 
castings. Box 22-A. 

Patent Pipe Bend 

The above bend, patented by L. McL. Hunter, 
Jr.E.LC, city engineer's office, Ottawa, is being used in 
Ottawa for a catchbasin trap. 




The old method was to use an ordinary quarter bend 
but these would not allow of the thawing out of the pipes. 
The bend had to be broken to get the nozzle of the thaw- 
ing apparatus into the pipe. 

With the above bend the thawing and flushing is 
very easily carried out. Also drain cleaning rods can be 
introduced to remove any blockage in the pipes. 

The sole distributing agents for Canada are the 
T. S. Kirby Co., 213 Sussex St., Ottawa. 

Meeting of Society of Chemistry 
Industry, Montreal 

"Chemistry and the Motion Picture" formed the 
timely and popular subject of an intensely interesting 
lecture by Dr. C. E. K. Mees, of the laboratories of the 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., in speaking 
before the Montreal Section of the Society of Chemical 
Industry, Montreal, held at the Queen's Hotel, Monday 
the 20th of February. 

The monthly meeting of the Society was preceded by 
the usual dinner, after which H. W. Matheson, the chair- 
man, introduced the lecturer of the evening, Dr. Mees, 
who was given a very hearty reception. This was not 
the first time Dr. Mees spoke before the Society, he 
having been one of the visitors from the United States 



at the annual meeting of the Society of Chemical Industry 
held at McGill University last August, at which he gave 
a paper dealing with "The Preparation of Synthetic 
Organic Chemicals". . 

In dealing with the more popular subject, the making 
of the motion picture film, Dr. Mees illustrated his lecture 
with lantern slides which were most elucidating. 

In part he said the development of the motion picture 
has depended upon improvements in the apparatus for 
taking and projecting the pictures and in the sensitive 
film on which the pictures are recorded. The manufacture 
of film starts with cotton, which, after washing and drying, 
is treated with a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acid 
until it has absorbed the right amount of nitric acid, 
as result of which it becomes soluable. After washing 
out the excess of acid, it is mixed with the solvents in 
large condensers, and stirred until completely dissolved 
The solution is then coated upon a wheel 20 feet in 
diameter, having a very smooth surface, from which the 
film is stripped as it is formed by the evaporation of the 
solvents. The sensitive emulsion is made by precipitat- 
ing a solution of silver nitrate with bromide derived from 
the brine wells of Michigan, the silver nitrate being made 
by dissolving metallic silver in nitric acid. The making 
of motion picture films absorbes a significant proportion 
of the world's production of metallic silver. The pre- 
cipitation of silver is carried out in the presence of gelle- 
tine, and the "emulsion" as it is called, is coated upon the 
film by dipping one side of the film passing over a roller 
into the melted emulsion. It is then chilled and sets as 
a jelly and is dried. 

The film is slit to the exact width required for the 
motion picture, 1% inches, and is perforated and packed 
up in rolls of 200 or 400 feet. 

The film is of two kinds, the negative film, which is 
used for taking the pictures and which is extremely 
sensitive to light, and the positive film, on which the 
negatives are printed to produce the pictures projected 
in the motion picture theatres. The negative film is 
exposed in the camera in the motion picture studio or 
out of doors, and is then developed, usually by winding- 
it upon a rack, which is then inserted in a tank of devel- 
oper. The film, after fixing and washing, is dried on 
huge revolving wheels. The negative is examined and 
then printed on to the positive film in a printer so designed 
that the intensity or time of printing is automatically 
varied to compensate for changes in the density of the 
negative, . and the positive film is in its turn developed, 
fixed, washed and dried. Positive films are then examin- 
ed and joined together to make the continuous roll of 
film used in production, positives often being tinted with 
a dye or made of tinted base, or the image toned to some 
colour in order to produce various effects. 

Besides the manufacturing, the chemistry of the 
motion picture deals with the nature of the emulsion 
and with the changes which go on in it when exposed 
to light, developed and fixed. 

If a picture be examined under a high-power micro- 
scope, the image will be found to consist of tiny grains 
of black silver looking like masses of coke. These grains 
have in their turn been formed during development from 
the original silver grains of silver bromide, of which the 
emulsion was composed, which are crystalline in nature, 



154 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the effect of light action being to make the silver bromide 
more easily attacked by the developer, which transforms 
it into the black metallic silver. The silver bromide 
which was not affected by light and consequently not 
changed into silver by developer, is removed in the 
fixing bath, leaving only the black grains of metallic 
silver to form the final image. 



Trade Publications 



Wood Stave Pipe, published by the Pacific Coast 
Pipe Company Limited, 1551 Granville Street, Vancouver, 
B.C. This booklet deals with the history and applications 
of Wood Stave Pipe. It contains in addition to the above 
a number of useful tables. 



Captain A. G. Knight, S.E.I.C. 

Captain A. G. Knight, D.S.O., M.C., S.E.I.C, is 
reported by Militia Headquarters, Ottawa, to have been 
listed as missing on December 20th, 1916, as no further 
information regarding Captain Knight has been received; 
it is presumed he died on or about that date. 

Captain Knight was born at Bedford, England, in 
1895 and was taking an engineering course at the University 
of Toronto when the war broke out, he was one of the 
first to enlist and had a distinguished career in the Royal 
Flying Corp before his untimely death. He was liked and 
respected by all who knew him in his "year" at Toronto 
and his loss among many "School Men" was most keenly 
felt. Captain Knight became a Student of The Engin- 
eering Institute in his freshman year, 1914. 



Locomotives, published by Geo. D. Whitcomb Com- 
pany, Rochelle, 111. A series of bulletins dealing with 
the types of gasoline and electrical locomotives built 
by the Company. 



Generator Cooling Apparatus. Bulletin 246, published 
by B. F. Sturtevant Company, Hyde Park, Boston, Mass. 
The different arrangements of Generator Cooling Appa- 
ratus are described and information given regarding 
fitments for various types of cooling apparatus. 

Price Rathbun Stationary Oil Engines. Form 101020 
published by Canadian Ingersoll-Rand Company, Limited, 
Sherbrooke, Que. The Price Rathbun Stationary Oil 
Engine is a semi-Diesel type; the features of the engine, 
its cycle of operation and applications, are outlined in a 
twenty-eight page booklet. 



OBITUARIES 




Robert A. Galbraith, A.M. E.I. C. 



Late A. E. B. HILL, M.E.I.C. 



Robert A. Galbraith, A.M.E.I.C, after a long illness 
died on Dec. 29th. at his residence at Carleton Place, Ont. 
Mr. Galbraith was born at Ramsay, Ont. in 1860 and 
began his engineering experience as chainman and rodman 
on the Ottawa, Arnprior and Parry Sound Railway. He 
was promoted to assistant engineer on the same line and 
later moved to Northern Ontario where he played a pro- 
minent part in the development of that section of the 
Province. The last few years of his life was spent at 
Carleton Place, where he became well known. An athlete 
throughout his life, Mr. Galbraith was distinguished first 
in football and cricket, and later in curling; sportmanship 
was an outstanding characteristic. Mr. Galbraith is 
survived by his wife and one daughter. He was elected 
Associate Member of The Institute on Oct. 12th, 1899. 



Engineering Legislation in U. S. 

According to a circular issued by the American 
Association of Engineers, laws licensing engineers and 
architects who design and supervise the construction of 
buildings have been passed in the following states: — 
Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, 
Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, 
North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia, and West Virginia, in all, 17 states. Such laws 
are now before the legislatures of Kentucky, Mississippi, 
and South Carolina. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



155 



PERSONALS 



S. J. Fisher, M.E.I.C., recently accepted a position 
with The E. B. Eddy Company, Limited, at Hull, Que. 

H. S. Grove, A.M.E.I.C., is at present with the 
Ottawa Hydro-Electric Power Commission. 

Geo. M. Hudson, A.M.E.I.C., has been appointed 
division plant engineer, The Bell Telephone Company of 
Canada, Montreal, Que. 

B. B. Hogarth, A.M.E.I.C., inspecting engineer of 
the Dominion Water Power Branch, is at present on 
work connected with his departmen at Great Falls, Man. 

F. P. Flett, Jr.E.I.C, is at present with the Trussed 
Concrete Steel Company of Canada, Limited, Walkerville, 
Ont. 




E. R. WOODWARD, S.E.I.C. 
Winner of Students' Prize 1921 

G. R. Holmes, S.E.I.C, formerly of Nova Scotia 
Technical College, is now with Eagar, Coombs & Com- 
pany, Limited, Halifax, N.S. 

E. L. Pettingill, A.M.E.I.C, formerly of Copper 
Cliff, Ontario, has joined the staff of the Canadian 
Des Moines Steel Company, at Chatham, Ont. 

C. E. Fraser, A.M.E.I.C, has served his connection 
with James Proctor and Redfern, Limited, consulting 
engineers to take the position of township engineer and 
road superintendent for Birch Cliff, Toronto, Ont. 

J. A. Grant, A.M.E.I.C, formerly of St. John, N.B., 
has taken up residence in Montreal, with an office in 
the New Birks Building, under the firm name of J. A. 
Grant & Company, Limited, engineers and contractors. 



E. M. Medlen, A.M.E.I.C, formerly structural 
draughtsman, Hamilton Bridge Company, Hamilton, 
Ont., is now with the Geodetic Survey of Canada, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont. 

David G. McKean, A.M.E.I.C, formerly with the 
Greater Winnipeg Water District, has become associated 
with the firm of McKean & Renwick, contractors, 
Glasgow, Scotland. 

A. B. Cooper, M.E.I.C, formerly with the Canadian 
General Electric Company Limited, has been appointed 
general manager of the Ferranti Meter and Transformer 
Manufacturing Company Limited. 

N. L. Somers, A.M.E.I.C, has sold out his interests 
in the firm of Reid and Somers Limited, engineers and 
contractors. Mr. Somers has not yet announced his 
future plans. 

Walter J. Parker, S.E.I.C, vice-president of the 
Steward Construction Company Limited, has recently 
taken up his residence in Preston, Ont. Mr. Parker 
was formerly in Toronto. 

E. L. M. Burns, R.C.E., Jr.E.I.C, has recently 
returned from the School of Military Engineering, Cha- 
tham, England, and is now stationed with the Officer's 
Mess, R.A. Park, Halifax, N.S. 

D. M. Chadwick, A.M.E.I.C, formerly with the 
Maritime Bridge Company of New Glasgow, N.S., has 
been appointed sales engineer with the Canadian Bridge 
Company Limited, 510 New Birks Building, Montreal, 
Que. 




R. L. DOBBIN, M.E.I.C. 

Member of Council and first Secretary of the 
Peterborough Branch. 



156 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



C. T. J. Laurendeau, S.E.I.C., B.Sc. A., graduate of 
Laval University, son of Judge Laurendeau of Montreal, 
has joined the sales staff of the MacKinnon Steel Com- 
pany Limited, with office at 404 New Birks Building, 
Montreal, Que. 

Brigadier General A. G. L. McNaughton, C.M.G., 
D.S.O., accompanied by Mrs. McNaughton, returned 
to Canada last month. He has resumed the duties of 
director of military training at Militia Headquarters, 
Ottawa, after having spent a year attending the Staff 
Course in England. 

S. J. Fortin, M.E.I.C., has been appointed city 
surveyor for the City of Montreal. Mr. Fortin will 
have full charge of the "supervision of all streets, squares, 
highways, common sewers, and all other public works 
or places connected with his department; to make and 
have charge of all the levels, lines, surveys, measurements, 
sketches and plans of the city generally, or any part 
thereof, whenever required to do so; to examine and 
determine from time to time, whether any repairs or 
improvements may be necessary to any street, sidewalk, 
sewer, or other public work under his supervision". He 
has been with the City of Montreal for several years, 
and his promotion is well deserved. 

Interesting Hydro-Electric Development. 

A very interesting hydro-electric development work 
is in progress in Mexico, under the direction of G. R. G. 
Conway, M.E.I.C., now managing director of the Mexican 
Light and Power Company, and formerly chief engineer 
of the British Columbia Electric Railway Company, 
Vancouver, B.C. The load of the Mexican Light and 
Power Company has been creeping up enormously during 
the past three years, and is now about 420 million kilowatt 
hours per annum. This enormous growth of load has 
seriously handicapped the company and some time ago 
it was decided to proceed immediately with the develop- 
ment of a new plant below the existing Nacaxa plant, 
capable of generating about 40,000 additional horse power. 
This work is now in progress and involves the construction 
of a tunnel about 414 kilometers in length, destined to 
carry about 27 cubic meters per second. The work is 
being forced rapidly ahead, and it is hoped to have the 
power available by March of 1923. The company is also 
developing a smaller plant to the south of Mexico in 
the State of Morelos, which will give about 25,000 horse 
power additional. Half of this will probably be available 
for use about next July. 

T. W. Harvie, A.M.E.I.C., appointed as Chief Engineer of 
Montreal Harbour Commissioners. 

T. W. Harvie, A.M.E.I.C., who has recently been 
appointed chief engineer for the Montreal Harbour Com- 
missioners, is like many engineers a native of Scotland, 
where he spent his early days and received his technical 
education. Following experience as resident engineer 
with the Caledonian Railway Company, Mr. Harvie was 
engaged for three years in heavy railway construction 
and was later on the staff of the Clyde Navigation Trust. 
He served as resident engineer on various harbour works 
and later became engineer for Sir Robert Mc Alpine and Sons. 
In 1910 Mr. Harvie was appointed assistant engineer to 
the Montreal Harbour Commissioners and for three years 
was engineer on the construction of the Victoria Pier and 
the Market Basin, as well as the shore wharves and the 



upper section of the high level railway. Mr. Harvie has 
had twenty-five years experience in engineering, over twen- 
ty years of which have been spent exclusively in connect- 
ion with harbour and dock works. He is, therefore, 
eminently fitted for his new and important position. 
Resignation of Head of Montreal Water Board. 
A. E. Doucet, M.E.I.C., who has resigned recently 
as head of the Montreal Water Board, was born in 1860 
in the City of Montreal. He graduated from Royal 
Military College, Kingston, and following experience as 
rodman on construction of the Algoma branch of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, he was appointed resident 
engineer on the Lake Superior Jackfish Bay line, in 1883. 




A. E. DOUCET, M.E.I.C. 
He was later appointed assistant engineer of the Lachine 
Bridge construction in 1886 and the year following was 
division engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway at St. 
John's, Que. For three years from 1887 Mr. Doucet was 
chief engineer of construction for the contractors building 
the Algoma & Sault Ste. Marie Railway, the Cape Breton 
Railway and the Newfoundland Railway. For seventeen 
years beginning in 1898, Mr. Doucet was chief engineer in 
succession of the Arrowhead & Kootenay Railway, Quebec 
and Lake St. John and district engineer at Quebec for the 
N.T.R. Railway. In 1915 Mr Doucet engaged in private 
engineering practice. In 1918. he was appointed head 
of the Montreal City engineering department, and later 
was appointed head of the Montreal Water Board which 
has done notable work in connection with the aqueduct. 

Mr. Doucet is a man of wide vision and many activi- 
ties. He has been a member of The Institute since its 
foundation as The Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, 
he has acted on the Council and has been Chairman of the 
Quebec Branch. He has been interested ever since his 
college career in military affairs, and served with distinction 
during the North West Rebellion. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



157 



Resignation of F. W. Cowie, M.E.I.C., as Chief Engineer of 
Montreal Harbour Board. 

After thirty-six years of continuous service in con- 
nection with the River St. Lawrence Ship Channel and 
the Harbour of Montreal, F. W. Cowie, M.E.I.C, has 
resigned from the position of chief engineer of the Harbour 
Commissioners, and has been appointed consulting engin- 
eer to the board. 

Immediately after his graduation from McGill Uni- 
versity in 1886, Mr. Cowie joined the staff of the Harbour 
Commissioners of Montreal under the late Sir John 
Kennedy, then chief engineer. For twenty years Mr. 
Cowie was directly connected with the River St. Lawrence 
Ship Channel, and became an authority on river hydrau- 
lics, dredging and improvements to navigation. 

In 1907, when the Harbour Commission of Montreal 
was reorganized and the chief engineer, the late Sir John 
Kennedy, Hon.M.E.I.C, appointed consulting engineer, 
Mr. Cowie received the appointment of chief engineer. 

For the last fifteen years, Mr. Cowie has been engin- 
eering head of the Harbour Commissioners, and his 
scheme of improvements, designed in 1909, and adopted 
by the commissioners after recommendation by a board 
of consultative engineers, is now about completed. 

Few engineers have had the advantage of such exper- 
ience as Mr. Cowie. He had the advantage of training 
and association with that great engineer, the late Sir John 
Kennedy. For the Government of Canada and the Com- 
missioners of Montreal Harbour he has a record of accom- 
plishments. His schemes were recognized as in the public 
interest and they went through. 

In 1914 the Council of the Institution of Civil Engin- 
eers of London. England, awarded Mr. Cowie the coveted 
Telford gold medal for his paper on "The Transportation 
Problem in Canada and Montreal Harbour." 

New Chairman, Ottawa Branch 




K. M. CAMERON, M.E.I.C. 



K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C, the new Chairman for 
1922 of the Ottawa Branch, was born at Strathroy, Ont., 
November 1st, 1880. Securing his preliminary education 
in the public schools of that place and the Collegiate 
Institute of Strathroy and London, he graduated from the 
Royal Military College in 1901 as silver medalist, and 
from McGill University, in 1903, as Master of Science in 
Civil Engineering. He has been connected with The 
Engineering Institute of Canada since 1901, when he was 
elected as Student. His engineering experience has been 
gained at the Canadian Niagara Power Company, at 
Niagara Falls, under the late C. B. Smith; on the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Tunnels, New York ; on the construction 
of the hydro electric plant of the Bar Harbour and Union 
River Power Company, at Ellsworth, Maine; with the 
Ambursen Hydraulic Construction Company, in Wyo- 
ming, and the Department of Public Works of Canada. 
He entered the service of that Department in 1908 as 
principal assistant to the district engineer at London, Ont. 
was promoted to district engineer at Sherbrooke in 1911, 
and came to Ottawa in 1912 as assistant to the assistant 
chief engineer of the Department. When A. R. Dufresne, 
M.E.I.C., assistant chief engineer, left the Department 
in 1918, Mr. Cameron was promoted to succeed him. The 
position of assistant chief engineer of the Department of 
Public Works is one of the most important in the Dominion 
Public Service and during his tenure of office Mr. Cameron 
has shown outstanding ability both as an engineer and 
administrator. 

Ottawa Branch has been fortunate in its choice of 
Chairman, and in electing Mr. Cameron the Branch is 
assured of continued energy and activity in the direction 
of its affairs. 

Engineers Honour Mr. St. Laurent 

Arthur T. St. Laurent, M.E.I.C, after a long and 
faithful career in the Public Works Department, has been 
promoted to the position of chief engineer of that depart- 
ment, a position carrying with it large responsibilities. 

Members of the Ottawa Branch of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada at a special luncheon on February 15, 
evinced in a remarkable manner their approval of the 
appointment and the esteem in which they held him. 

K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C, Chairman of the Ottawa 
Branch, presided, and at the head table were many eminent 
engineers and others, among them being, in addition to 
the guest of honour, Premier Oliver, of British Columbia, 
J. B. Hunter, deputy minister, Department of Public 
Works; Clarence Jameson, Civil Service Commission; G. J. 
Desbarats, deputy minister, Department of Naval Affairs; 
George A. Mountain, chief engineer of the Board of Rail- 
way Commissioners, all of whom spoke. 

Others seated at the head of the table were: D. R. 
Cameron, A.M.E.I.C, Kamloops, B.C.; H. B. R. Craig, 
M.E.I.C, London, Ont.; B. H. Fraser, M.E.I.C, chief 
engineer, Department of Marine; E. A. Cleveland, 
M.E.I.C, controller of water rights, B.C.; S. J. Chapleau, 
M.E.I.C, senior engineer, Public Works Department; 
W. J. Stewart, M.E.I.C, chief hydrographer, Naval Ser- 
vice; H. J. Lamb, M.E.I.C, supervising engineer, Public 
Works Department.Toronto; Col. W.P. Anderson, C.M.G., 
M.E.I.C, past president of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada; W. A. Bowden, M.E.I.C, chief engineer, Depart- 



158 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ment of Railways and Canals; J. B. McRae, M.E.I.C, 
consulting engineer; C. R. Coutlee, M.E.I.C, senior en- 
gineer, Public Works Department; R.F.Uniacke, M.E.I.C, 
chief engineer, Department of Justice; U. Valiquet, 
M.E.I.C, senior engineer, Public Works Department; 
S. Lelievre, A. R. Decary, M.E.I.C, supervising engineer, 
Public Works Department, Quebec; G. Gordon Gale, 
M.E.I.C, Hull Electric Railway. 

Tributes to Mr. St. Laurent, both as an engineer, 
and as a man, were finely paid by all the speakers. J. B. 
Hunter remarked that the esteem in which the guest of 
honour was held went far beyond the circle of government 
engineers, for he was as highly esteemed among engineers 
in private practice. 

He built to stay, said Mr. Hunter.amid applause. He 
was a square peg in a square hole, with an emphasis on the 
square, for squareness was characteristic of the man. His 
staff was as intensely pleased as he himself when Mr. 
St. Laurent's appointment was announced. 




ARTHUR T. ST. LAURENT, M.E.I.C. 
Chief Engineer Federal Department of Public Works 

Clarence Jamieson, of the Civil Service Commission, 
extended felicitation in the well-earned advancement of 
Mr. St. Laurent in the service. In doing so he made an 
announcement which emphasizes in a remarkable manner 
the brotherhood feeling which exists in The Engineering 
Institute of Canada. Mr. Jamieson said he would be 
betraying no secret now when he mentioned that Mr. 
Cameron, the chairman, who was in the direct line for 
promotion to the vacancy, had written the Civil Service 
Commission stating that he favoured the appointment of 
Mr. St. Laurent as one well merited and in the public 
interest. This intimation was cordially acclaimed, and 
Mr. Cameron, when he was able to secure a hearing, mo- 
destly remarked that he was sure every engineer present 
and similarly situated, and knowing Mr. St. Laurent as 
he did, would have done the same. 



G. J. Desbarats, M.E.I.C, paid his respects in French 
as a tribute to the nationality of the guest of honour. 

George Mountain, M.E.I.C, a past president of 
the Ottawa Branch, recalled Mr. St. Laurent's services to 
branch as a former member of the council, and as a past the 
vice-president of The Institute, and he suggested that the 
members should keep their guest of the day in mind when 
the time came for the presidency of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada to come to Ottawa. 

Premier Oliver, of British Columbia, said engineers 
had done much in the advancement of Canada, and though 
there was a lull at the present time seemingly in Canada's 
development in that respect, he was sure there would 
still be great opportunities for the engineers of the future. 
He commented on the fact with pride that the new federal 
premier had chosen a member of the B.C. government 
to become minister of Public Works. Mr. Oliver remark- 
ed that he had been acquainted with Hon. J. King for 
nearly 20 years, and he was absolutely incapable of a 
mean action. 

Mr. St. Laurent was loudly applauded on rising to 
reply to the marry felicitations. He was .delightfully 
reminiscent, and caused much laughter by the detailing 
of some of his early struggles and experiences. He thought 
he had had a good streak of luck in life and proceeded to 
demonstrate how, in various crises this element had app- 
arently favoured him. He paid tribute to the "good 
wife" with whom he had been favoured, and who, he said, 
was an ideal companion for life, also to his two good boys 
and two good girls, "no matter if I do say if myself," 
he added amid laughter and applause. He thanked many 
present, who, he said, had befriended him in various times. 

Referring to the action of the Chairman, K. M. 
Cameron, to which Mr. Jamieson had called attention, 
Mr. St. Laurent said he thought there was nothing more 
noble than this. He could imagine no better evidence 
of a fine spirit towards a confrere. Mr. St. Laurent said 
he wished to express to them all his deep gratitude for 
their expressions and token of esteem. He thought con- 
gratulations were due to The Institute, that it was one of 
its members which had been promoted, which augured 
well for its future recognition. 

Mr. St. Laurent was born at Rimouski, Quebec, in 
1859. He graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique, 
Montreal in 1885, and for three years was engaged on the 
location and construction of the Temiscouata railway. 
In 1888 he entered the Civil Service and was appointed 
assistant district engineer at Winnipeg. Returning to 
Ottawa in 1898 he designed the lock and dam at St. An- 
drews, on the Red river, north of Winnipeg, and in 1902 
constructed the Laurier avenue bridge at Ottawa and the 
government grain elevator at Montreal. 

The engineering features of the investigation into the 
feasibility of the Georgian Bay canal by the Commission 
appointed for that purpose was entrusted to Mr. St. 
Laurent. 

In 1908, on the completion of the latter work, Mr. 
St. Laurent was appointed assistant deputy minister of 
the Public Works Department, since which time he has 
been connected with many extensive projects dealing with 
navigation and harbour and dry dock construction. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



159 



With the formation of the Dominion Power Board, 
Mr. St. Laurent was made vice-chairman. He is a mem- 
ber of The Engineering Institute of Canada, of which he 
was vice-president for three years, also of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, the International Congress of 
Navigation, and is the technical representative chosen 
by the deputy ministers as a member of the Federal Civil 
Service board of hearing and recommendation. Mr. St. 
Laurent was chairman of the Ottawa section of The En- 
gineering Institute in 1914. 

As successor to E. D. Lafieur, M.E.I.C., recently 
deceased, Mr. St. Laurent will assume the responsibility 
for the engineering work of the Public Works Department. 
This is one of the larger spending branches of the govern- 
ment, and one whose work extends to every point in 
Canada where Federal public works are carried on. 
Coming under his supervision is a large staff of capable 
engineers, who have long worked with him and these con- 
freres with his extensive circle of friends both inside and 
outside of the civil service will congratulate Mr. St. 
Laurent upon his well-merited appointment. 



BRANCH NEWS 



Victoria Branch 

H. M. Bigwood, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Manufacture of Coal Gas 

On the 6th of February, a paper on "The History and 
Progress of the Manufacture of Coal Gas" was given by 
F. J. Kennedy, of the West Gas Improvement Company. 
The paper was well illustrated by excellent lantern slides. 

As a new plant to manufacture gas by the Glover 
West system of continuous vertical retorts has recently 
been erected in Victoria, the lecture was of particular 
interest and resulted in a good attendance. 

The history of gas manufacture, from Murdock's 
time to the present was traced, and the process to be 
used locally fully described as to operation and recovery 
of by-products. That the method now adopted is 
founded on most recent practice was shewn by the fact 
that over 40 new plants on similar design were in course 
of erection at various places. Montreal and Vancouver 
both have such plants in operation. 

The meeting was held in the auditorium of the 
Victoria Chamber of Commerce of which body the 
Victoria Branch is now a member, and is represented by 
H. M. Bigwood, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary of the Branch. 

It is hoped that by its affiliation with the one 
organization which is most closely in touch with the 
business life of the community and also the southern 
part of Vancouver Island, that both the public and the 
engineering profession will benefit. It will place at the 
disposal of the Chamber, and through it, the public, the 
technical ability and national strength of The Institute, 
while it will bring to the attention of everyone the willing- 
ness and ability of the engineers as a professional body 
to take part in the public life of the community. 



Meeting of Association of Professional Engineers 

In order that the benefits expected from legislation 
may be more closely felt, and also in order that the large 
number of members of the Association of Professional 
Engineers, residing in or near Victoria, may take a more 
active part in the administration of the act, a branch of 
the association, to be known as the Vancouver Island 
Branch of the association was brought into existance 
recently at a meeting of local members. 

A provisional committee was chosen to conduct the 
business incidental to the formation of the branch, 
consisting of E. E. Brydone-Jack, M.E.I. C, (Chairman), 
P. Philip, A.M.E.I.C, (Chairman of the Victoria Branch, 
E.I.C), J. P. Forde, M.E.I.C, H. M. Bigwood, 
A.M.E.I.C, Secretary, E. N. Horsey, A.M.E.I.C, and 
ex-officio H. L. Johnston, M.E.I.C, and Geo. Wilkinson, 
local members of the Council of the Association. 

Reception and Dance 

On Friday evening, the 24th of February, the Branch 
will hold a Reception and Dance, to which all members 
of the profession have been invited. It is to be an 
extension of the principle under which the lunches have 
been held and which have brought many members as 
yet outside the membership of The Institute into closer 
touch with the ideals and aspirations of the national 
society. 

Future Programme 

Several papers and visits have been arranged for the 
immediate future: — 

March 8th, F. G. Aldous, A.M.E.I.C, paper on 
"A surveying expedition into Syria-Damascus to Aleppo — 
following the British occupation", with lantern slides. 

At later dates, paper on "Esquimalt Dry Dock" to 
be followed by a visit to the work. Paper on "Dredging 
and River bank protection", by J. P. Forde, M.E.I.C, 
district engineer for the Public Works Dept. of Canada, 
and a visit to the new plant of the Victoria Gas Company. 



Vancouver Branch 

P. H. Buchan, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Meeting of B.C.T.A. 

A very personal problem is facing the professional 
engineers of British Columbia, personal because it touches 
their pocket-books, in that the multiplicity of fees to the 
various associations is becoming a burden of no small 
proportions in these hard times. Common determination 
to try and alleviate this condition of affairs culminated 
in a meeting open to all concerned, to discuss the admis- 
ability of eliminating at least one of the existing societies 
— the one named being the British Columbia Technical 
Association. 

The B. C T. A. was originally called into being for 
the purpose of providing a body common to engineers 
and technical men of every branch, which would undertake 
the work involved in getting a professional act passed in 
the B. C Legislature, legalizing the registration of engin- 
eers in the Province. Coupled with this main object, 
was the promotion of mutual fellowship and good-will 



160 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



among the members of these various branches, and 
concerted action to increase the remuneration of engineers 
generally. 

Owing to the existence of a body specially formed to 
administer the act, to which all qualified to practise must 
belong, it has been felt that the B. C. Technical Associa- 
tion has outlined its usefulness, and should be dissolved. 
Here, however, a complication arises, in that approxim- 
ately one hundred of its members have not the qualifica- 
tions requisite to registration under the act, and it has 
been arged by many of their more fortunate fellow- 
members, that the B. C: T. A. should be held together 
for the benefit of these non-professional technical men. 
Further, it is widely believed that this body provides a 
common instrument for dealing with the welfare of 
engineers generally, in ways which are not within the 
scope of other engineering organizations. 

A large number of those present at the meeting called 
on February 7th, took part in the discussion, among whom 
were Mr. Wootton, President of the B. C. T. A., who 
reviewed the history and objects of his association, and 
Mr. Brakenridge, Chairman of the Vancouver Branch of 
the E.I.C., who outlined the scope of The Institutes 
activities as a possible substitute for the B. C. T. A. 
All the points brought up were carefully discussed, and 
viewed from numerous angles, so that the opinion 
expressed by the meeting can be taken as the result of 
mature consideration of the question. 

It was finally moved by W. Brand Young, A.M.E.I.C, 
and seconded by A. S. Wootton "That it is desirable in 
the opinion of this meeting that the British Columbia 
Technical Association continue to function". On a 
show of hands 18 declared in favour of continuance, 
24 declared against. The Chairman declared the motion 
defeated. 

It was then moved by W. G. Swan, M.E.I.C, 
seconded by W. H. Powell, M.E.I.C, "That this meeting 
goes on record recommending that an organization be 
formed along the lines of a General Engineering Council 
composed of delegates appointed from existing organ- 
izations, — to function when concerted action in the 
interests of all engineers is needed". This motion was 
carried. 

The profession is now awaiting the action of the 
B. C. Technical Association, and the other engineering 
bodies concerned in the last resolution. 

Visit to Vancouver Gas Plant 

Through the kindness of the Vancouver Gas Com- 
pany, the members of the Vancouver Branch spent an 
unusually intresting afternoon at the new gas-works on 
Keefer St., on Saturday 11th February. 

This plant is the only one of its kind on the Pacific 
Coast and the third in Canada, and has been in course 
of erection for the past eighteen months, having been 
formally opened by the general-manager, George Kidd, 
only one month ago. It was designed and built by the 
West Gas Improvement Company of Manchester, Eng., 
and embodies the most modern features of economical 
manufacture of gas and its by-products. The plant has 
a capacity of one million cubic feet per day, and cost a 
half-million dollars. The design and construction of 



foundations, housing, bunkers, etc., has been in charge of 
A. J. Waters, M.E.I.C, who has been specially employed 
by the Vancouver Gas Company, as resident engineer. 

J. Keillor, gas engineer, and his staff of experts did 
everything in their power to make the visit an interesting 
one. Owing to the large number present, which included 
many student engineers from the University of British 
Columbia, there were three parties organized, the guides 
being Messrs. Draeper and Brown of the gas company's 
engineering staff, and Mr. Punnett of the West Gas 
Improvement Company. Every part of both the new 
and old plants were inspected, and the guides were 
kept fully occupied in answering the steady fire of 
questions from their interested visitors. 

After the inspection, the various parties assembled 
in the exhauster room, where cigars and very substantial 
refreshments were served through the kindness of the 
Vancouver Gas Company. In proposing a vote of thanks, 
Mr. Brakenridge, Chairman of the Branch, stated that 
Mr. Keillor was preparing a paper on the plant, which 
he had very kindly consented to read before a general 
meeting of the Branch in the near future. 

City Tax for Engineers 

A recent amendment of the charter of the City of 
Vancouver has given the City the right to license all 
professional men practising within its boundaries, irres- 
pective of licenses paid to the Provincial Government. 
Considerable stir occurred in professional circles recently 
when the City Council announced the scale of fees it 
proposed to demand. Deputations at once waited on the 
Council to present the views and objections of the various 
professional bodies. 

Mr. Brakenridge, Chairman of the Vancouver Branch, 
appeared in behalf of the engineering profession and 
although he was not successful in reducing the fee, he 
did succeed in conjunction with the other bodies, in 
obtaining the promise of the City Council to have the 
word "tax" substituted for the word "license", thereby 
relieving the fundamental objection of professional 
engineers, that the word "license" would favour evasion 
of the Professional Engineer's Act, by allowing non- 
registered parties to practise under protection of the City. 

The fee for engineers is $25.00 per annum, to be paid 
by every engineer engaged in private practice within the 
City. In the case of a firm with two or more partners, 
each member pays an individual fee. The profession 
considers the tax a hardship on the younger members, 
whose business and clientele are not as extensive as 
older established firms. 

"Toike-Oike" Meeting 

The Pacific Coast Branch of the University of 
Toronto Engineering Alumni Association held its fifty 
annual dinner in the University Club, Vancouver, on 
Saturday evening, 28th January. About thirty-five of 
the eighty-odd members of the Branch were presents 
including a number from Victoria, New Westminster and 
Seattle, — a very good turnout considering the way 
"School men" are scattered up and down the Coast. 

The old "School" spirit of camaraderie pernaded the 
gathering from the outset, and everyone thoroughly 
enjoyed not only the solid and liquid refreshments, but 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



161 



the songs, choruses, and yells which livened the proceed- 
ings. The President of the Branch, W. J. Johnston, 
A.M. E. I.C., discharged the duties of chairman and toast- 
master, the guest of honour being J. H. Kennedy, 
M.E.I.C, who has the distinction of being the oldest 
living graduate of S. P. S., and the honorary-president of 
the Branch. 

A very substantial contribution to the merriment of 
the evening was made by the President "Guiness" 
Johnston who wrote a song to the tune of "Solomon 
Levi", featuring W. G. Swan, C. E. Webb, G. P. Stirret 
and others. The chorus, which was sung with great 
enthusiasm, led by an excellent quartette, ran as follows: 



Chorus: 



'Solomon Levi 



Oh Engineers, hip, hip, hip, hurrah; 

[Oh Engineers, hip, hip, hip, hurrah! 
For we're the boys that face the world 

[with hearts so light and free, 
We're busy morning, noon and night, 

[so keen for work are we, 
We build the mighty railroads, 

[the boats and buildings high, 
When there's no work for us to do, 

[we'll all lie down and die. 

The menu was a departure from the usual formal card, 
being arranged in the form of a programme for a two-act 
play, the cover bearing this inscription: "The Engineering 
Alumni of the University of Toronto, Pacific Coast 
Branch, in their fifth annual presentation, a revival of 
the grand "old school" comedy "Toike Oike" in two 
acts, etc. The menu was blue-printed from a Vandyke 
negative and tied with gold ribbon, thus combining the 
"school" colors, blue, gold and white most effectively. 
The details of the management, cast, etc., aroused no 
little amusement. 

The Branch, though not very strong numerically, has 
acquired quite a reputation in university circles on the 
Coast as an active organization. Last summer, it had 
the honour of entertaining the past president of The 
Institute, J. M. R. Fairbairn, M.E.I.C., at a luncheon 
in the Hotel Vancouver. Mr. Fairbairn is a fellow 
"School man" and a very enthusiastic number of the 
U. of T. Engineering Alumni Association in Eastern 
Canada. The Pacific Coast Branch has the following 
members of The Institute on its roll: — Members: J. H. 
Kennedy, W. G. Swan, W. A. Clement, A. L. McCulloch. 
Assoc. Members: C. E. Cooper, C. T. Hamilton, E. A. 
Jamieson, W. J. Johnston, R. G. Swan, G. P. Stirrett, 
E. L. Tait, C. E. Webb, J. A. Walker, A. P. Augustine, 
D. A. Graham, N. C. Stewart, E. L. Burgess, H. D. Fyfe, 
P. H. Buchan, W. L. Stamford, N. C. Sherman. 

Calgary Branch 

Arthur L. Ford, M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
Floyd K. Beach, A.M.E.I.C, Branch News Editor. 

On Friday, January 27th, at a luncheon in the 
Hudson Bay Company's tapestry room, the Calgary 
Branch of The Institute and the Alberta Military Institute 
joined in listening to Dr. R. W. Boyle, dean of the faculty 



of science and professor of physics at the University of 
Alberta, in a very interesting address on Rainmaking. 

The address was of a popular nature, and was of 
great interest to everyone living in an arid or semi-arid 
country where imposters at times endeavour to take 
advantage of the credulity of the public. The text of 
his address will appear in an early number of The Journal. 

In the evening of the same day, Dr. Boyle addressed 
the Calgary Branch on an electrical subject. There was 
a good turnout of members and a number of electrical 
men were guests of the Branch on this occasion. 

Convention of Western Association of Building 
and Contracting Industries. 

The Western Association of Building and Contracting 
Industries met for a two day convention in Calgary, 
February 14th and 15th. The convention discussed the 
problems of the various industries represented, looking 
toward early revival in the building trades, and ended 
with a banquet very well arranged and followed by an 
excellent musical programme and after dinner speeches. 

The convention was made up of a large number of 
visitors from Manitoba, Saskatchewan and from other 
parts of Alberta. An invitation was extended to members 
of The Institute, and a large number of them availed 
themselves of the opportunity so courteously offered. 

Among the members of The Institute prominent 
in the work of the convention were V. A. Newhall, 
A.M.E.I.C, manager of the local branch of Trussed 
Concrete Steel Company, who was chairman of the 
committee on prices of materials, and F. E. Emery, 
A.M.E.I.C, Alberta representative of the Manitoba 
Bridge & Iron Works Limited. 

Edmonton Branch 

R. H. Douglas, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary- Treasurer. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Edmonton 
Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada was held 
in the Edmonton Board of Trade rooms on Wednesday, 
January 18th, 1922. The meeting took the form of 
three 15 minute papers on subjects of local interest, each 
paper being followed by a 15 minute discussion. 

A. W. Haddow, A.M.E.I.C, Edmonton city engineer, 
gave a brief outline of the organization and workings of 
the various city services from an engineering standpoint. 
He also gave a description of the experiments that had 
been carried on in connection with cinder walks using 
various types of binder. 

Edgar Stansfield, M.E.I.C, of the Industrial Research 
Department, at the University of Alberta, gave a short 
account of the work of the Lignite Utilization Board of 
Canada. In the fifteen minutes allotted to him, he out- 
lined the gradual evolution from small scale laboratory 
experiments on lignite carbonization, commenced five 
years ago in Ottawa, to the commercial carbonizers now 
installed at Bienfait, Saskatchewan. The problems of 
briquetting were only referred to incidentally. In the 
discussion which followed, some economic questions of 
lignite carbonization and briquetting were considered, 
including the extent to which the work of the Board 
would assist in solving Alberta's problems. In_yiew of 



162 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the high cost of purchased binders, the speaker suggested 
a type of self-contained plant, in which only part of the 
product would be briquetted, as one which might succeed 
in the Province. 

In a brief address, Mr. Donaldson, A.M.E.I.C, 
outlined the route, conditions of grades, economic and 
social possibilities of the Jasper Highway, proposed to be 
constructed through the utilization of the portions of 
railway track abandoned between Evansburg and Hinton 
where connection would require to be made with Dominion 
Government roads through Jasper Park to Jasper. 

The claims of Edson and its tributary communities 
for road connection with Edmonton were voiced, the 
Park as an objective, being for the present, the only 
justification for progress beyond Edson. Engineers were 
called upon to interest themselves in this project so that 
public discussion and action may be based upon a sane 
realization of the construction requirements of this 
important work. 

The three essentials for consideration and action in 
this matter are: — 

1. The utilization of the beauties and holiday 
resources of our Dominion Jasper Park now inaccessible, 
except by rail. 

2. The profitable economic consequences to Edmon- 
ton, and the area to the West consequent upon a highway 
being constructed. 

3. And lastly, the necessity for securing some return 
for the enormous outlays in these railways from which 
constructions, neither income nor service is now derived. 

Lethbridge Branch 

C. M. Arnold, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

On January 14th, the Lethbridge Branch held a dinner 
at the Y.M.C.A., at which were present 50 corporate 
members and affiliates of the Branch. S. G. Porter, 
M.E.I.C., occupied the chair. At the close of the dinner 
popular songs were sung and some of the members gave 
songs and violin solos. 

H. B. Muckleston, M.E.I.C., read a paper entitled 
"Actuarial Factors in the Design of Irrigation Structures", 
which has been sent to the Journal. 

The Chairman announced that the Branch member- 
ship at present was as follows: 7 members, 23 associate 
members, 3 juniors, and 17 affiliates of the Branch. 
This includes applicants recommended for election by 
this Branch. 

On January 28th, the Branch held another general 
meeting and dinner at the Y.M.C.A., at which 45 were 
present. S. G. Porter, M.E.I.C, in the chair. After a 
short musical program, G. N. Houston, M.E.I.C, gave 
an address on the "Manufacture of Smokeless Powder 
and the Construction of the Plant at Nitro, W.Va., U.S.A., 
The address was fully illustrated by lantern slides, and 
was very interesting to all. At the close of the address 
discussion followed, and the number of questions asked 
was evidence of the interest taken in the subject. 

On February 11th, the members of the Branch again 
gathered for a general meeting and dinner at the Y.M.C.A., 
the number present being 37, this attendance being smaller 



on account of severe cold weather. As an indication of 
the interest shown it may be mentioned that one member 
walked six miles to the train, and another rode a saddle 
horse three miles in weather 25 below zero, to attend this 
meeting, both repeating the trip at 2.30 in the morning 
on the return. 

G. N. Houston, M.E.I.C, occupied the chair, in the 
absence of the Chairman, S. G. Porter, M.E.I.C. C D. 
MacKintosh, A.M.E.I.C, addressed the meeting, the 
subject being "The Evolution of Transportation". The 
speaker began with the history of the initial development 
of transportation — passing on to the phases of railway 
reconnaissance, location and construction, and closing the 
address with a number of personal reminiscences which 
led to a general discussion and further reminiscences from 
a number of those present. 

Winnipeg Branch 

Geo. L. Guy, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Welding 

At a meeting of the Branch held in the University 
Buildings on the 2nd February, E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, 
M.E.I.C., in the chair, two papers on Electric and Oxy- 
acetylene Welding were read. The electrical paper was 
read by J. M. F. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C, and the oxy-acety- 
lyne paper by Mr. Brown of the Liquid Air Company. 

Mr. Wilson covered the field of electric welding very 
completely, dealing with both the theoretical aspects and 
the practical application, and discussed very fully the 
different methods and equipment at present in use. He 
pointed out that electric welding had now got to the stage 
where it was being systematically investigated and he 
hoped in the near future that definite rules and practice 
would be evolved which would do away with many of the 
different methods at present in use, claims for which were 
not always based on accurate engineering knowledge. 

A very live discussion on the papers took place, which 
was contributed to by several gentlemen who were 
actively engaged in the welding field. The discussion 
brought out the very pronounced differences of opinion 
which are at present held on the merits of the different 
methods of welding and some of the speakers did not 
hesitate to claim the superiority of the methods which they 
were familiar with, although from a general view of the 
discussion it was obvious that all methods at present in 
use had their particular field. 

The Chairman tendered the congratulations of the 
Branch to J. G. Sullivan, M.E.I.C, on his selection to 
presidency of the Institute 

It was decided to appoint a Committee to look after 
the interests of the engineering profession in view of the 
proposed Income Tax and other tax bills at present before 
the local Legislature. 

Illumination 

A meeting of the Branch was held at the University 
Buildings on the 16th February, E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, 
M.E.I.C., in the chair. 

A paper was read by Professor Fetherstonhaugh 
on the measurement and calculation of illumination. The 
paper was illustrated by diagrams, and the speaker very 
fully discussed the calculation and measurement of 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



163 



illumination, both on a theoretical and practical basis. 
By means of different types of photometers, the actual 
measurement of illumination was clearly shown, and the 
advantages of the different types of instruments were 
explained. At the close of the paper, an active discussion 
took place, in which many points were brought out of 
interest to the members. The question of proper illumin- 
ating codes was also discussed. 

Among the business for the evening, was a report 
from the Committee who were instructed to co-operate 
with the Citizens Committee in protecting against the 
provincial income tax. The chairman reported progress, 
stating that the Committee had attended the general 
meeting of protest held in the Board of Trade building, 
and that a sub-committee had been appointed representing 
the various interests in the city, one of the members of 
The Institute having been placed on this Committee. 
The report was received and adopted, and on a motion 
the Committee were instructed to co-operate with the 
General Committee of Citizens in every way possible to 
promote the effective administration of the Province and 
the reduction of capital and operating expenditure in the 
near future. This motion brought up a vigourous 
discussion, during which active criticism was made, 
both for and against the motion. The motion eventually 
carried by a large majority. 

Members of the Branch were invited to attend a 
moving picture exhibition under the auspices of the 
C. O. T. C, showing the work of the air force in Canada. 
A large number of members attended and were well 
repaid by the interesting nature of the pictures. 

A notice of motion was given that at the next meeting 
a committee should be appointed to fully consider the 
question of the province, taking over its natural resources 
and particularly to investigate the position of the Province 
with respect to its water power resources, with a view to 
leaving these resources in the control of the Federal 
Government, on account of the able and efficient manner 
in which the water power of the province had been 
administered and investigated by the Water Power Branch 
of the Dominion Government. 

Border Cities Branch 

J. Clark Keith, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Border Cities 
Branch was held in the Cadillac Cafe on Friday the 10th 
inst. at 7 o'clock, twenty members being present. 

J. E. Porter, A.M.E.I.C, reported for J. J. Newman, 
M.E.I.C., Ontario Provincial Division Representative, on 
the progress being made toward the securing of legislation 
for engineers in Ontario at the present session of the 
Legislature. 

J. Clark Keith, A.M.E.I.C, briefly stated what had 
been accomplished at the meeting of Branch Secretaries 
held in Montreal, at the time of the Annual Meeting. 
The detailed report of the meeting was still in the hands 
of the executive and it would be brought to the attention 
of the Branch at an early meeting. 

L. McGill Allen, A.M.E.I.C, gave a very interesting 
address on "The Placing of Concrete under Various 
Conditions". He dealt with the developments in the 



placing of concrete from the time of the old mixing board 
to present day efficient mechanical equipment. The 
relative merits of and objections to the spouting system 
were discussed with relation to economy in handling 
coupled with the nature of the structure on which the 
concrete was being placed. The methods of placing 
concrete under water were handled in detail as a result 
of the speaker's personal experience on dams at Sherbrooke 
and Murray Bay, Que., the general method being followed 
of allowing the concrete to flow from one end of the form 
to the other, and not by being deposited in layers along 
the full length of the form. The construction of an 
addition to the Ford Motor Company's plant in water 
varying in depth from 13 to 20 feet was of particular 
local interest. 

The paper produced much desirable discussion, and 
almost every member gave his personal experience. 
D. A. Molitor, M.E.I.C, explained the construction of 
the walls of the Toronto Harbour Commission, stating 
that although monolithic construction was opposed by 
the contractor on the ground that inferior work would 
result, actual results showed it to be superior to block 
construction. Doubt was also expressed during the con- 
struction of the Sault Ste. Marie locks as to the under 
water concrete but it proved on laboratory test to be 
superior to that laid above. W. H. Baltzell, M.E.I.C, 
related his experiences with slow setting concrete and 
blast furnace clay. Laboratory tests were shown to be 
entirely unreliable in some special instances, but the 
value of such tests was fully appreciated. 

A hearty vote of thanks was tendered the speaker 
for his address, resulting as it had done, in so much general 
information being elicited. 

Niagara Peninsula Branch 

Rex P. Johnson, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The January dinner meeting was held at the Welland 
Hotel, St. Catharines, on the 18th of the month, with an 
attendance of only twenty-four. 

In the absence of the Branch Chairman, on a business 
trip to the Western States and California, the Vice-Chair- 
man, F. S. Lazier, M.E.I.C, presided. Mr. Lazier gave 
a short outline of some of the recent work of the Executive 
Committee, and the Branch representative on the Exe- 
cutive of the Ontario Provincial Division, presented a 
verbal report on a recent meeting of the Division which 
had to do with process and recent developments in 
legislation. In this connection, the Branch was advised 
that certain opposition had developed among the mining 
communities in Northern Ontario, and an explanation 
of the means taken to meet this opposition and its possible 
effects, were announced to the meeting. 

Messrs. A. Milne, M.E.I.C, and W. H. Sullivan, 
M.E.I.C, advised that they had each interviewed 
respectively Messrs. Greenlaw, M.P.P. of St. Catharines 
and Cooper, M.P.P. of Welland, in regard to the "Act 
Respecting Professional Engineers" which is to again come 
before the forthcoming session of the Ontario Legislature. 
It developed that Mr. Greenlaw is very much opposed 
to the Bill, and that Mr. Cooper was reticent and non- 
committal regarding his views on it. 



164 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The business part of the meeting was followed by an 
interesting, illustrated talk by J. W. Purcell, A.M.E.I.C., 
on the subject of "Rural Power Distribution in Ontario 
from the Hydro Lines". The speaker gave the members 
a very thorough and comprehensive idea of the uses of 
electric power on the farm and explained the methods 
of application, difficulties of distribution, cost data and 
power rates, and the nature and extent of preliminary 
studies and educational work necessary to constructing 
a rural line. 

The February meeting of the Branch was held on 
the 15th of the month, at the Lafayette Hotel, Niagara 
Falls, Ontario, with an attendance of forty. The mayor 
and city council, and the Chairman of the town planning 
committee were present as guests of the Branch, and 
members of the Rotary Club were present. After enjoying 
a very good dinner, followed by a lusty use of the song 
sheets and a brief report by the Secretary on the recent 
meeting of Eastern Branch Secretaries at Montreal, the 
Chairman introduced H. L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C., whose 
subject was "Town Planning with particular reference to 
Niagara Falls and Vicinity". The speaker outlined recent 
progress in this subject and showed that a large number 
of Ontario towns and cities are actively engaged on plan- 
ning work. Legislation governing municipal control of 
lands, buildings and property was outlined, and the 
speaker then described, with lantern views, many details 
and phases of his subject in different places and the 
application of town planning principles to Niagara Falls. 
A hearty vote of thanks was tendered to the speaker 
at the close of his address. 

Messrs. Acres, Blanchard and Johnson attended the 
Annual and Professional meeting of The Institute in 
Montreal on January 24-26. Vice-President Acres con- 
ducted the business session on the afternoon of the first 
day, and addressed a very large meeting of the Montreal 
Branch on the evening of the third day. His subject 
was "The Queenston-Chippawa Power Development", 
illustrated with slides and motion pictures. 

Councillor Blanchard addressed the Kingston Branch 
on the same subject, the day before the Annual Meeting. 

The Branch Secretary attended an all day conference 
of Eastern Branch Secretaries, held coincident with the 
Annual Meeting. This meeting is a new feature of 
Institute activities, and resulted in much benefit to those 
in attendance, and will be of material benefit to all the 
Branches represented. 

A meeting of the Executive of the Ontario Provincial 
Division was held coincident with the Annual Meeting. 
This Branch was well represented by the attendance of 
the above mentioned three members. 

The Branch Chairman has returned from a business 
trip to the Western States and California in connection 
with a number of water power developments. 

Hamilton Branch 

W. F. McLaren, M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 

A meeting was held in the Royal Connaught Hotel, 
27th. January 1922, to hear an address by T. H. Hogg, 
A.M. E. I.C., asst. hydraulic engineer with the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario, on the proposed 
St. Lawrence River Power Development. 



Mr. Hogg stated that while navigation of rivers in 
Canada came under the jurisdiction of the Dominion 
Government, the power rights belong to the province 
and it was for this reason that the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission, representing the people of Ontario through 
the provincial government, had offered schemes for power 
development to the International Joint Commission. 
About 1912 the Hydro-Electric Power Commission com- 
menced making observations of river level and flow and 
later carried out extensive surveys and diamond drill 
borings, and were therefore in a position to present a 
complete proposition based on thorough study. 

The deep waterways scheme naturally divides itself 
into three zones. Two of these, from Montreal Harbour 
to Lake St. Louis and from Lake St. Louis to lake St. 
Francis are entirely within the Province of Quebec. The 
third, from Lake St. Francis to Lake Ontario is the Inter- 
national reach of the river between Ontario and the 
State of New York. It is only with this third section that 
the Hydro-Electric Power Commission deals in its pro- 
posals for power development. 

The fall from Lake Ontario to Lake St. Francis at 
Cornwall is 92 feet, of which 84 feet may be used for power. 
From Cornwall to Montreal there is a fall of 134 feet, 
making a total fall from Lake Ontario to Montreal of 226 
feet, of which about 180 feet is available for power develop- 
ment. About four million horse-power may be developed 
from the St. Lawrence as compared with three million 
from Niagara, the difference being due to the necessity 
of preserving the Falls. 

By treaty Canada has the right to use 36,000 cu. ft. 
per second for power development on the Niagara river 
and the United States 20,000. New development under 
construction on the American side will require an addition- 
al 10,000 cu. ft. per second and altogether to supply present 
developments and those under construction 84,000 to 
94,000 will be required out of an available 100,000 to 
110,000 cu. ft. per sec. The complete permissible de- 
velopment is thus being approached at Niagara Falls. 

One of the great advantages of the St. Lawrence 
river for power development purposes is its uniformity 
of flow, which varies from 320,000 to 190,000 cu. ft. per 
second, a ratio of less than 2 to 1. This low ratio is very 
striking when compared with other large rivers on the 
continent, as, for example, the Ottawa with a ratio of 
maximum to minimum flow of 25 to 1, the Columbia 
27 to 1, and the Susquehanna 200 to 1. 

The so-called Super-Power Zone, which extends along 
the Atlantic Seaboard from Portsmouth, N.H. to Wash- 
ington, D.C., and about 150 miles inland uses 9,000,000 
H.P. and is adding 275,000 H.P. each year by steam 
engines. This district will provide a market for surplus 
power from the St. Lawrence. New York City is 300 
miles from the proposed development, the same distance 
as Hamilton, an economic transmission distance in consider- 
ation of the other available sources of energy for the 
district, and the cost of development and transmission. 
Transformation and transmission of power for a distance 
of 300 miles in blocks of 100,000 H.P. costs about as 
much as the production of the power at the power site. 
Power costing $15.00 per H.P. per year at the develop- 
ment would cost about $30 per H.P. year at New York 
or Hamilton. It is quite possible that eventually Lake 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



165 



Ontario will be completely encircled by transmission lines 
connecting the existing systems and joining the two pri- 
mary sources of power on the Niagara and St. Lawrence. 
It will be possible to develop \y 2 X.o2 million H.P. 
on the International reach of the St. Lawrence and thus 
save 35,000,000 tons of coal per annum, half of this being 




Scheme A of the Hydro-electric Power Commisson of Ontario; 
would flood 29,000 acres valuable land. 

Scheme B — A two stage development with many advantages. 

Scheme C — Another two stage development but open to many 
objections. 



where an effective head of 74 H feet may be used. Scheme 
B. is a two stage development with power dams at Morris- 
burg and Barnhart Island, the head at the former being 
28 feet and at the latter 54 feet. Scheme C. is a modific- 
ation of Scheme B, the upper dam being located at Crysler 
Island about five miles downstream from Morrisburg. 

By Scheme A, 1,500,000 H.P. could be developed 
and by Schemes B. and C, 1,600,000 H.P.; The cost per 
H.P. of the initial portions of these developments varying 
from $124 to $127 per H.P. Thirty thousand acres of 
land would be affected by flooding in Scheme A. and 
6,000 and 11,000 respectively by B. and C. The cost 
of the complete development would be $60,000,000 for 
the navigation works and $150,000,000 for power, a total 
of $210,000,000. 

In Scheme B. the initial development would consist 
of 600,000 H.P. developed at the upper dam from units 
of 10,000 H.P. capacity each, running at 100 r.p.m., 
installed in a power house nearly a mile long ; a little more 
than half of this would be on the Canadian side to com- 
pensate for water taken by the Chicago Drainage Canal. 
At the lower dam where 1,000,000 H.P. would be developed 
units of 25,000 H.P. each, at 100 r.p.m., are proposed. 

A 30 ft. depth is proposed for the navigation channels. 
In Lloyd's Register for 1918-19 over 80% of the steam- 
ships listed had drafts of 25 feet or less, and over 99% 
draw 30 feet or less. A 30 ft. draft would accommodate 
all ocean going vessels except the large modern liners. 

The accompanying river sections show the 3 schemes 
submitted. The first is very similar to that proposed by 
the government engineers while the 2 stage developments 
are very similar to that proposed by the New York and 
Ontario Power Company. 

The address was illustrated by slides. 

Following the address, the paper was discussed by 
Messrs. W. S. Connolly, H. B. Dwight and F. W. Paulin. 
It was brought out in the discussion that the high speed 
of units could be obtained with a new type of waterwheel 
recently designed. This type has a very high runaway 
speed, namely 150% above normal. It is estimated how- 
ever, that this would only improve an increase of 15% 
in cost of generators which is more than offset by the 
reduction in size of unit, due to the higher operating 
speed. 

A hearty vote of thanks closed a most instructive 
evening, with an attendance of about 100. The chair 
was occupied by E. H. Darling, M.E.I.C., who announced 
that the next meeting would be on 16th February, when 
Prof. Durley would address the Branch on Standard- 
ization. Prof. Durley has recently returned from Europe 
where he studied industrial conditions. 

Toronto Branch 



F. B. Geodihe, M.E.I.C., Secretary- Treasurer. 
C. R. Young, M.E.I.C., Branch News Editor. 



for the benefit of Canada and half the United States. 

The present Canadian Plants at Niagara develop 425,000 

H.P. and the Queenston Development brings this up to incineration 

1,000,000 H.P. 

The Hydro-Electric Power Commission in its report At the meeting held on January 26, the subject of 

on the St. Lawrence Development suggests three schemes Incineration was discussed in an illustrated address by 
for power development. Scheme A. is a single develop- R. R. Knight, M.E.I.C., engineer and manager for Francis 
ment by a dam at Barnhart Island above Cornwall, Hankin & Co., Ltd., Toronto. 



166 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Mr. Knight outlined the various types of incinerators 
and destructors used for the disposal of garbage, pointing 
out the relative advantage of each. The most suitable 
type of equipment was that which utilized the fuel value 
of the garbage itself to carry out the destruction. An 
average of about one-fifth of a ton of garbage per capita 
per annum may be assumed from a large community, 
and since one pound of garbage may be considered as 
capable of evaporating a pound of water in addition to 
the three-quarters of a pound present in the garbage, 
the heat value of this material is evident. Mr. Knight 
stated that it possessed about one-quarter of the calorific 
value of a poor coal. 

According to the speaker, the commercial utilization 
of the various constituents of garbage was impracticable 
for cities of less than one-half million in population. 
Similarly the destruction of garbage by incineration was 
not feasible without the use of added fuel for cities of 
less than 15,000 population. 

Previous to the address, J. M. Oxley, M.E.I.C., made 
a formal motion for certain amendments to the by-laws 
of which he had given notice at the previous regular 
meeting. 

Ashburnham Bridge, Peterboro 

On account of the illness of S. R. Cound, of the 
Baldwins Canadian Steel Corporation, he was unable to 
give his address on February 2, on the plant of that 
company, as provided in the program. In his stead, 
Frank Barber, M.E.I.C., gave an illustrated address on 
the new Ashburnham Bridge, Peterboroo. This is a re- 
inforced structure containing the longest arch span in 
Canada. C. J. Townsend, A.M.E.I.C, of the Russel 
Townsend Construction Co., who were the contractors 
for the bridge, also contributed to the discussion. 

At the meeting of the Executive held on the same 
evening, the Secretary was requested to write the city 
authorities asking that all street names be illuminated. 

It was also decided that a letter be sent to various 
prominent engineers in this district, urging them to exert 
their influence with local members to secure the passage 
of the Professional Engineers' bill, now before the 
legislature. 

Fertilizers 

R. W. Perry, of Gunn's, Ltd., not being able to give 
his address on "Side Lights on the Packing House In- 
dustry", on February 9, H. G. Bell, of the Canadian 
Fertilizers Association, kindly addressed the Branch on 
"Fertilizers". He pointed out the various valuable 
constituents of these materials, and traced their effect 
on the crops. The commercial importance of replenishing 
the soil was graphically stressed by Mr. Bell. 

John T. Farmer, M.E.I.C, Vice-Chairman of the 
Montreal Branch, was present at the meeting, and con- 
veyed the greetings of that Branch to the Toronto 
members. He was requested to convey to the Montreal 
Branch similar greetings from Toronto. 
Rail-Carbon Steel 

At the meeting of February 16, the Branch heard a 
very valuable illustrated address by J. B. Carswell, 
A.M.E.I.C., president of the Carswell Construction 
Company, Ltd., on "Rail-Carbon Steel". 



Mr. Carswell traced, at some length, the origin and 
quality of the steel from which rail-carbon steel bars are 
manufactured. He pointed out that steel rails are norm- 
ally manufactured from a high quality of material, and 
that there is small likelihood of defective material being 
used from this source for reinforcement bars. He stated 
that the average age of the rails now being employed for 
such manufacture is about eleven years. 

The use of a material somewhat higher in carbon than 
structural grade was defended by Mr. Carswell on the 
ground that there is a great cushioning effect in the 
concrete, so that little shock is applied to the bars 
He thought that it was entirely practicable to take 
advantage of the higher elastic limit of such material. 

So rigid is the inspection of the materials purchased 
for reinforcement bar manufacture, that there is little 
likelihood of defective material being used. Even more 
effective, said the speaker, is the automatic test that 
arises when a rail with a piped head is led into the rolls. 
The head will open out and jam in the guides, so that the 
whole process comes to a standstill until the rolls can be 
cleaned and re-set. 

Mr. Carswell pointed out that rail-carbon steel has 
been used successfully on the Panama Canal, the shiplock 
at New Orleans, the Parliament Buildings, Ottawa, the 
large terminal elevator, at Port Arthur, and in many 
other structures. 

J. M. Oxley, M.E.I.C, in opening the discussion, 
pointed out that sometimes large quantities of rails are 
rejected because of high phosphorus content or other 
defects, and wished to know if there might not be a 
danger of such material being manufactured into rein- 
forcement bars. He asked if cracks which occurred in 
this material might not elude inspection, and later in 
the structure cause a breakdown. 

Wm. Storrie, M.E.I.C, asked if there were any 
appreciable difference in the strength of bars rolled from 
the head, the web, or the flange of the rail. 

T. D. Mylrea, A.M.E.I.C., pointed out that even 
with high carbon steel the shock attending the punching 
of holes in concrete ships did not break the steel rods. 
He thought that the cushioning effect of the concrete was 
an important protective agency against the breakage of 
brittle steel: 

R. O. Wynne-Roberts, M.E.I.C, wished to know 
concerning the influence of the growing tendency to use 
open hearth steel in rail manufacture. 

O. W. Ellis, Department of Metallurgy, University of 
Toronto, pointed out that segregation was most likely to 
occur at the base of the rail head and hence bars rolled 
from the head would more likely be defective than those 
rolled from other portions of the rail. 

Mr. Carswell, in reply to the comments, stated that 
it was possible for a large purchaser to select the particular 
class of rail from which his reinforcement bars would be 
rolled, although this would add to the cost. He regretted 
that the economic situation during the war had resulted 
in the rolling of some material from munition discard steel. 
However, this no longer was possible. He thought that 
one test for each ten tons of material was scarcely enough. 
The highest ultimate strength, disclosed in a series of 90 
tests cited by Mr. Carswell, was 109,000 lb. per sq. in., 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



167 



and the lowest 51,000 lb. per sq. in. Probably 90 per cent, 
of the tests ran from 55,000 to 75,000 lb. per sq. in. The 
larger bars showed lesser strength to the extent of 7 or 
8 per cent, and consequently the manufacturers do not 
roll bars as a rule higher than \\i inch. Mr. Carswell 
stated that the use of open hearth steel for rails 
constituted in no sense the criticism of rail carbon steel 
reinforcement. 



Peterborough Branch 

D. L. McLaren, A.M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
Visit to Canadian General Electric Company's Plant 

Through the courtesy of our fellow member E. G. 
Patterson, general superintendent of the Canadian 
General Electric Co., the members of the local Branch 
paid a visit to the factory of the C. G. E. Co., and inspected 
one of the ATB-16-45000-187H-12000 volt generators 
which are being built for the Queenston plant of the 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. This 
development is being watched with interest by engineers 
throughout the continent. Below is given a picture of 
the machine as assembled in the factory. The picture 
is interesting to engineers in view of the fact that after 
the machine is installed, only that part of the machine 
from the stairway up will be visible. This, of course, 
is due to the type of power house construction. 








Key 



1 


F. H. Dobbin 


24 


F. E. Kerr 


2 


P. L. Allison 


25 


Jas. Mackintosh 


3 


L. Potvin 


26 


A. A. Richardson 


5 


E. Maybee 


27 


E. R. Shirley 


7 


J. Anderson 


28 


Robt. Hall 


8 


J. Lang 


29 


A. B. Gates 


9 


W. H. Pretty 


30 


R. C. Flitton 


10 


G. B. Smith, 


31 


W. M. Cruthers 




Belleville 


32 


H. O. Fiske 


11 


H. A. Fife 


33 


B. L. Barns (A. C. engineer, 


12 


A. L. Killaly 




C. G. E. Co.) 


13 


E. G. Patterson 


34 


E. H. Mason 


14 


R. H. Parsons 


35 


A. Roberts 


15 


P. P. Westbye 


36 


R. Hinton 


16 


Geo. Coutts 


37 


Barry Ottewell 


17 


R. B. Rogers 


38 


W. J. Perks 


18 


Alan Munro 


39 


Heber Rogers 


19 


Ross Dobbin 


40 


H. J. Rogers 


20 


John Barnes 


41 


Sefroy Goulet 


21 


A. W. Logan 


42 


Geo. Henderson 


22 


V. S. Foster 


43 


W. J. Wren 


23 


M. N. Clark 


44 


P. Manning 



Peterborough Branch Visit to Canadian General 
Electric Work. 



Silent Knight Engine 

On January 26th, a very interesting address was 
given by J. R. Marlow, general sales manager of Willys- 
Overland, Toronto, on the "Silent Knight Engine". 

The speaker traced the development of the Knight 
engine from the time of Mr. Knight's earliest experiments 
in 1902-03, when he evolved the idea of an internal 
combustion engine which would be silent in operation 
as compared to the generally used variety of popper or 
mushroom valve type, up to the present well known 
"Silent Knight Engine", with its unparallel performance 
record. 

The first engine was built about 1903, and wonderful 
results obtained. It was not, however, until Mr. Knight's 
association in 1908, with the Daimler Motor Car Co., of 
Coventry, England, that any real progress was made. 
The gruelling tests made at that time under Mr. Knight's 



168 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



supervision are now matters of history, and have never 
been even attempted by any other engine manufacturers. 
Two engines were placed on the test blocks and run for 
six days continuous with wide open throttle. Each was 
then placed in a chassis and run for over 2000 miles 
on the track at an average speed of over 42 miles per hour 
After that, the engines were again placed on the test 
blocks, and run for another six days continuous, and as 
characteristic of the Knight, found to be delivering more 
power at the end of the run than at the start. The 
engines were then pulled down for examination and found 
to be remarkably clean and free from carbon, and to 
exhibit scarcely any traces of wear. 

At the close of the address, two rolls of film were 
shown. These were obtained by P. P. Westbye, through 
the courtesy of the C.P.R., and were entitled: "A Party 
at the Top of the World", and "Discovery of the French 
River". These were beautiful scenic views and much 
appreciated. 

The Construction of Permanent Highways 

The regular meeting for the month of February, 
was held on the 9th of the month. H. S. Van Scoyoc, 
of the Canada Cement Company, Montreal, and formerly 
chief engineer of the Toronto-Hamilton Highway, gave 
an address on "The Construction of Permanent High- 
ways". 

The speaker discussed road construction and stressed 
the importance of permanent construction. He dwelt on 
the success of the Hamilton Highway, and he pointed out 
that while the first cost had been far greater than 
macadam, the upkeep of macadam was many times 
greater. Concrete paved roads paid for themselves, he 
declared. The average cost of maintenance of concrete 
roadway on the highway in 1921, was about $72.00 a 
mile, while the macadam would cost about $6,500. 

Motion picture films were used to illustrate the 
address. The latest types of construction machinery 
were shown in operation, and the Hamilton Highway 
was viewed from airplane and automobile, and the 
development along it clearly shown. 

Kingston Branch 

L. T. Rutledge, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

A regular meeting of the Kingston Branch was held 
on January 10th, at which Col. Anderson, of the Royal 
Military College, Kingston, gave an address on the work 
of the Imperial Staff College, London, England. The 
Staff College is an army officers' college, at which many 
officers from all parts of the British Empire attend, to 
be instructed in the science of modern warfare. One of 
the great benefits as pointed out by the speaker, is the 
fact that it brings together from all over the world, men 
whose views may be quite divergent and it serves as one 
of the bonds of unity for the Empire. 

The next meeting was held on January 23rd, at which 
meeting A. C. D. Blanchard, M.E.I.C, gave an interesting 
and instructive lecture on the "Queenston-Chippawa 
Development", recently completed. The paper was 
illustrated with numerous slides which showed the 
construction work in all its stages. Mr. Blanchard, who 
was a field engineer on the work from the beginning, 
showed himself to be well acquainted with every detail 
of the big job, and he indeed brought the canal right to us. 
In fact, when shown every important detail in the gradual 
development by such excellent slides, it seems that more 



can be learned from such a discussion than if a' hurried 
visit was made to the ground itself. The Branch is very 
much indebted to Mr. Blanchard for his excellent lecture, 
and the discussion that he aroused. 

The last regular meeting was held on February 14th, 
when Col. J. Schmidlin, director of civil engineering at 
the Royal Military College, gave an illustrated lecture on 
"Aerial Surveying". Colonel Schmidlin traced the devel- 
opments of aerial surveying by means of photography 
from a time previous to the advent of the aeroplane. 
The speaker then proceeded with a history of the im- 
provement in cameras for this class of work. He stated 
that cameras of from 10 to 12 inches focal length* are 
considered the best for photography from great heights. 
The cameras in use at the present time are almost 
automatic in action, and one roll of film admits of 
approximately one hundred photographs being taken 
with one loading of the camera. The speaker then dealt 
with the effect of varying altitude, with the variations 
in elevation of the ground surface and tilting of the 
camera due to the motion of the moving aeroplane. 
It was quite clearly pointed out that almost every aerial 
photograph was a distorted view of the true ground 
surface, being due to the fact that the photograph is a 
projection on a plane not parallel to the true horizontal 
plane. To remove the distortion various methods are 
employed. The more common method of doing this is 
by a geometrical or graphical method, using three points 
whose location and distance apart on the ground are 
known. A map is constructed from many photographs 
which overlap one" another when taken. These photo- 
graphs are cut to size and pieced together to form a map 
which is called a mosaic. 

Aerial photographs of country covered with forest 
are not very clearly cut views. Trees cast shadows and 
it is difficult to distinguish the shadow from the object. 
It is commonly imagined that aerial surveying is the only 
method of surveying vast tracks of any unexplored 
country in Canada, but as these tracts of land are usually 
covered with trees, it is apparent that such a method 
does not prove itself as being the best method. However, 
aerial surveying of lakes and rivers give very accurate 
outlines. If the land to be surveyed is covered with many 
lakes and rivers, aerial surveying was pointed out to be 
an efficient and cheap method of doing the work. 

Colonel Schmidlin outlined what has been done in 
Canada in aerial photography. He very carefully out- 
lined the probable future of it. A very interesting 
discussion followed his lecture. 

The Kingston Branch wish to report that its mem- 
bership has lately been increased by approximately 90 
new members, the majority of whom are student members. 



Ottawa Branch 

F. C. C. Lynch, Associate E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 

Engineers' Ball 

Under the distinguished patronage of Their Excel- 
lencies the Governor-General and the Lady Byng of Vimy, 
Ottawa Branch entertained on the evening of January 
26th, at the Chateau Laurier, at a charmingly arranged 
ball. Mr. and Mrs. K. M. Cameron, Mr. and Mrs. G. A. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



169 



Mountain, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Grant, and Mr. and Mrs. 
J. B. McRae, received the guests at the entrance of the 
foyer. Each hostess wore a corsage bouquet of roses and 
violets, the gifts of the members of the committee. 

A splendid orchestra provided lilting music for the 
dancing. Some of the guests played bridge in the Tudor 
room, and the banquet hall was used as a smoking room 
and for the serving of fruit punch. Supper was at 11.30 
downstairs. The tables were daintily adorned with spring 
flowers. 

Those who made the arrangements for this enjoyable 
event were J. B. McRae, M.E.I.C., O. S. Finnie, M.E.I.C., 
Philip Sherrin, J. L. Rannie, Col. A. F. Duguid, Com- 
mander C. P. Edwards, M.E.I.C., K. M. Cameron, 
M.E.I.C., assistant chief engineer of the Public Works 
Department, was chairman of this committee. 

Among guests from out-of-town were J. M. R. 
Fairbairn, D.Sc, M.E.I.C., of Montreal, last year's 
president and Mrs. Fairbairn, Mr. and Mrs. Amyot, of 
Montreal, Mr. and Mrs. Gibault, of Quebec, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. M. Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Cousens, Mr. and Mrs. 
Roy Millar, all of Toronto; M. J. Murphy, A.M.E.I.C, 
of Moncton, N.B.; Mr. Hal McGiverin, K.C., M.P., and 
Mrs. McGiverin, Mr. E. R. E. Chevrier, M.P., and Mrs. 
Chevrier, and Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Fripp, Senator and 
Mrs. Bostock, were also among the guests. 

Local News 

Among the members of the Ottawa Branch who 
attended the Annual Meeting at Montreal, were Messrs. 
K. M. Cameron, J. B. Challies, T. H. G. Clunn, M. F. 
Cochrane, A. A. Dion, G. B. Dodge, C. P. Edwards, 
O. S. Finnie, G. G. Gale, A. B. Lambe, F. C. C. Lynch, 
D. W. McLachlan, G. A. Mountain, N. J. Ogilvie, E. 
Viens, W. C. Way. 

Thomas E. McGrail has been elected an associate 
member of The Institute, and Major D. L. McKeand an 
associate. S. D. Fawcett and R. M. Stenhouse have 
been transferred from juniors to associate members of 
The Institute. 

The Battle of Jutland 

A record attendance featured the luncheon on 
February 10th, at which the chief speaker was paymaster 
Commander W. H. Eves, R.N., who dealt in a graphic 
manner with the famous battle of Jutland. Commander 
Eves went through the battle in H.M.S. Royal Oak, 
super-dreadnought, and in his capacity as officer in charge 
of her coding office, was in intimate touch with the devel- 
opment and progress of the battle. His address was 
listened to with rapt attention, and was admirably 
illustrated by large charts showing the various dispositions 
of the rival fleets. 

K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C, Chairman of the Branch, 
presided, and seated at the head table with the chairman 
and guests of honour were, among others: Major-General 
J. H. McBrien, Brig.-Gen. McNaughton, G. J. Desbarats, 
C.M.G., Hamnet P. Hill, M.P.P., Col. W. P. Anderson, 
C. H. Keefer, Commander C. P. Edwards, C. A. Magrath, 
Hugo Craig, Captain Hose, G. A. Mountain, Admiral 
Sir Charles Kingsmill, J. B. Challies, and G. B. Dodge. 



Commander Eves referred to some of the criticisms 
that had been levelled both at Admiral Jellicoe and 
Admiral Beatty with regard to their tactics. He remarked, 
however, that their decisions had to be lightning ones, 
and he caused some laughter when he remarked that, 
unlike some of their critics, they did not have time to 
sit down and smoke a pipe while arriving at a decision 
as to the best thing to do under the rapid and continually 
changing conditions. Jellicoe's deployment needed no 
justification from him he said; the testimony of the 
German commander, Admiral von Scheer, was sufficient. 
Jellicoe had threatened his whole line he said, with the 
result that the German admiral turned tail and ran for it, 
or, as the text books described it, he "made a strategic 
retreat to the rear", said the commander, amid 
considerable laughter. 

As regards Beatty's alleged impetuosity, Commander 
Eves quoted, in refutation, from Beatty's own despatch 
where the admiral said: "I did not consider it desirable 
or proper to engage the enemy in the night." 

The speaker said that night and bad visibility robbed 
Jellicoe of full victory, but the only time after that the 
German fleet ventured out to sea was to follow a single 
British cruiser and to surrender to Admiral Beatty. 

Dominion Land Surveyors' Annual Meeting 

The Dominion Land Surveyors' Association was 
organized in 1882, and since that time has received the 
full support of the Dominion Land Surveyors throughout 
Canada. The present Dominion Land Surveyors' Asso- 
ciation is a reorganization of the old association, which 
took place in 1907. The purposes of the association have, 
however, been continued throughout. 

The annual meeting was held at Ottawa on February 
1 and 2, and was opened with an able address by the 
President, G. H. Blanchet, A.M.E.I.C. The Secretary- 
Treasurer, W. L. Macllquhan, submitted a very satis- 
factory financial statement and report. On January 1, 
1922, the membership was 227. M. D. McCloskey, 
read a report on "Land Settlement"; W. M. Dennis, 
A.M.E.I.C, reported on recent progress in geodetic 
surveying, and G. H. Herriot, M.E.I.C, reported the 
progress made in town planning in Canada in 1921. 

Capt. Forster, of the Parks Branch of the Department 
of the Interior, delivered an address on "Our National 
Parks", followed by Hoyes Lloyd, M.A., also of the 
Parks Branch, with an interesting talk on "Bird 
Sanctuaries". 

Purely technical papers were presented by L. T. 
Bowes, of the Naval Service of Canada, on "Hydro- 
graphical Surveying and its application in James Bay", 
and by M. P. Bridgland, of the Topographical Surveys 
Branch of the Department of the Interior, on "Photo- 
topographic Surveying". Mr. Bridgland exhibited some 
of the finest lantern slides of mountain scenery ever seen 
in Ottawa. F. V. Seibert, A.M.E.I.C, Topographical 
Surveys Branch, gave a talk on "A Trip from Peace 
River to the Fort Norman Oil-fields", illustrated by 
many fine slides. 

The closing address was given by J. A. Wilson, 
A.M.E.I.C, Secretary of the Air Board, and covered in 
a very complete manner the work of the Air Board in 



170 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Canada. The annual luncheon was held at the Chateau 
Laurier, 125 being seated. Hon. Charles Stewart, 
Minister of the Interior, Dr. E. Deville, Commissioner 
of Surveys, and Hon. Dr. Roche, chairman of the Civil 
Service Commission, were the speakers. 

The election of officers for 1922, resulted as follows: 
president, G. H. Henriot, M.E.I.C., Winnipeg; vice- 
president, D. H. Nelles, M.E.I. C. Ottawa; secretary- 
treasurer, W. L. Macllquham, Ottawa; councillors for 
Ottawa; J. W. Pierce, B. H. Segre, A.M.E.I.C. A. M. 
Perry, J. E. R. Ross, A.M.E.I.C, T. H. G. Clunn, 
A.M.E.I.C; councillors for Ontario: E. P. Bowman, 
A.M.E.I.C, (West Montrose), F. W. Beatty, (Pem- 
broke); councillors for Quebec and the Maritime Prov- 
inces: E. F. Gorman, (Buckingham); councillors for 
Manitoba, W. E. Hobbs, A.M.E.I.C, (Winnipeg), C E. 
Joslyn, A.M.E.I.C, (Winnipeg); councillors for Sas- 
katchewan: W. M. Stewart, A.M.E.I.C, (Saskatoon), 
W. R. Reilly, (Regina); councillors for Alberta: H. E. 
Pearson, (Edmonton), J. B. Alexander, (Calgary); coun- 
cillors for British Columbia: J. E. Umbach, (Victoria), 
E. C Coursier, (Revelstoke). 

Ontario's Government Roads Programme 

The Victoria Memorial Museum auditorium was 
filled on the evening of February 16th, when, under the 
auspices of the Ottawa Branch of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada, George Hogarth, O.L.S., M.E.I.C, of Toronto, 
chief engineer of the department of public highways of 
Ontario, delivered a most interesting address on "Our 
Public Highways". The lecture was illustrated by 
lantern slides as well as two moving picture films, and 
dwelt on the course of roadbuilding in Ontario from the 
revival of five years ago to the present time. 

Two announcements of interest to Ottawa were 
made during the course of the lecture, one that the 
Ottawa-Prescott highway would be permanently surfaced 
from the city limits to Hog's Back, a distance of over 
two miles, and a second that the missing two miles of 
pavement on the Ottawa-Point Fortune road, a few miles 
out of Ottawa, will be built in the early part of the coming 
summer. 

K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C, Chairman of the Ottawa 
Branch of The Institute, introduced the lecturer, who 
pointed out that the development of the motor car 
created the necessity for good roads, and these developed 
with the development of motor vehicles. He outlined 
the various types of roads in Ontario. There was, first, 
the township road, of various types. Some of these had 
been taken over by the county as county roads. Some 
near cities had been taken over by suburban road commis- 
sions. On such as were still township roads the govern- 
ment paid 20 per cent, towards the cost. The roads 
were usually of earth and gravel and were frequently 
narrow, as they did not represent main travelled thor- 
oughfares. Of the total township roads of a few years 
ago the Ontario counties had now assumed about 15 per 
cent, as county roads. On these latter the government 
paid 40 per cent, of the rebuilding and maintenance. 
Then there was the still higher type of county provincial 
roads which were constructed of a variety of materials 
from earth and gravel to concrete. On these the province 
paid 60 per cent. 



Suburban roads commission had come into existence 
to look after the roads leading into a city, and 40 per 
cent, of the cost was contributed by the government, 
30 by the city in question, and 30 per cent, by the county. 
The city and county jointly appointed the commissioners 
and the roads they constructed were usually of the 
permanent class. 

At the conclusion of the lecture, two films were 
shown by the courtesy of the Department of Trade and 
Commerce. One was taken at various points on the 
Ottawa-Prescott highway, and the other was taken 
partly from motor car and partly from airplane on the 
Toronto-Hamilton highway, and was known as the 
"Silver Trail". 

A. W. Campbell, M.E.I.C, Dominion commissioner 
of good roads, moved a vote of thanks to the lecturer 
for his interesting address. 



Montreal Branch 

J. L. Bus field, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Chippawa Power Development 

The first meeting after the Annual and Professional 
Meeting was held on Thursday evening, January 26th, 
at which H. G. Acres, M.E.I.C, gave a most interesting 
illustrated talk on the Queenston-Chippawa Power 
Development. The attendance was so great that many 
were unable to find even standing room in the hall. 
The author gave a technical description of the structure 
and construction proceedure in the work on the canal, 
the building of the power houses, and installation of the 
power plants. The address was followed by a series of 
motion pictures which were extremely interesting. The 
chair was occupied by J. A. Duchastel, M.E.I.C, chair- 
man of the Branch. 

Automotive and General Lubrication 

On Thursday evening, February 2nd, W. C Common, 
general manager of the Sun Oil Company, gave an address 
dealing with Automotive and General Lubrication from a 
technical point of view, following which there was an 
excellent discussion. E. J. Turley, A.M.E.I.C, presided. 

Water Softening 

On Thursday evening, February 9th, C E. Hogarth, 
A.M.E.I.C, discussed the principles of water softening, 
with F. A. Combe, M.E.I.C, presiding. The speaker 
gave a brief outline of how all natural waters originate 
in rain, but in passing over the ground they gather 
impurities in the form of suspended matter and dissolved 
salts. The former is usually removed by filtration, the 
rapid sand filter being the most satisfactory and econom- 
ical in most industrial plants — which gives a clear 
sparkling water free from all visible impurities. 

Hardness in water, mostly lime, although dissolved 
and invisible, is the cause of the largest waste in manu- 
facturing plants using natural untreated waters. This 
hardness is the cause of scale in the tea kettle or boiler, 
and the curd which forms when soap or soda is added 
to hard water. 



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171 



The removal of this hardness or the softening of 
water in Canada in the past has usually been done by 
adding chemicals such as soda to the water. This method, 
although improving the water, never produced a water of 
zero hardness and, consequently, the best results cannot 
be obtained; the cost is high and requires expert super- 
vision to get even good results. 

The most satisfactory method now used for softening 
water is by the use of zeolite. In this method the zeolite 
mineral is held in a steel container, and the water filtered 
through it; the lime or hardness remaining with the 
mineral and the water passes from the bottom of the 
container perfectly soft. By this method a water of 
zero hardness is always assured. 

Mr. Hogarth showed some interesting slides showing 
the process of the natural zeolite from the time it is 
mined until it is ready for commercial use, and also 
actual samples of the mineral in its natural state and 
after refining. 

South American Railways 

On Thursday evening, February 16th, H. K. Wick- 
steed, M.E.I.C., of the Canadian National Railways, 
reviewed the history of the South American Continent, 
with particular reference to the development of railways. 

The first stretch of railroad in Brazil was all 5 ft. 
3 ins. gauge, similar to that adopted in Argentina at the 
time; the conditions there warranted the use of the wide 
gauge tracks, whereas it was different in this section of 
Brazil. This was the first serious mistake made by the 
Brazilians in connection with the development of their 
railroads, but they very soon realized their error, and as 
a result, at the present time 60% of all railroads in Brazil 
were narrow gauge. This suited their conditions admir- 
ably, because of the fact that their average hauls were 
as yet within 300 miles, and also because of the limited 
capital available when the enterprise was first undertaken. 

Another remarkable feature of the Brazilian railroads 
was that large culverts were practically non-existent. 
This in a country of tropical rainstorms and impermeable 
soil was made possible only by following the watersheds 
between streams wherever possible. Where a great valley 
cut across the country, heavy grades in conjunction 
with 20 percent curves solved the problem. Gravel or 
sand ballast was practically unknown, rock ballast only 
beginning to be used in the best roads, but sparingly. 

Mr. Wicksteed mentioned the development of a new 
port and a new railway entrance to finally link up with a 
port on the Carribbean Sea. This would furnish a means 
of developing the rich mines and utilize to great advan- 
tage the vast grazing lands, fertile country and other 
natural resources in South America. The Southern con- 
tinent was also rich in water powers which would permit 
of economical electrification of the country in the future. 

In closing, Mr. Wicksteed spoke of the trade possib- 
ilities between the South American countries and 
Canada. Canada had already a foothold in Brazil, 
owning and operating the tramway systems of most of 
the large cities, the electric lighting systems, telephone 
plants and other industries. In view of these facts there 
was no reason why Canada should not trade with Brazil 
more extensively, each country having as exports some 



of the necessities of the other. Furthermore the Canadian 
engineer was playing an important part in the development 
of almost every South American country. 

P. B. Motley, M.E.I.C., engineer of bridges of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, presided. 

Prizes to Students 

Preceding the speaker of the evening, there took place 
a presentation of prizes to students for the best papers 
during the year ending June 1921. The presentation was 
made by Walter J. Francis, M.E.I. C, Vice-President of 
The Institute on behalf of President J. G. Sullivan. The 
prizes were in the form of cheques, one presented to 
A. Murray Robertson, S.E.I.C., for his paper on "The 
Organization of the Engineer Service during the War". 
Mr. Francis introduced the author, giving an outline of 
his overseas service in the Canadian Engineers, during 
which he was awarded the M.C., and twice wounded. 
Mr. Robertson is now in the engineering department of 
the Bell Telephone Company. 

The other prize was donated to E. R. Woodward, 
Jr.E.I.C, for his paper on "The Coal Briquetting Plant 
at Bienfait, Sask." Mr. Woodward first became interested 
in this subject when he was overseas with the 1st Tunnell- 
ing Company, and in order to follow up Canadian practice 
he went to Saskatchewan at his own expense and worked 
for the Lignite Utilization Board in many capacities from 
a laborer to a laboratory assistant. As a result of his 
studies he wrote the paper which won him this prize. 

Branch Secretaries' Meeting 

At the commencement of the meeting, the Branch 
Secretary, J. L. Busfield, A.M.E.I.C., gave a short 
address on the results of the Branch Secretaries Meeting, 
an account of which is given elsewhere in this issue of 
The Journal. 

Quebec Branch 

Hector Cimon, A.M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
Aircraft and the Possibilities of its Use by Engineers 

An evening meeting was held on the 30th of January 
in the Green Room of the Chateau Frontenac, which 
was very well attended by local members and some friends. 
Chairman A. R. Decary, M.E.I.C., presided and introduc- 
ed R. H. Nisbet, forest engineer, in charge of the aviation 
service of the firm of Price Brothers & Company, Limited. 

Mr. Nisbet gave an interesting talk on aerial photo- 
graphy in connection with mapping. He said that there 
were many objections to so-called aerial surveys, and that 
accurate maps of large tracts of country could only be 
obtained from aerial photographs with the aid of a proper 
system of ground controls. The engineer on the ground 
is still and will remain the chief; he must direct the work 
of the airman; the pilot's duty in the air is complete 
when he flies his machine correctly in the course required, 
maintaining an even keel and constant height. 

He elucidated the technicalities of the aerial camera 
and described the French. German and American cameras 
used for air photography. Photographs are taken at a 
height of 5,000 feet, 10,000 or even 15,000 feet, depending 



172 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



on the type of camera used and some 300 exposures can be 
automatically taken in one hour. The speed of the aero- 
plane can be maintained at 100 miles an hour, so that the 
photographs taken in that time cover an area of several 
hundred square miles on the ground. Over 1,000 photo- 
graphs were taken in a day by Mr. Nisbet's assistants, 
last summer. 

There are certain errors in an^erial photograph which 
render extremely accurate survey difficult and, while they 
do not render accurate work impossible, they materially 
increase the cost owing to the work entailed in rectifying 
the photographs before the information they contain can 
be transferred to map form. 

There are various claims made for and against the 
aeroplane for purposes of survey; the speaker feels certain, 
however, that in the not too distant future, it will be com- 
mon practice in this country for an aeroplane, working as 
an adjunct of the engineer, to carry out the most accurate 
work, and that, with the aid of the aeroplane, the less 
known areas of our vast country will be surveyed at a 
pace hitherto impossible. 

As to the cost of flying, including the use of an 
efficient machine, with pilot, mechanic, fuel, oil, depre- 
ciation and interest on the capital involved, accepting 
the life of a machine as 3 years, it may vary from sixty 
to eighty dollars an hour. If the photographic personnel 
and equipment is added to this, the cost may run up to 
$140 per hour. The great disadvantage of flying in this 
country, as far as costs are concerned, is the necessity 
for paying wages for a year during which there is only 
six months flying, and like everything else, the more the 
aeroplane is used, the less, proportionately, will be the 
cost per flying hour. 

Mr. Nisbet concluded in saying that aviation is good 
enough to stand on its merits, and it will go ahead and 
develop in spite of the fact that it is not cheap. 

A number of lantern slides were next placed on the 
screen, showing areas which had been photographed from 
the air, and useful explanations and comments were made 
by the speaker. 

This was followed by a very interesting exhibit of 
moving pictures, showing the work- of logging during the 
Winter months in the woods, the floating of the logs down 
the rivers to the mills, and the manufacture of newsprint 
by the firm of Price Brothers and Company, Limited, to 
whom the members of this Branch are much indebted 
for the courtesy with which they were given an opportun- 
ity to see that valuable film. 

At the close of this exhibit, E. A. Evans, 
M.E.I.C., moved a vote of thanks to the lecturer, which 
was cheerfully carried. 

The Scope of Engineer in Forest Industries 

This was the subject of a most interesting address 
given by S. L. deCarteret, Esq., A.M.E.I.C., manager of 
the Lands Dept., for the firm The Brown Corporation, 
before the members of this Branch, at the monthly 
luncheon-meeting, which took place at the Chateau 
Frontenac, on the 13th of February. 

Chairman A. R. Decary, M.E.I.C., presided the 
meeting, and introduced the speaker who, on rising, 
thanked his fellow engineers for their applause, and 



jokingly remarked that he was sure of it now, even if 
there should be none when he finished. He said that, 
in choosing his subject, he had in mind the pulp and 
paper industry but that his remarks will apply equally 
to the lumber industry. 

More than 100 pulp and paper mills are in operation 
in Canada, and these have a total capacity of about 
2,300,000 tons annually. These mills represent a capital 
investment of more than 350 million dollars, and they 
employ in excess of 32,000 persons, in addition to many 
more thousands engaged in the woods' operations. 

The Province of Quebec has over 45 pulp and paper 
mills, representing a capital investment of more than 
175 million dollars, and whose combined capacity is in 
the neighbourhood of 4,000 tons per day, which is about 
50% of Canada's entire pulp and paper production. 

This, then, is the field. What is the engineer's 
relation to it ? 

Mr. deCarteret stated that the pulp and paper 
industry employed at least thirteen branches of the 
engineering profession. Thus, the engineer occupies a 
very important place in the manufacture of pulp and 
paper. His widest field of usefulness., however, is probably 
in improving methods of converting and transporting raw 
material from the forest to the mills now in existence. 

It was formerly considered good practice to tell the 
bush foreman to cut so many logs in a certain region, 
and if he got them at a reasonable price, the logging was 
supposed to be a success in spite of the fact that only the 
best timber adjacent to the streams was being cut and 
that the forest was being wasted. To-day, the engineer 
is employed to survey and map the timberlands in advance 
of the logging operations; topographical plans show 
definitely how best to log and bring out the timber. 

Engineers now locate and build storehouses or depot- 
camps where they will serve the greatest territory econom- 
ically for the longest time. They also make careful 
reconnaissances and surveys for locating roads so that 
the best possible grades can be obtained and minimum 
maintenance result. 

Until a few years ago dams for driving purposes were 
located and built in a haphazard manner and were often 
washed out or did not give the results which were expected 
on account of the lack of technical and meteorological 
knowledge displayed in the construction of the dam or 
the choice of the site. The use of engineering principles 
now does away with these troubles. Other river im- 
provements such as side piers, holding booms, jam piers, 
etc., also claim the attention of the engineer. 

Engineers, on many instances, were also called to 
supervise log drives and this important work was then 
found to have been accomplished with great dispatch and 
economy. 

Probably the most useful servant of wood using 
industries is water, as it is the cheapest and most used 
means of transporting the raw material. However, the 
water courses designed by nature do not always suit our 
requirements. Hence, the use of flumes which often 
make it possible to obtain timber otherwise inaccessible. 
At times a flume may be used to deliver the wood output 
of several streams to one central point, thereby eliminat- 
ing separate wood preparing plants. Again flumes may 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



173 



be used to advantage in diverting wood from one water- 
shed to another. Water sluices are also used to load 
wood into boats or cars. 

All those works and many others, said Mr. deCarteret, 
are of interest to the engineer and call for his resource- 
fulness and ingenuity. 

It will be the engineers' task to bring vast areas of 
forest lands, at present inaccessible into close communica- 
tion with business centres ; railways will have to be built ; 
towns laid out; harbour works constructed; channels 
dredged and vessels more suitable for carrying certain 
forest products designed and fabricated. 

In places where, to-day, the forest stands untouched, 
to-morrow the engineer must exercise his skill in planning 
for the economic utilization of nature's wealth. 

Concluding, the speaker asked: is this not scope 
enough for the engineer ? Does it not give him ample 
opportunity to make a permanent record of his labours 
and should he not derive great satisfaction in so doing? 

Paul Joncas, A.M.E.I.C., professor at the Laval 
Forestry School, then said a few words expressing the 
feelings of all the members present, and moved a vote 
of thanks to Mr. deCarteret which was heartily carried. 

Arthur Fournier, A.M.E.I.C, also moved a vote 
of thanks to the Chairman for the able manner in which 
he had presided at the meeting. Carried. 



St. John Branch 

Harry F. Bennett, A.M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 
Hydro-Electric Situation 

The regular monthly meeting of the Branch was held 
on Thursday, Jan. 19th, with F. P. Vaughan, M.E.I.C., 
in the chair. The discussion on the Hydro Electric 
situation and its relation to the City of St. John was con- 
tinued by Herbert Phillips, M.E.I.C., who has taken an 
active part in the public discussions, as an advocate of 
Municipal Distribution. 

The available water in the Musquash River, the 
question of a steam standby, the demand for power, and 
the relative costs in the several provinces were discussed 
by Mr. Phillips and Messrs C. C.Kirby, M.E.I.C., 
C. O. Foss, M.E.I.C, S. R. Weston, A.M.E.I.C, and 
several others. 

This question is receiving extensive publicity in St. 
John and the Branch has devoted two meetings to the 
discussion of the various sides of the question. 

Annual Meeting of the Association of Professional Engineer* 
of the Province of New Brunswick. 

The second annual meeting of the Professional 
Engineers of New Brunswick was held in St. John on Jan. 
27th. with a large attendance of members from all parts 
of the province. The Annual report of the Council 
showed a total registration of 179, and the financial state- 
ment, a surplus of $2,889,67. 

The election of officers for 1922 resulted as follows: 

President.. .S. B. Wass, A.M.E.I.C, Moncton, N.B. 

Vice-Pres...C. C. Kirby, M.E.I.C, St. John, N.B. 



Councillors, St. John District, F. P. Vaughan, M.E.I.C. 

H. F. Bennett, A.M.E.I.C. 
Moncton District J. D. McBeath, M.E.I.C 
K. S. Pickard, A.M.E.I.C. 
Fredericton " B. M. Hill, M.E.I.C. 
Chatham District R. J. Sandover Sly, 

A.M.E.I.C. 

C C Kirby, M.E.I.C, the retiring President add- 
ressed the meeting on the necessity of high standards and 
greater service to the public. The benefits of organ- 
ization and the spirit of Brotherhood were emphasized 
and the members were given a very vivid picture of the 
ideal to which they should strive to attain. 

At the conclusion of the business meeting the mem- 
bers adjourned to the LaTour Hotel where a special 
dinner was served under the auspices of the St. John 
Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada. Among 
the guests were the Hon. W. E. Foster, Premier of New 
Brunswick, and Commissioners J. B. Jones, T. H. Bullock, 
and J. H. Frink of the City of St. John. 

After a very fine dinner, S. R. Weston, A.M.E.I.C, 
asst. chief engineer of the N.B. Power Commission 
addressed the gathering on the development of Hydro 
Electric Power in this province. He pointed out that 
we have not a Niagara available in this province, but 
we have a large number of small powers which are capable 
of economic development. The question of the advantage 
of such power is not an issue, but it is necessary for the 
province to have a cheaper and more abundant supply 
to adequately develop our industries. He hoped that the 
province would benefit by the developments carried out 
by the Power Commission. 

C C Kirby, M.E.I.C, said that every organization 
should thoroughly discuss this Hydro question. It was 
a duty that the engineers owed to the public, to throw 
additional light on this matter by discussion. 

Hon. W. E. Foster, in proposing the toast to the 
engineering profession, said that he felt honoured to 
speak before a profession that had done so much in build- 
ing up Canada. The engineering profession was an 
honoured one, and he did not wonder that youths were 
attracted to it. The great Quebec, and other bridges, the 
railways and water power developments, were monuments 
to the engineers. After touching on the finances of the 
province and the need for economies in all branches, Mr. 
Foster concluded by stating that public works of a 
national character were required in St. John. The people 
demanded that Canadian traffic should pass through 
Canadian ports. They were not sufficient facilities here 
for that traffic and works undertaken should be completed 
without delay. 

S. B. Wass, A.M.E.I.C, the newly elected President 
of the Association, expressed the gratitude of the visiting 
members for the able manner in which they had been 
entertained by the St. John Branch. 

Retiring President's Address. 

C.C. Kirby, M.E.I.C. 

In retiring from the Presidency of this Association I feel it in- 
cumbent upon me to make a few remarks, other than those in the way 
of the pleasant duty of thanking you for your suffrages and support in 



174 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the past and assurance of my continuing assistance in the future to our 
new president and the Association as a whole, as far as I am able to do 
so. 

The present moment appears to me to be a fit ting one in which to review 
with you what has already been accomplished and what, as I conceive 
it, we are endeavouring to achieve in the future. Our Association will 
in a short while enter upon the third year of its corporate existence. 
In looking back we find that we have attained the goal, in form at any 
rate, the engineers have been seeking for the past twenty years and more. 
The engineering profession in this Province is a closed corporation 
sanctioned by legal enactment. Is this in itself a desirable and profit- 
able achievement looked at from the point of view of individual members 
and the community in general ? I frankly and freely state that I believe 
it is not, but what that it is only a necessary and proper means to an 
end. What then is this end which we are seeking. That is a very 
difficult thing to express in a few words but perhaps the terms character 
and service will give us some light uponasomewhat misty objective. 

As was most eloquently brought out in a recent address to the E.I.C. 
by a prominent member, there is a need today for the development 
of the tribal spirit or soul of the engineering profession. It is no un- 
common thing among engineers to experience a feeling of reluctance 
or almost of being ashamed to have to reply to a query as to the nature 
of one's occupation, "I am an engineer" for fear that one's hearers might 
think to themselves "Oh, only an engineer" with a feeling of disdain or 
pity, whereas there should be as much right to be proud of being able 
to say "I am an engineer" as of being able to say "I am a Canadian" 
or "I am a British Citizen" in any part of the world. That is one of 
the basic principles that we want to have underlying the character of 
all the members of our profession, pride and occupationr and with it 
will go pride of work accomplished, however simple or unromantic it 
may happen to be. even if it be only the making of a tracing or a blue 
print. 

Then again there is service. Service to our employee. Yes 
that is of course the bound en duty of all true men. To do what is 
expected of us; but there is for engineers a further opportunity than 
that. Not only should the very name engineer imply duty always 
well and truly done but more than that, it should mean willingness to 
do more than duty. Willingness to be of service to others in the com- 
munity, to the state, to our neighbors, to our brother engineers, and 
without expectation of additional reward. Not for notoriety or for 
influence or power but for love of the profession and the work itself 
and the exercise of knowledge and experience for the good of others 
and the feeling that we have done the best we could and made the most 
of our opportunities of service. 

Our opportunities of service are different from those of all other 
occupations and professions. Our point of contact with the public 
is very different from that of other professions. We don't as a rule, 
come into direct contact with the public as do for instance the doctor 
and the dentist, their contact is personal contact of a very pronounced 
type, with individuals chiefly. The lawyer comes in contact with 
individuals also but from a psychological rather than a physical aspect 
and in his public appearances in his profession he is protected and 
glorified by his robes of office and his privileged position in the public 
courts. However, these men have to reply upon their hold upon the 
public for their means of livelihood and their rewards are very largely 
in proportion to their individual merit. 

With us the case is different, the majority of us receive stated 
•salaries and our contact with the public is not personal Our oppor- 
tunities for creating public opinion favourable to us lie. therefore in organ- 
ization work rather than personal work of this character. We must 
organize ourselves for service to the public. This brings us to the 
question of what is the value to the individual member in joining an 
organization in which he may not be able to take an active part. When 
we consider the matter we find that engineers may be grouped in three 
broad classes. Those who work in large centres of population, those 
in medium sized centres and those in very small centres or among no 
population at all. With the engineering profession there is no general 
proportion between the number of engineers present and the size of the 
community. It cannot be figured that it takes so many persons to 
support an engineer as can roughly be done with lawyers, doctors and 
dentists. The number of engineers in a community depends more 
upon the types of industry in a community or the location of Govern- 
ment or Corporation Headquarters than anything else, although there 
is a rough general proportion that a large town will have more engineers 
in it than a small town. Though some small towns may have two or 
three times the number of engineers of some larger town. 

In the cases of large towns with large numbers of engineers the 
situation as it exists today is not as good as in the smaller centres. 



The reason is that of greater difficulty of organization and the less 
opportunity there is for the general average of members to take pro- 
minent parts, with the result that large numbers have no part at all 
and are indifferent to the calls of organization. In the smaller towns 
organization is easier and personal intercourse between all of the mem- 
bers is possible, and it is here that community service finds its best 
expression at present. 

In the third case where only a very few engineers can be found in 
any one locality the case is again different. The feeling that it is not 
worth while to belong to any organization has in the past been very 
prevalent. The successful organization of this Association is evidence 
that this feeling is passing away or has at least been suppressed for a 
while, with a view to giving organization a chance to show what it can 
do. Well what can it do to brighten the lives, build the character, 
improve the prospects of isolated members and those of the lower ranks. 
These are the questions which are of importance to the large majority 
of the membership. The public also has a right to know what will be 
the result of giving special privileges to any group of citizens by passing 
legislation for their use. 

Let us take these questions separately and see how they can be 
answered. 

Moncton Branch 

M. J. Murphy, A.M. E.I.C, Secretary- Treasurer. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Moncton Branch 
of The Engineering Institute of Canada was held Thursday 
evening, January 5th, in the Happen Inn tea rooms, 
where a chicken dinner was served at 6.30 P.M. A large 
number of members and several guests were present. 
J. D. McBeath, M.E.I.C. asst. city engineer, presided, and 
after dinner announced that Vincent Doucett would render 
a violin solo, accompanied by Major W. A. McKee. 
Mr. Doucett delighted the audience and was heartily 
encored. 

The Chairman spoke briefly, wishing each member 
and guest a happy and prosperous New Year. He stated 
that the E.I.C. had done such gratifying work in the last 
year, and he expressed his belief that it is only through 
an organization such as The Engineering Institute that 
the engineering profession will attain the status it deserves. 

Mr. McBeath then introduced City Engineer John 
Edington, M.E.I.C, declaring that as a hydraulic engineer 
he had no peers in Eastern Canada. Mr. Edington then 
read a very interesting paper on the history of the 
Moncton City Water Supply. 

The water supply of any community is one of the 
most important factors in connection with its existence; 
therefore great care must be observed in selecting the best 
available source, whether it be a lake, river, impounding 
reservoir or artesian wells. Cities and towns that are 
situated in proximity to lakes or large rivers can get 
their supply direct, while others have to construct im- 
pounding reservoirs to store sufficient water during the 
rainy seasons to tide them over the dry, such as is the 
case in Moncton. We are fortunate here, however, in 
having brooks within reasonable distance of the city. 

Where storage reservoirs are to be constructed some 
of the essential features to be first determined are the 
dry season flow of brooks, annual precipitation and the 
area of watershed. It then becomes necessary to look 
for the best natural site for the dam, which, for a gravity 
supply, should be at a point where sufficient head can be 
obtained to deliver the water with ample pressure through- 
out the area of consumption. The size of the dam is 
determined by the amount of water that is required to be 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



175 



impounded in order to guarantee the supply during dry 
seasons and the reservoir should at least contain enough 
for 120 days. 

The leading main from the reservoir should be of 
ample size, laid in as direct a line as possible, the grade 
of which to be such that at no point should the pipes 
be above the hydraulic grade line. Air valves are placed 
at all summits and flush valves at each depression through- 
out the line, as well as sufficient gate valves to facilitate 
repairs. 

The distribution system should be laid in gridiron 
fashion, and no pipe should be less than 6 inches in 
diameter where fire hydrants are located. Gate valves 
should be placed on branches at street intersections. 

Such are a few of the principle features of a simple 
gravity supply. 

A brief history and description of the Moncton water 
supply may doubtless be of some interest. This water 
supply was first introduced by a private concern, the 
Moncton Gas, Light and Water Co. This company was 
incorporated by Provincial Act in 1877, and the following 
year an act was passed enabling the town to contract 
with the company for water and gas, and an agreement 
was entered into between the town and the company in 
November 1887, for a term of ten years. 

The original works were designed by Gilbert Murdock, 
of St. John, and E. H. Keating, of Halifax, both now 
deceased. The former acted as consulting engineer until 
1883, when the writer was appointed engineer of the 
company. 

It might be in order to deviate a little from the 
subject and refer briefly to the other utilities controlled 
by this company. 

In 1885 an electric lighting system was installed and 
the machinery placed in the Sugar Refinery which was 
run there for about a year until a suitable building was 
erected at the present site. The initial plant consisted 
of a 50 H.P. side crank engine and a 40 light direct current, 
Thompson Houston dynamo, supplying 35 arc lamps of 
2,000 candle power for street lighting. The gas works 
were completed shortly after the water works and had a 
capacity of 5,000,000 cubic feet per annum. The principal 
consumers were the Intercolonial Railway, Sugar Refinery, 
Cotton Factory, Record Foundry, stores on Main Street, 
and also the street lighting. 

About the year 1893 citizens' meetings were held 
with a view of acquiring the company's plants, and in 
1894 an act was passed enabling the city to expropriate 
the entire works of the company. Arbitration proceed- 
ings opened on August 28th, and were concluded on 
September 15th, the arbitrators being as follows: Walter 
Shanley, C.E., of Montreal, for the city, chairman; 
Robert Surtees, C.E., of Ottawa, for the city, and F. W. 
Holt, C.E., of St. Stephen, N.B., appointed by the 
Government of New Brunswick. The award of the 
arbitrators was as follows: 

Water works system $265,050.00 

Electric lighting and gas works 78,658.00 

Total $343,708.00 



The city also assumed $60,000 water works 6% 
bonds that had been issued by the Company. In January, 
1895, the city disposed of debentures to the amount of 
$350,000, in order to pay the award. The city took 
possession of the works in 1895. 

The Irishtown reservoir was constructed on Black 
Mill Brook, from which duplicate mains convey the 
water to the city, a distance of about 3}4 miles. One 
of these mains, the original, was laid in 1878, and the 
other in 1904. The area within the water shed is 5 
square miles. When first constructed the wasteway was 
at an elevation of 136 feet above city datum, and the 
reservoir had a capacity of 35,000,000 gallons. The 
height of the dam has been increased twice since then, 
first to 144 feet, giving a capacity of 138,000,000 gallons, 
and later to 147 feet at wasteway, its present level, 
giving a storage capacity of 250,000,000 gallons. The 
difference in elevation between Main street at city 
building and wasteway at dam is 119 feet, and at highest 
point of city, 40 feet. The topography of the surrounding 
country is such that this reservoir cannot be raised much 
above its present level. 

About two miles above this reservoir another dam, 
14 feet in height, was constructed, 1889-90, giving a 
storage capacity of 10,000,000 gallons. 

As the consumption increased, a pumping station was 
constructed, in 1889, and a 10 by 16 by 12 in. duplex 
steam pump installed. In 1909, an addition was made 
to the station, and two 1 -stage turbo electric pumps, 
having a nominal capacity each of 2,000 gallons per 
minute, were installed. Both pumps were adjusted so 
that they could be operated in series, in multiple, or 
singly. The steam pump was then abandoned. 

As the city increased in population it soon became 
evident that an additional supply would be required; 
therefore surveys were commenced with that end in view, 
and the McNutt Brook was finally decided upon as the 
source of new supply. Contracts were entered into in 
August 1911, and the entire system was completed in the 
fall of 1914, the water being turned on in the city on 
December 17th, 1914. The reservoir is located about 
3>y 2 miles from the city on the McNutt Brook, and has a 
capacity of 300,000,000. The dam is so constructed 
with berms on both -slopes that it can be raised at any 
time. The mains through dam are in duplicate 20 in. 
in diameter, and the gatehouse has double screen chamber. 
Water can be drawn off at intakes located at three 
different levels. 

The leading main from reservoir to pumping station 
is 20 inches in diameter. 

The pumping station is equipped with the following: 
one centrifugal pump, capable of delivering 3470 Imperial 
gallons per minute when operating at 750 R.P.M. The 
pump is driven by a rope drive, which consists of 26 
one inch cotton ropes. The motive power is a Premier 
gas engine, having four cylinders side by side, and capable 
of delivering 460 B.H.P. when running at 200 R.P.M. 
A special speed indicator is provided in the engine, so 
that the speed may be changed instantly from 160 to 
200 R.P.M. The water pressure at the pump delivery 
may therefore be changed instantly from domestic to fire 
pressure as required, these pressure being 45 lbs. to 75 lbs. 



176 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



respectively. The fuel is natural gas. An emergency 
source of power is provided in the shape of a suction gas 
producer for operating on pea anthracite coal, also 
auxiliary apparatus for blowing in the producer and for 
supplying compressed air for starting the gas engine. 
There are also the two turbo electric pumps which were 
transferred from the old pumping station, thus giving 
two separate and distinct units of supply. The mains 
from Irishtown reservoir are now connected to suction 
pipes in new pumping station and are common to both 
pumps. This arrangement give a very elastic system of 
supply, for if one pump gives out, the other can be started 
up and should both give out, there would still be the 
gravity supply which would give from 25 to 30 lbs. on 
Main street. The discharge mains from pumping station 
are two in number, 18 inches and 16 inches in diameter, 
laid to centre of distribution on St. George street and 
both along separate routes. 

The population of Moncton, when the water works 
were first constructed was about 5,000. Since then the 
system has increased from a storage reservoir of 35,000,000 
gallons, with about 7 miles of leading and distribution 
mains, to a system of 550,000,000 gallons, with 38}4 
miles of leading and distribution mains, the population 
now being over 20,000. The daily consumptions averages 
3,000,000 gallons, the largest consumer being the C. N. 
Railway. 

On the completion of Mr. Edington's paper, the 
Chairman introduced Edward Holgate, chief engineer 
of the MacKinnon Bridge Co., of Sherbrooke, P.Q. 
Mr. Holgate, who is in charge of the designing and 
erection of the new skating rink at Sunny Brae, spoke 
briefly on the unique features in connection with this 
structure. 

The ground plan is a circle 200 ft. in diameter; 
the roof is a truneated cone of 45% pitch, composed of 
16 rafters resting on 16 columns. 

The tension at the line of the eaves, he explained, 
is taken up by a heavy steel plate corresponding to the 
rim of a wheel, and an equal and opposite compression 
force is resisted by seven circular lines of purlins designed 
to take compression. 

The rafters themselves are compression members 
only. Mr. Holgate gave other interesting details, intro- 
duced to provide for concentrated uneven loading. He 
also outlined his very interesting method of erection. 

After considerable discussion by the members, the 
Chairman in tendering a vote of thanks and appreciation 
to Mr. Holgate, for his very interesting address, given 
on such short notice, expressed the wish that we could 
have the pleasure of listening to another address from 
Mr. Holgate in the very near future, when he would 
have a longer period to prepare it. 

Cape Breton Branch 

Kenneth G. Cameron, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treasurer. 

A regular monthly meeting of the Branch was held 
at the Bank of Commerce rooms, on Thursday, February 
9th. 

In the absence of the Chairman of the Branch, the 
meeting was presided over by Horace Longley, M.E.I.C., 



who called upon Geo. D. Macdougall, M.E.I.C., chief 
engineer of the British Empire Steel Corporation, to read 
his paper on "Shipbuilding". 

Mr. Macdougall, who had made a special trip from 
New Glasgow, said that, owing to short notice and hasty 
preparation, his paper was in a somewhat incomplete 
condition. He gave a brief historical sketch of the 
development of shipbuilding from the earliest recorded 
vessel, — the Ark, whose dimensions, he stated, were 
quite in accordance with present day practice, to the 
modern ocean going cargo boat. His paper dealt more 
particularly with the latter type of vessel, which repre- 
sented by far the most important and most numerous 
class afloat. 

Recalling the prominent part which Nova Scotia, as 
a Maritime Province, had always taken in Canadian 
shipbuilding, Mr. Macdougall told of the origin of the 
New Glasgow and Halifax Yards, and the difficulties 
which had to be overcome, difficulties which had taxed 
the ingenuity of those responsible, and demonstrated the 
capabilities of the ordinary machinist and mechanic, to 
whom great credit was due for their share in the develop- 
ment of a new industry. Most of the vessels built at 
the New Glasgow yard during the war had been framed, 
engined, and, with a few small exceptions, such as wireless, 
fitted completely with local labour, with local material. 

Enlarging on this side of the question, Mr. Mac- 
dougall, without going into the strictly technical side, 
described in more detail how these two yards had over- 
come the problems with which they had been confronted, 
those in charge drawing on the resources of the allied 
companies. In concluding he expressed the opinion that 
the people of Nova Scotia would do well to devote more 
thought to the matter of shipbuilding, and to sustaining 
the province in the premier position which it has always 
taken, it being the oldest and most essentially maritime 
province in the Dominion. He further undertook to 
deal with the more technical side of the question in an 
addition to his paper, to be presented at a later date. 

Following the reading of the paper, numerous ques- 
tions were asked. In reply to Mr. Longley, Mr. Mac- 
dougall said that there was one boat afloat which was 
electric welded throughout, but it had not been long 
enough in service to have been accepted by Lloyd's. 
Oxy-acetylene was permitted only for cutting, — all 
welding must be electric. In reply to K. H. Marsh, 
M.E.I.C, as to the percentage of plates requiring to be 
laid off in the mould loft, and as to the value of geared 
turbine drives, Mr. Macdougall said that only plates 
which had to be formed required to be laid off, most of 
the deck and seventy-five percent of the hull of the 
regular cargo boat was not formed. The only example 
of geared turbine propulsion turned out from their 
yards was the War Wasp, New Glasgow, 1917, which 
was still in service, although torpedoed twice, and she 
had given satisfaction. 

On the motion of K. H. Marsh, M.E.I.C, seconded 
by D. F. Maclsaac, A.M.E.I.C, Mr. Macdougall was 
accorded a hearty vote of thanks for his paper. 

The Chairman then called upon the Secretary to 
report on the Annual Meeting and the Branch Secretarial 
Conference. The Secretary outlined the origin of the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



177 



conference, and, reading in part from the minutes, gave 
a detailed account of the work dealt with and the con- 
clusions arrived at. At the close of his report, the 
following motion by J. H. Fraser, A.M.E.I.C., seconded 
by I. W. Buckley, A.M.E.I.C., was carried unanimously: 
"The Cape Breton Branch, situated in the most 
Easterly extremity of the Dominion, does endorse and 
appreciate the work of the Branch Secretarial Conference, 
and the opportunity afforded thereby for co-operation 
and advancement, and suggests and strongly recommends 
to Council that a similar conference of all Branch Secre- 
taries throughout the Dominion, be held annually at the 
time of the annual general meeting of The Institute, and 
that Council should set aside a sufficient appropriation 
to cover the cost of such meeting." 

Halifax Branch 

0. S. Cox, A.M.E.I.C., Secretary-Treasurer. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Branch was 
held in the Nova Scotia Technical College at 8 P.M., 
Jan. 17th. C. St. J. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C, read a paper 
on some construction problems encountered in local 
buildings taking for his subject three buildings recently 
reported on and strengthened under the supervision of 
the firm of Pickings and Roland of which firm Mr. Wilson 
is a member. 

Building No. 1 is 45' x 60' in plan and four stories high, 
the two upper stories having been added at a later date. 
This building is at present used for warehouse purposes 
except the ground floor and part of the second floor 
which are used for show rooms and offices respectively. 
The live load would average from 75 lbs. per square foot 
to 100 lbs. per square foot. The third and fourth floor 
joists 3 x 12 spruce, 16" cts. on spans of 16'-0", 18'-0", 
19'-0" and 25'-0" are good for from 69 lbs. per square 
foot to 126 lbs. per square foot total safe load at 900 
lbs. per square inch allowable bending stress. The ori- 
ginal girders of the third floor consisted of four 2\i x 12 
planks. When the additional stories were added the 
joists of the third floor were dapped down seven inches 
and an additional girder eight inches deep inserted above 
the old girders, these new girders being continuous over 
the centre support. By equating the deflections of the 
different girders, Mr. Wilson determined the proportion 
of the load carried by each beam and found that for an 
assumed live load of 40 lbs. per square foot (less than 
that called for in the design of an ordinary residence 
by the Halifax building code) the spruce timbers were 
stressed as high as 2950 lbs. per square inch in bending 
and to 311 lbs. per square inch in horizontal shear. For 
the same loading the main girder at the second floor 
carrying the second floor columns was stressed to 3440 
lbs. per square inch in bending and 447 lbs. per square 
inch in horizontal shear. This girder was built up of . 
four 3 x 12 spruce planks continuous over three spans 
of 20'-0", 6'-9" and 16'-0". 

Building No. 2 used entirely for warehouse purposes 
had reinforced concrete walls and is L shaped in plan. 
The second floor is carried by 20" I beams at 80 lbs. 
about 14'-0" centres and 33'-0" span. The third and 
fourth floors and roof are carried by timber girders and 



columns resting about the third points of the 20 I beams. 
The loading in this building is extremely heavy and the 
building should be designed for from 250 lbs. to 300 lbs. 
per square foot. Assuming a roof load of 50 lbs. per 
square foot and a total floor load on each floor of 60 lbs. 
per square foot, these I beams would be stressed to 
30,200 lbs. per square inch. One spruce beam in this 
building assuming the same loading is above and neglect- 
ing a portion of the elevator load which the beam carried, 
was stressed to 5830 lbs. per square inch in bending and 
238 lbs. per square inch in horizontal shear. This beam 
had deflected over three inches. 

Building No. 3 was also a warehouse building carrying 
the same loads as building No. 2. The joists in this 
building were limited by horizontal shear and were good 
for a safe load of 224 lbs. per square foot. The girders 
of 8 x 12 hard pine were also limited by horizontal shear 
and were safe for 78 lbs. per square foot or only about 
one third of the capacity of the joists. In one portion 
of this building, in order to provide a driveway on the 
ground floor, one column was removed and a trussed 
beam inserted to take its place. This beam consisted 
of an 8 x 12 spruce beam, and two-134 inch diameter 
rods with turn buckles. Assuming a 50 lbs. per square 
foot roof load and floor loads of 60 lbs. per square foot 
total load, these rods were stressed to 48,500 lbs. per 
square inch at the root of the threads. 

Mr. Wilson pointed out several other very highly 
stressed members and condemned the present method 
of building construction, stringly advocating the insist - 
ance on technical supervision by the City authorities 
and the revision of the present Engineering Act in Nova 
Scotia which limits the cost of engineering work which 
must be designed by a registered engineer to work, costing 
over $25,000.00. He pointed out that a local contractor 
had prepared sketches for the strengthening of building 
number one, taking care of only a small portion of the 
defects and had offered to do the work for twice the 
amount expended under the final plans. The total 
cost of strengthening buildings numbers 2 and 3 was 
under four thousand dollars, and it was not necessary, 
under the Nova Scotia Act, to have the plans prepared 
by a registered engineer. 

Considerable interesting discussion followed the read- 
ing of Mr. Wilson's paper, after which three moving 
picture films from the Exhibits and Publicity Bureau at 
Ottawa were shown, depicting various Canadian indus- 
tries and natural resources. 

Town Planning Notes and Comments 

Horace L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C. 

Note: — In order to make this column of wide 
interest to members of The Institute, perso7ials and 
items of town planning interest will be appreciated. 
Address: Horace L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C, \0 Jarvis 
Street, Toronto. 

Review of E.I.C. Branch Activities in Town Planning 
for 1921. 

In the February issue, 1922 of The Journal, of the 
E.I.C, there will be found reports of the Branches. 
Interest in Town Planning is evidenced by a study of 
these reports. 



178 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Vancouver Branch 

On February 9th., the Vancouver Branch held a 
luncheon; the subject of the address was "Town Panning" 
and was delivered by Thos. Adams, F.S.I. It might be 
mentioned that under recent Provincial legislation, Point 
Grey, adjoining the City of Vancouver, is it is understood, 
intending to prepare zoning maps and ordinances. Var- 
ious use zones will be prescribed and building lines esta- 
blished. 

Winnipeg Branch 

On Nov. 16th., the Winnipeg Branch were addressed 
by Capt. W. E. Hobbs, A.M.E.I.C, on the subject of 
"Town Planning". The Branch report also states that 
Capt. Hobbs was appointed Commissioner of Town Plan- 
ning for the Province. The administration of the 1916 
Town Planning Act (Manitoba) is in good hands. It is 
understood that many applications have already been 
received from owners of land and municipalities, who 
have now under the provisions of the Act, to submit plans 
of subdivisions, to the town planning comptroller. Now 
that an official has been appointed to administer Town 
Planning legislation it is to be hoped that the advance 
in town planning in Manitoba will be as marked as in 
the Province of Saskatchewan, which has had a director 
of town planning for some time. The present director 
is W. A. Begg, A.M.E.I.C, Regina, Sask. 

Sault St. Marie Branch 

An extract from the report of the Sault Ste. Marie 
Branch, F. Theo. Gnaedinger, A.M.E.I.C, Secretary, 
reads as follows: 

"A Committee on Town Planning has been 
formed for the purpose of studying Town Plan- 
ning principles and legislation particularly with 
reference to their application to the City of Sault 
Ste. Marie. It is our intention to stimulate 
public interest in the Sault in a City Planning 
movement. Already we have secured the pro- 
mise of co-operation and support from an umber 
of local public bodies." 

Border Cities Branch 
On May 13th., J. Clark Keith, A.M.E.I.C, addressed 
the Border Cities Branch on "Park Scheme for the Border 
Cities". As engineer to the Essex Border Utilities 
Commission, Mr. Keith has taken great interest in Town 
Planning matters. Maps are being prepared of areas 
under his jurisdiction and these will form the basis for 
town planning development. Mr. Keith evidently re- 
cognizes the fact that a municipal engineer must keep 
in touch with Town Planning matters. 

Hamilton Branch 

A portion of the Hamilton Branch Report reads as 
follows: 

"March 23rd. "Town Planning" — J. W. 
Tyrrell, M.E.I.C, delegate to the Toronto 
Convention, gave his report, J. J. Mackay, 
O.L.S., M.E.I.C, a member of the Town Plan- 
ning Commission and the Wentworth Road Com- 
mission, spoke on Road and Boulevards, and 
what they mean to Hamilton. This was pub- 
lished in The Journal for August, p-470." 
The Toronto Convention referred to, was that of the 
Ontario Town Planning and Housing Conference. This 
Conference recently requested the Ontario Government 
to codify legislation in regard to Town Planning at present 
scattered through various Acts. 

Interest in Town Planning in Hamilton has been 
furthered by the presence of such members of The Institute 



as J. W. Tyrrell and J. J. Mackay. Noulan Cauchon, 
A.M.E.I.C, consulting town planning engineer of 
Ottawa, has laid out for Hamilton a scheme of mountain 
roadways, part of which was already been constructed. 
The City of Hamilton is also interested in the railway 
situation and in harbour improvement, for both of which 
studies and reports have been made. 

Halifax Branch 

On December 9th., Mr. H. W. Johnson, assistant 
city engineer, presented a paper on Town Planning. 
Mr. Johnson was able to refer to the work of Town Plan- 
ning in the City of Halifax, made necessary by the disast- 
rous explosion in 1917. Mr. Johnson has always taken 
a keen interest in Town Planning matters. 

The foregoing are some of the items gleaned from 
the Branch reports. Undoubtedly, some other Branches 
are also interested in Town Planning, although nothing 
appears in the Annual Report. For example the Toronto 
Branch which last year appointed a Committee on Zoning, 
this year appointed a representative to meet with a Com- 
mittee from the Downtown Association of Toronto in 
furtherance of civic improvement. 

High Buildings for London, England 

Up to the present the Town Planner on this continent 
has been able to point to Europe for desirable examples 
in the control of the height of buildings. Sky scrapers 
have been shown to be economically unsound — that 
in cities where sky scrapers are built, the return on the 
investment may be lower than two percent; sky scrapers 
are unhealthy, cutting off light and air; sky scrapers cause 
undesirable congestion in street traffic. These arguments, 
the town planner urged, and pointed with considerable 
pleasure to, for example, the London Building Act, which 
limites the height of buildings to 80 feet above the street 
level. There is an agitation now that this limit should 
be changed to 120 feet and further, that where buildings 
face Parks or open spaces, buildings even to 150 feet 
high should be permitted. 

The London County Council Committee has reported 
against the change but the agitation still continues. For 
ordinary conditions in our average Canadian cities, the 
writer believes that a safe rule to adopt is that which 
limits the height of the building to the width of the street. 

French Course on City Planning. 

Interest in Town Planning education is growing. 
Regular courses in certain phases of Town Planning are 
being given in some Universities in the United States 
and England. A two year course of study has been pre- 
pared for the School of Advanced Municipal Research, 
Paris, and was organized by The Institute of Urban 
History, Geography and Economics of the City of Paris. 
As stated, the course has to do with the planning, beau- 
tification, and extension of cities, and their administration 
economic, and social organization. The course is intended 
for students with a purely scientific interest; for architects 
and engineers offered a career by the provisions of the 
French Compulsory City Planning Law, and the public 
in General. The four principal courses are outlined in 
"Housing Betterment," for January, 1922: 

1. Evolution of Cities— "The City considered as 
a living organism evolving in time and in space". 

2. Social Organization of Cities — With Conferen- 
ces on "Municipal Ownership in France and Abroad" 
and the "Hygiene of Housing". 

3. Administrative Organization of Cities — With 
Conferences on "Urban Legislation of Tomorrow." 

4. Urban Art. — With Conferences on the "Art of 
the Municipal Engineer." 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



179 



Preliminary Notice 

of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



18th February 1922 

The By-laws now provide that the Council of the Institute shall 
approve, classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer 
from one grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate member 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of his 
references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list 
submitted herewith and to report promptly to Secretary any facta 
which may affect the classification and election of any of the candidates. 
In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known to any 
member, such member is specially invited to make a definite recom- 
mendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 

The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
March, 1922. 

Fraser S. Keith, Secretary. 

♦The professional requirements are as follows: — 

Every candidate for election as MEMBER must be at least thirty years of age, 
and must have been encaged in some branch of engineering for at least twelve years, 
which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office 
or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized bv the Council. The 
term of twelve years may, at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years 
in the case of a candidate who has graduated in an engineering course. In even' case 
the candidate must have had responsible charge of work for at least five year3. and this 
not merely as a skilled workman, but as an engineer qualified to design and direct 
engineering works. 

Every candidate for election as an ASSOCIATE MEMBER must be at least 
twenty-five years of age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering 
for at least six years, which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified 
engineers' offioe, or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by 
the Council In every case the candidate must have held a position of professional 
responsibility, in charge of work as principal or assistant, for at least two years. _ 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, shall be required to pass an examination before a Board of Examiners 
appointed by the Council, on the theory and practice of engineering, and especially 
in one of the following branches at his option, Railway, Municipal, Hydraulic, 
Mechanical, Mining or Electrical Engineering. 

This examination may be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidat. 
has held a position of professional responsibility for five years or more years. 

Every candidate for election as JUNIOR shall be at least twenty-one years oe 
age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least four vearsf 
This period may be reduced to one year, at the discretion of the Council, if the candidate 
is a graduate of some school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not 
Jemain in the class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the first year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in the following subjects. Geography. History 
(that of Canada in particular), Arithmetic. Geometry Euclid (Books I. -IV. and VI.), 
Trigonometry, Algebra up to and including quadratic equations 

Every candidate for election as ASSOCIATE shall be one who by his pursuits 
cientific acquirements, or practical experience is qualified to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names 
of certain members as references does not 
necessarily mean that their applications 
are endorsed by such members. 



FOR "ADMISSION 

ALDER— WILLIAM 'ROBERT, of Cornwall, Ont. Born at Prescott, Ont., 
Aug 14th, 1886; Educ, B.Sc., Queen's Univ. 1907; 1907 (2 mos). dftsman., Delora 
Mining & Reduction Co., Deloro. Ont.; 1907-08. chemist in charge of ore analysis, 
Bessemer Iron Mine for Munecal Range Iron Mining Co.; 1908 (3 mos), on magnet- 
ometric surveys of iron properties, Hastings Co., for Canada Iron Corpn.; 1908-09, 
chief chemist, Manufacturer's Corundum Co. at Craigmont mill; 1911-13. asst. engr. 
during reconstrn. of Kingston & Pembroke Rly; 1913-14, mtce., of way engr'g. staff, 
dist. Nn. 1. Ont. Divn., C.P.R.; Aug. 1919 to date, on eng'g., staff, Dept. Public High- 
ways of Ontario, as asst. res. engr., at Cornwall, in charge of survey parties and direct- 
ing road and culvert constrn. 

References: F. Stidwell, J. G. Cameron, G. Hogarth, H.T. Routly, J.B.Wilkinson. 



ALDOUS— HERBERT, of 606 Manning Avenue, Toronto, Ont. Born at Wat- 
ford. Herts., England, Sept. 15th, 1893; Educ. London College of Munic. and Sanitary 
Engr'g., 1915; 1919-21, large public works contract, Norwich, England, including brick 
and reinforced concrete bldgs., sewers, drains, water mains, new road, water softenin;g 
1921, inspr., Ont. Dept. Public Highways. Not employed at present. 

References: W. A. McLean, R. O. Wynne-Roberts, W. Storrie, G. T. Clark, 
F. B. Goedike, W. R. Worthington. 

AMES— ARTHUR JOHN, of 184 Centre Street. Ottawa, Ont. Born at London. 
England. Sept. 25th, 1880; Educ, City of London College, London .England. 4 
years special training under Frank C. Watts, senior partner, E. R. Watts & Son, 
Surveying and Scientific Instrument Mfrs., London, England; 7 yeras, sales engr., 

E. R. Watts & Sons, London, and 9 years, managing director, E. R. Watts & Son, 
Canada, Ltd., in full charge of the Canadian Business now known as "Instruments 
Limited. 

References: G. B. Dodge, N. J. Ogilvie, J. L. Rannie, O. S. Finnie, F. G. Smith, 

F. S. Keith. 

ARNOLD— NORMAN JOHN, of 722-6th Avenue West. Calgary, Alta. Born 
at London, England, .Ian. 1st, 1891; 1908, rodman and leveller, C.P.R location; 
1910, instr'man., mtce. of wav. G.T.P. ; 1911, constrn , C.P.R. Transcona; 1912, 
instr'man. in charge of track laying, G.T.P.; 1912, rodman, C.P.R., D.N.R.; 1913-14, 
instr'man and dftsman., irrigation branch, Dept. of the Interior; instr'man. Can. 
Land and Irrigation Co., Medicine Hat, Alta.; At present, Instr'man., Lethbridge 
Northen Irrigation District, Lethbridge. 

References: C. M. Arnold, P. M. Sauder, F. M. Wood, G. N. Houston, F. K. 
Beach. 

BAIRD— ALBERT FOSTER, of Fredericton, N.B. Born at Salmon Creek, 
N.B., Dec. 6th. 1891; Educ, B.Sc. 1914, M.Sc 1917, Univ. of N.B. ; Student ap'ticeship 
course, Can Westinghouse Con., Hamilton, duringvacations; 1915-16, instructorin phy- 
sics, Kansas State College; instructor in physics, Macdonald College. Ste. Anne de 
Bellevue; 1916-19, acting professor of mech engr'g., Univ. of N.B 3 years and 2 mos. 
in charge of this dept.; Summer 1920, engr'g. office, Northern Electric Co., Montreal; 
1920 to date, professor of physics and electrical engr'g., Univ. of New Brunswick, 
Fredericton, N.B. 

References: E. O. Turner, J. A. Stiles, F. P. Vaughan, C. O. Foss, B. M. Hill, 
T. W. Lesage. 

BOCKUS— GERALD LETHWYN, of 26-A Wolfe Street, Sherbrooke, Que. 
Born at Mystic, Que.. Sept. 21st. 1885: Educ, I.C.S. elec engr'g., 1907; Served ap'ti- 
ceship and later in elect'l dept. (power plant division), Hartfoid Street Rly. Co.; 
1906. inspr. of plant equipment, elecdept., Montreal Locomotive Works: 1907-09 
foreman, Shawinigan Water & Power; 1909-11, travelling salesman; 1911-12, 
supt., elec dept., Canada Paper Co ; 1912-14, erecting engr., Canadian Westinghouse 
Co.; 1914-15. plant engr., McCormick Mfg. Co., London, Ont.; 1915-16, erecting 
engr., Canadian Westinghouse Co.; 1916-17, in charge of power house and elect'l. 
equipment, McGill University; 191S to date, supt. of power, City of Sherbrooke, 
Que. 

References: C. J. Desbaillets, H. Holgate, L. A. Herdt, R. S. Kelsch, J. M. Robert- 
son, J. C. Smith, M. A. Sammett, F. Thomson, T. Tremblay. 

BOYD— JOHN WILLIAM GAMBLE, of 35 Elgin Avenue, Toronto, Ont. 
Born at Teddington, England, Feb 10th, 1897; Educ, Toronto Technical School (elec. 
engr'g.); 1916-18, overseas. Flight Lieut., R.F.C.; 1918 (Aug. Nov.), 1st. asst., tech. 
dept., Canadian Aeroplanes; 1919-1920, organized and in charge of repair dept., 
( !an. Gen. Elec Co., Toronto. Asst. to supply dept. engr.. Lamp Base Works (C.G.E. 
Factory); Completed survey with Northern Development Branch in October 1921. 

References: C. H. Fullerton, M. B. Watson, R. O. Wynne-Roberts, J. C. Meader, 
W. Storrie. 

BRABAZON— CLAUDE HUGH, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Portage du Fort, 
Que., Oct 18th, 1886; 1905-06, asst. in charge of sub party on Alaska Boundary 
Survey; 1907-08, in charge of sub party on Yukon Boundary: 1909-13. Maine and N.B. 
Boundary; 1914 to date, engr., in charge of primary triangulation party, Maritine 
Provinces, for Geodetic Survey of Canada, Dept. of the Interior, Ottawa. 

References: J. J McArthur, N. J. Ogilvie, J. D. Craig, W. M. Tobey, F. B. Reid, 
D. H. Nelle3, C. R. Coutlee, A. M. Grant. 

CANNIFF— STANLEY W, of 6 Second Avenue, Ottawa, Ont. Born at Na- 
panee, Ont., Aug. 27th, 1885: Educ, Senior Matric, Napanee Collegiate Institute. 
I.C.S. ; 14 years with the Can. Gen. Elec Co as follows — 4 years course in elec. engr's. 
Peterboro, 2 years supt. of transformer testing dept., Peterboro, 4 years in engineering 
dept., designing direct current machines, transformers and station layouts, 2 years 
asst. supply dept. engr., Toronto, and 2 years in the sales dept., Toronto; 7 years 
to date, test engr., Ottawa Hydro-Electric Commission, Ottawa. 



References: J. E. Brown, P. L. Allison, 
Thompson, A. B. Lambe. 



C. E. Sisson, L. De W. Magie, J. H. 



180 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



CLARK— FRANK JAMES, of 212-llth Street South, Lethbridge, Alta. Born 
at Amherst. N.S., March 31st, 1889; Educ, 2 years McGi!! Univ ; 1906, with Mountain 
& Milling Co., Isaac's Harbour, N.S.; 1906-12, with G.T.P. Rly., 1910-12 in charge 
of concrete and timber bridges on mountain divn. west of Edmonton, Alta.; 1912- 
14, in charge of work on E.D. & B.C. Rly at Mirror Landing and High Prairie, Alta.; 
1914-19, overseas; 1920 to date, res. engr., Lethbridge Northern Irrigation District. 
Lethbridge. 

References: H. B. Muckleston, C. M. Arnold, R. J. Gibb, F. S. Dyke, P. M. 
Sauder. 

CUNHA— STANLEY HERBERT, of Montreal, Que. Born at Kingston, Jamai- 
ca. B.W.I. , Feb. loth, 1882; Educ, B.Sc McGill Univ. 1905; 1899-1901, ap'tice, 
Royal Naval Dockyards, Port Royal; Jamaica; 1900-07, test dept., General Electric 
Co., Schenectady; 1907-09, Jamaica Co., central factory work; 1909-12, test dept., 
and from 1912 to date, engineering dept., Montreal Light Heat & Power Co., Montreal. 
At present, elect'l. engr. 

References: R. M. Wilson, E. J. Turley, L. A. Kenyon, A. Wilson, W. D. Walcott. 

DOGHERTY— ALEX. CHARLES, of Montreal, Que. Born at Montreal, 
Sept. 6th. 1891: Educ, I.C.S. elec. engr'g.; 1908-10, shops, offices and dfting room, 

'hern Electric and Mfg. Co.; 1910-11. dftsman and switchboard erection, Allis- 
Chalmers Bullock. Roekfield, Que.; 1911-13, dftsman. and asst. engr. and 1913-14, 
elec. engr., T. Pringle & Son Ltd., Montreal: 1914-15, designed and supervised constrn. 
pumping and elect'l. equipment for the Corby Distillery Co. Ltd., Corbyville, Ont.; 
1915-17. overseas; 1917 (May-Dec), res. engr. on hydro-elec development for Penman's 
Ltd., Coaticook, Que. under T. Pringle & Son; 1918, elec engr., with Wayagamurk 
Pulp & Paper Co., Three Rivers, Que.; Jan. 1919 to date, elect'l. and mechanical 
engr., T. Pringle & Son Ltd., Montreal. 

References: J. S. Costigan, G. M. Wynn, A. H. Milne, P. 0. G. Janes, A. Pringle. 

DOW — JOHN, of Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Whitehouse, Aberdeenshire, Scot- 
land, May 6th, 1879; Educ elec engr's. course, Robert Gordon's College, 1903-04. 
Special engr'g. course (9 mos.), Automatic Electric Co., Chicago, 111.: 1904-09. served 
ap'ticeship. in all branches of telephone engr'g., National Telephone Co.; 1909-12, 
install'n. of automatic telephone switchboards etc, Automatic Electric Coy., Chicago, 
111.; 1912 to date with Alberta Govt. Telephones, at present plant chief. 

References: S. G. Porter, C. M. Arnold, C. D. MacKintosh, G. N. Houston, 
H. W. Meech. 

DRYBROUGH— JOHN, of 14 Charles Street East, Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Leith, Scotland, Aug. oth, 1896; Educ: At present in 4th, year. Faculty Applied 
Science, Univ. of Toronto; 1913-15. asst. chemist, Mond Nickel Co. Ltd., Coniston, 
Ont.; 1916-10, overseas; 1920 (May-Aug.1, British American Nickel Corpn., Nickelton, 
Ont.; 1921 (May-Sept.), asst, Can. Geol. survey party. 

References: C. H. Mitchell, C. R. Young, H. E. T. Haultain, P. Gillespie, J. R. 
Cockburn. 

ELLIS— OWEN WILLIAM, of 539 Church Street, Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Swindon. England, Sept. 22nd, 1888; Educ:. B.Sc. 1914, M.Se. 1917, Birmingham Univ. ; 
Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 1915; 1905-10, ap'tice, Gt. Western Rly. Locomotive Works, 
Swindon, England; 1910, machinist, and 1910-11, educational instructor (under 
supervisor of apprentices), C.P.R. Angus shops, Montreal; 1914-15, supervisor (asst. 
to mgr.), 1915-16. prin. asst. metallurgist, and 1916-21, metallurgist. Royal Labor- 
atory Dept., Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, England; At present, lecturer on metallography 
and on iron and steel, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto. Also consltg. metallurgical 
engineer. 

References: C. H. Mitchell, H. E. T. Haultain, A. Stansfield, P. B. Roberts, 
J. Griffith, W. J. Smither, C. R. Young, P. Gillespie. 

FIELD— REGINALD HUGH, of 12 Rockcliffe Way, Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
Rotherfield, Sussex, England, Jan. 11th, 1890; Educ. 1st class cert., Univ. ofLiverpool, 
1913; 1906-10 and during vacations premium ap'tice. London & North Western 
Rly., England; 1913 (2 mos.). dftsman., Dom. Bridge Co.. Lachine; 1913-14, inspr. 
for the Can. Inspecting and Testing Laboratories; 1914 to date, at the Surveys Labor- 
atory, Dept. Interior, Ottawa, examining, testing, adjusting and reporting on various 
engineering instruments etc., under direction of W.C. Way. 

References: W. C. Way, J. L. Rannie, S. W. Perrott, E. M. Dennis, G. B. Dodge, 
H. A. Dupre. 

HENDERSON— MELVILLE GRANT, 533-7th Street South, Lethbridge, Alta. 
Born at Tara, Ont., Sept. 27th, 1895; Educ, B.A.Sc Univ of Toronto. 1920; 1916-19, 
overseas, C.F.A.; 5 mos., rly. surveys; 4 mos., constrn. of hydro-elec, dam at Eugenia, 
Ont.; 4 mis , shell manufacture, 1915: 1921 (5 mos), field office work and instrument 
work, Lethbridge Northern Irrigation District, Lethbridge, Alta. 

References: L. M. Arkley, P. Gillespie, P. M. Sauder, F. S. Dyke, H. B Muckle- 
ston. 

BILLIARD— GEORGE FREDERICK HERBERT, of Lethbridge, Alta. 
Born at Minnedosa, Man., March 13th, 1888; Educ, Grad. R M. C Kingston, 1908; 
1908, topog'r., Militia Dept.; 1909, prospecting, Gowganda and Northern Ontario; 
1910, topog'r., Militia Dept.; 1910-11, leveller, prelim, and location survey, 1911-12, 
instr'man. on constr'n., Algoma Central & Hudson Bay Rly.; 1913-15, asst. engr. to 
city engr., Peterborough, Ont.; 1915-19, overseas, C.F.A.; April 1920 to date, res. 
engr., Lethbridge Northern Irrigation District. 

References: R. H. Parsons, H. B. Muckleston, C. M. Arnold, P. M. Sauder, F, S. 
Dyke. 



LACKYER— RICHARD HENRY NORMAN, of Bonnington Falls, B.C. 
Born at Vancouver, B.C., Nov. 5th, 1893; Educ , 3 years science, McGill Univ. Master 
of Electricity, State of West Va. Univ., 1914; 5 years, in charge of elec install'n. 
in connection with the Hudson's Bay new store, Vancouver; 1915-18, in charge of the 
install'n. and operation of 20,000 horse power plant for the Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Co., Trail, B.C.; 1918-21, in charge of the West Kootenay Power & Light 
Co's. interests at Trail, B.C.; May 1921 to date, asst. supt. of the West Kootenay 
Power & Light Co's. generating actions, Trail, B.C. 

References: B. R. Warden, A. E. Wright, T. H. Tracy, A. Walkem, T. W. Fair- 
hurst. 

LESSARD— C. CAMILLE, of 1 Avenue Jacques Cartier, Quebec, Que. Born 
at Quebec, Que., Sept. 26th, 1889; Educ, B.S.A. and C.E., Laval Univ. 1911; During 
College vacations, rodman etc., on location and constrn., T.C.Rly., and junior asst. 
on staff of A R. Deary, Dept. P.W. Canada, Quebec,; 1911-15, asst. to the district 
engrs., Dept. P.W. Canada, Quebec; 1915-17, city engr., Levis, Que.; 1917-19. engr. 
for the town of Bienville, Que.; 1919 to date, in private practice with C. E. Gauvin, 
C.E., Quebec, Que. (During winter 1922, asst. to chief engr., I. E. Vallee, Public 
Works and Labour, Quebec. 

References: A. R. Decary, C. E. Gauvin, I. E. Vallee, A. B. Normandin, J A. 
Buteau, E. S. T. Lavigne, J. N. H. Cimon, F. B. Painchaud. 

MACFARLANE— ATHOL HERRIDGE, of Baghdad, Mesopotamia. Born 
at Ottawa. Out.. 1891; Educ, 3 years S.P.S. Univ. of Toronto; 1906, Yukon Govt. 
Survey; 1907, road constrn.. Y.T.; 1908, firing, operating and constrn. foreman, Joe 
Burke Mining Co., Y.T.; 1909, electrician. Guggenheims. Y.T.; 1910, electrician, con- 
structional foreman, Northern Light Power Co. — Bonanza Basin Gold Dredging 
Co. — North Fork Power Co., Y.T.; 1911-12, constructional engr. (elec) Bonanza 
Basin Gold Dredging Co.; 1913, B.C. Electric Co., Victoria, B.C.; 1913, Canadian Col- 
lienie (D) Ltd., in charge elect'l install'ns. No. 4, Vancouver Island; 1914. bridge 
inspr., Sask. Govt.; 1915-19, overseas. Awarded M.C.; 1919-20, elec. and mech. 
surveyor for D.S.C.R., Vancouver; 1920 to date, asst. director of irrigation, Baghdad, 
Mesopotamia. 

References: G. B. Hull, H. D. St.A. Smith, L. W. Klingner, H. C. Lott, H. S. 
Carpenter. 

MARSHALL— NATHANIEL, P. O. Box 307, Lethbridge, Alta. Born at 
Belfast, Ireland, Oct. 25th, 1862; Educ, 6 years ap'ticeship to engr'g.. at same time 
attending night classes at Technical School. 1st class cert. British Board of Trade, 
1888; sailed as 3rd. 2nd, and 1st engr., in various ships; 10 years and 3 mos., engr. 
surveyor, under Lloyds Rules; 1906-07, machinist and inspr., C.N.R.; 1908 (6 mos.), 
master mechanic, Hillcrest Collieries Ltd.; 1908 to date, inspr. of boilers, Alberta Govt., 
Lethbridge, Alta. 

References: G. N. Houston, S. G. Porter, H. W. Meech, C. D. MacKintosh, 
P. M. Sauder. 

MrLEAN— HENRY JOHN GISBORNE, of Brantford, Ont. Born at Brant- 
ford, June Oth, 1888. Educ, I.C.S. ; 1904-08, ap'ticeship in factory and drawing office, 
1908-10, in drawing office, and 1910-15, chief dftsman., Waterous Engine Works Co. 
Ltd. Brantford; 1915-19, overseas, Major, Awarded M.C.; 1919-20, deputy 
asst. director, Eastern Ontario Dept. S.C.R.; 1920-21, paper making machinery and 
hydraulic turbines, Dominion Engr'g. Works; At present assisting in the local division 
Court House. 

References: G. E. Bell, G. B. Hughes, C. A. Waterous, C. D. Collins, D. G. Anglin, 
II. E. Bates, F. C. D. Wilkes. 

MITCHELL— FRANK LESLIE, of Iroquois Falls, Ont. Born at Jamaica, 
B.W.I., June 21st, 1894; Educ. B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1921; Summer 1914 on survey 
for H.E.P.C, of Ont. at Chippawa; 1915-19, overseas. Lieut. Can Engrs.; 1919 (4 mos.) 
and 1920 (5 mos.), chemist in charge of manufacture of cane sugar in the British 
Westlndies; June 1921 to date, research dept., service divn., Abitibi Power & Paper 
Co., Iroquois Falls, Ont. 

References: C M. McKergow, H. M. MacKay, H. M. Lamb, L. E. Kendall, H. G. 
Acres, W. G. Mitchell. 

MOFFAT— WILLIAM JEFFREY, of Regina, Sask. Born at Pembroke, Ont., 
Feb. 15th. 1887; Educ, Grad. R.M.C. Kingston, 1907; 1908, engr., Nipigon Constrn. 
Co., 1909-10. instr'man. on constrn., N.T.C Rly.; 1910-11, instr'man. on location, 
H. B. Rly.; 1911-15, res' engr., H.B.Rly.; 1915-19, overseas; 1921 to date, asst. engr., 
dept. of highways, Regina, Sask. 

References: H. S. Carpenter, J. W. Porter, G. L. Guy, H. R. MacKenzie, J. 
Armstrong, A. M. Macgillivray, T. B. Campbell, F. P. Moffat. 

NASH— JAMES CUNDIFF, of 105 Mountain Park Avenue, Hamilton, Ont. 
Born at St. Joseph, Mo., U.S.A., Dee. 14th, 1886; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 
1912; 1912 (Mav-Oct.), engr'g. ap'ticeship. course, Can. Westinghouse Co., and 
from Oct. 1912 to Mar. 1913, dftsman for same firm; 1913-15, and 1919 (June-Dec), 
from record clerk to asst. engr.. Hamilton Hydro-Electric System; 1915-19, electrician, 
with mechanical transport, C.E.F.; 1919 to date, elec. dftsman., Canadian Westing- 
house Co., Hamilton, Ont. 

References: H. U. Hart, W. F. McLaren, H. B. Dwight, E. R. Gray, S. A. Cura- 
miford, M. B. Watson. 

NICHOLSON— THOMAS HERBERT, of 170 Laurier Avenue West, Montreal, 
Que. Born at Dumfries, Scotland, April 12th, 1881; Educ, private study; 1904-06, 
telephone tester, Bell Tel. Co., Montreal; 1906-11, chief equipment inspr., New Eng- 
land Telephone & Telegraph Co., Boston; 1911 to date, with Bell Telephone Co., 
Montreal, as follows: — 1911-14, switchboard engr., 1914-16, equipment standards 
engr., 1916-20, toll equipment engr., 1920 to date, toll and telegraph engr., at present 
executive engr., in charge of all long distance, telegraph, testing and asssciated equip- 
ment etc., under N.M. Lash, chief engineer. 

References: J. E. Armstrong, J. H. Hunter. F. T. Kaelin, P. F. Sise, F. Thomson, 
A. M. Mackenzie, R. H. Balfour, E. M. Salter, A. Walker. 



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181 



NUTTING— HAROLD HEDLEY SINCLAIR, of 209 Wilbrod Street. Ottawa, 
Ont. Born at Ottawa, Aug. 20th, 1S87; Educ, Ottawa Collegiate Institute; 1908-09, 
rly. constrn., O'Brien, Fowler & McDougall; 1909-10, rodman, location and constrn., 
G.T.R.; 1910-11, foreman, rly. constrn., Foley, Welch & Stewart; 191 1-13, instr'man., 
Dom. Land Survey, Kemp & McLeod; 1914, instr'man. etc., acting asst. to engr. in 
charge, Quinze Dam constrn.: 1914-15, instr'man., asst. to engr. in charge, Ostaloning 
Lake traverse, also Ottawa River and Lake Temiskaming traverse survey; 1915-19, 
overseas, C.F.A.; 1919 to date, hydrometric recorder, in charge of hydrometric survey 
party, Dept. Public Works, Ottawa. 

References: C. R. Coutlee, S. B. Johnson, A. M. Kirkpatrick, K. M. Cameron, 
H. M. Davy, R. F. Davy. 

RATCLIFFE— WALTER HEPBURN, of 200 King Street East, Kingston, Ont. 
Born at Toronto, Feb. 24th, 18S8; Educ, 3 years Toronto Technical School, 3 years, 
Ontario Architect's assoc. Classes 1907-09; 1906-12, dfting with J. A. Mackenzie, 
Toronto, Burke Horwood & White, Toronto _ and Ellis, & Ellis Toronto,; 1912-17, 
4 years bldg., supt. for Burke Horwood & White, Architects, Toronto, and 1 year with 
B. II. Prock, Industrial Engrs., Toronto, on industrial plants; 3 years to date, 
architect and engr. for McKelvey & Birch Ltd., General Contractors, Kingston, Ont. 

References: W. P. Wilgar, L. M. Arkley, L. T. Rutledge, W. L. Malcolm, J. M. 
Campbell. 

ROSS— ROBERT BRUCE, of 35 Gerrard Street, London, Ont. Born at Embro, 
Ont., Sept. 11th, 1881; Educ, Woodstock Collegia te Institute; 1907-14, contractor 
engr., building bridges, dams etc.; 1914-18, overseas, Major; 1919 to date, Ontario 
Director, Paving Dept., Milton Hersey Co. Ltd., Montreal. 

References: W. P. Near, C. A. Mullen, W. C. Adams, W. C. Miller, H. W. Patter- 
son, C. Talbot. 

SELIG— ALONZA CLARENCE, of 24 Pleasant Street, Moncton, N.B. Born 
at Lunenburg, N.S., Aug. 14th, 1863; Educ, private engr'g. study; 1878, entered 
service of Intercolonial Rly. as iunior, and for 10 years engaged as cbainman, leveller, 
and general engr'g. work in office of chief engr., 1888-98, office asst., 1898- 1912, asst. 
chief engr., in charge of office under chief engr., 1912-15, chief architect in preparing 
plans and other data for general bldg , constrn., and gen. supervision of constrn. of 
same. At present, asst. district engr., C.N.R., eastern lines, maritime district. 

References: A. F. Stewart, F. B. Tapley, E. G. Evans, S. B. Wass, F. P. Fripp, 
R. G. Gage, M. J. Murphy, C. S. G. Rogers. 

SMAIL— HARVEY ARNOLD, of Kingston, Ont. Born at Spencerville, Ont., 
March 25th, 1887, Educ, B.Sc, Queen's Univ. 1914; 1911 (5 mos), instr'man., Queen 
Victoria Park, Niagara Falls, Ont.; Spring 1912, levelman, E. D. & B.C. Rly.; 1912- 

13, asst., paving dept., City of Edmonton; 1914 (May-Aug.), asst., paving depi , 
City of Edmonton; 1919 (Jan. July), dftsman and surveyor to C.R.C.E., Mil. Dist. 
No. 3, Kingston; 1919-21, asst. road engr.to A. L. Baldwin, Kingston-Prescott road, 
Dept. Prov. Highways; Feb. 1921 to date, res. engr., Dept. Prov. Highways, Kingston 
Perth. 

References: W. A. McLean, G. Hogarth, A. A. Smith, R. M. Smith, D. W. Bews, 
G. C. Parker. 

SNOW— GERALD BRADLEY, of Chicoutimi, Que. Born at Toronto, Ont., 
Dec. 31st, 1892; Educ, B.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1919; 1909-11, topog'r., levelman and 
nstr'man., Mackenzie Mann & Co.; 1911-12,asst. engr., with A. W. Whitney, surveys, 
North Railway Co.; 1912-13, levelman and asst. with A. W. Whitney & R. Keenile 
on rly surveys; 1914-15, officer in charge of engr'g., Kapukasing Internment Camp, 
under Lt,-Col. F. F. Clarke; 1919-20, asst. engr., surveys, Long Lake Cut, and 1919- 
21, location and surveys, acting as asst. engr. in charge of work for H. T. Morrison, 
chief asst. engr., of surveys, C.N.R.; 1921 to date, asst. engr., with J. F. Grenon, 
Quebec Chibougaman Rly., Chicoutimi, Que. 

References: H. K. Wicksteed, H. T. Hazen, F. F. Clarke, J. H. T. Morrison, J. F. 
Grenon, C R. Young. 

SPARK— HARRY S., of 77 Hutchison Street, Mo itre il, Que. Born at Forfar, 
Scotland, Nov. 25th, 1831; Blue, Dundee Technical College. Dundee, Scotland. 1908- 
10; 2'2 years ap'ticeship, The Caledon Shipbldg., and Engr'g. Co., Dundee; 1912- 

14, designing struct'l steel bldgs., etc. for Canadian Explosives Ltd., at Parry Sound 
and lames Island, Vancouver; 1911-17, on Montreal Filtration and Aqueduct Works 
assisting in the preparation of hydraulic studies and designs and plans retaining wall 
and power house at low le^el punning station, Montreal; 1917-21, asst. chief dftsman., 
Canadian Vickers Ltd.; At present asst. to G. E. Vogt., Consltg. Engr., Baltimore, 
U.S.A. at present in Montreal) 

References: F. E. Field, F. Y. Dorrancc, F. T. Kaelin, W. Dickson, H. L. 
buch, R. W. Mitchell. 

SUMMERSKILL— JOHN HENRY, of 809 Shuter Street, Montreal, Que. 
Born at Portage la Prairie, Man., Aug. 20th, IS92; Educ, B.Sc. (E.E.), 1914 B.Sc. 
(M.E.) 1915, McGill Univ.; 1915-16, asst. engr., Canadian Marconi Wireless Telegraph 
Co., and 1916-17, asst. works mgr. for above company; 1918-19, Sub.-Lieut. on constrn. 
and mtce. of Naval Radio Stations; 1919-20, in charge of purchasing dept. and traffic, 
Riordon Co. Ltd., Mattawa, Ont.; At present, in charge of the disposal of surplus 
equipment etc, Riordon Co. Ltd., Montreal. 

References: G. L. Freeman, J. T. Farmer, A. K. Grimmer, C. M. McKergow, 
W. E. Blue, E. S. M. Lovelace. 

THOMSON— ALEXANDER, of Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Edinburgh, 
Scotland, Aug. 20th, 1891; Educ, Leith Tecnhical School, 1907; 1908-14,4 years ap- 
tice, 2 years junior asst.. Burgh' Surveyor's Office, Perth, Scotland; 1914-17, dftsman 
with Western Dom. Rly., Calgary, C.P.R., and C. M. Hoar, D.L. S., Calgary; 1917- 
18, dftsman and transitman, Calgary South Western Rly.; 1918-19, dftsman on 
location C.P.R., transitman, Dom. Govt. Parks Dept.; 1920 to date, dftsman., Leth- 
bridge Northern Irrigation District, Lethbridge, Alta. 

References: H. B. Muckleston, C. M. Arnold. F S. Dyke, H. G. Cochrane, ( I 
Dodge. 



WEST— ARTHUR ELEMERE, of Walkerville, Ont. Born at Ridgetown, Ont. 
Oct. 21st. 1886; Educ, Night School and Corres. School; 1908-09, Whitehead & Kales, 
Detroit; 1909 to date, with Canadian Bridge Company as follows: — 1909-11, struct'l. 
detailing, 1911-14, checking struct'l. and bridge details, 1914-18, squad foreman, 
1918-19, asst. mgr. of constrn., 1919 to date, chief dftsman. 

References: G. F. Porter, F. H. Kester, F. C. McMath, S. E. McGorman, G. V. Da- 
vies. 

WILSON— ELLWOOD, of Grand' Mere, Que. Born at Philadelphia, Pa,, 
U.S.A., Feb. 16th, 1872; Educ, B.A., B.Sc. in chemistry, Univ. of the South, Sewanee, 
USA., 1893. Postgraduate work, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1894-96; 1897-1900, 
constrn. of plantfor Walker-Gordon Laboratory Co. Ltd. of London, England, and 
manager of the company; 1901-05. private practice, civil engr'g. and surveying, Saranac 
Lake, NY., Holding position of village engr., for that period; 1905- 07, mapping 
timber limits for Union Bag & Paper Co. Ltd., and Laurentide Co.; 1907 to date, 
manager of Forestry Division, Laurentide Co. Ltd., Grand'Mere, Que. 

References: C. R. Lindsey. J. C. Smith, S. L. de Carteret, H. E. Bates. 

WOOLLEY— ARTHUR, of 1824-5th Avenue North, Lethbridge, Alta. Born at 
Lee, Kent, England, Sept- 3rd, 1884; Educ, 1901-04, Royal Military Academy. 1904- 
06, School of Military Engineering .Chatham; 1904-08, 2nd Lieut, and Lieut., Royal 
Engrs.; 1909-11, East Kent Coal Fields Ltd.; 1911-13, asst., Naraquata Tin Mines, 
Nigeria, West Africa; 1913-14, surveyor, Nordegg Syndicate, Brazean Coal Field, 
Alberta; 1914-19, military service. Lieut. Royal Engrs.; On return, farmingin Alberta 
until Oct. 1921; At present, statistician, Royal Commission known as Survey Board 
for Southern Alberta. 

References: W. E. Davis, K. Weatherbe, R. S. Lawrence, C. Raley. 

WRIGHT— JAMES ALPHEUS, of Montreal, Que. Born at Greenleaf, Mich., 
U.S.A., May 4th, 1882; Educ, Grad. Cass Tech- High School and Detroit Tech. Insti- 
tute; 1901-04, jigs and fixtures, Packard Motor Co. foreman final assembles, Ods 
Motor Works; 1904-06, design and layout of jigs, etc., G. R. Wilson Body Co., Detroit; 
1906-08, engr. in charge exp. bodv. model T. Ford, Ford Motor Co.; 1908-09, engr. 
in charge jigs and fixtures, G. R. Wilson Body Co.; 1909-1910, chief engr. supt., Buffalo 
Auto & Trimming Co.: 1910-11, engr. truck dump mechanism, Fitzgibbon & Crisp Co., 
Trenton, N.J.; 1911-12. asst. chief dftsman., Pope Mfg. Co., West Wks., Hartford; 
1912-14, chief engr., Irvin Robbins & Co., Indianapolis; 1914-15, engr. in charge 
detachable demountable conv. bodies, G. R. Wilson Bodv Co.; 1915-17, chief engr., 
prod, mgr., Detroit Weatherproof Body Co., Pointiac, Mich.; 1917-19, chief of misc. 
section, asst. chief and inspr. of airplanes and airplanes engines, Bureau Aircraft 
Production, Detroit Division; 1919-21, chief engr., Wright-Fisher Engr'g, Co., De- 
troit Mich.; At present chief engr., Parker Motor Car Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

References: Sir Alex. Bertram, A. T. Perrin, C. W. Burroughs, A. L. Morgan, 
H. V. Brayley. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBERL TO THAT 
OF MEMBER. 

BRAZIER— HENRY ARTHUR, of London, Ont. Born at Windsor, England, 
Nov. 4th, 1886; Educ, Articled pupil to W. W. Cooper, C.E., Slough, England, 1904- 
06. Grad. in engr'g., Manchester College of Technology, 1907-08. Member Inst, 
of Mumc Engrs., Great Britain, 1911; 1906-07, asst. engr'g, Slough, Bucks., under 
W. W. Cooper; 1908-11, asst. engr., Hale, Cheshire, underS. A. Pickering; 1907-08, chief 
eng. asst. to Thos. Blagburn, C.E., Altrincham; 1911-12, engr'g. asst., dept. of rlys. 
and bridges, cityengr's. dept., Toronto, Ont.; 1912-14, asst. city engr., and 1914 to date, 
city engr., London, Ont. 

References: C. H. Rust, H. B. R. Craig, W. Chipman, W. A. McLean, J. A. 
Bell, A. H. Smith, J. E. N. Cauchon. 

BUSFIELD— J A MES LEONARD, of Montreal, Que. Born at London, England 

May 14th, 1888; Educ, B.Sc, (Engr'g.) London University, England; 1907-09, junior 
asst. to res. engr. — 1909-10, asst. to res. engr. — 1910-12, senior asst. to res. engr., 
in division, G.T.R., Montreal, 1912-14, chief of party and asst. engr. in charge 
of surveys and tunnel alignment, 1914-15, asst. engr. on special designs, studies and 
investigations for Montreal Terminals, Mount Royal Tunnel and Terminal Co, 
Montreal; 1917 to date, principal asst. to Walter J. Francis & Company, Montreal. 

References: F. L. C. Bond, F. B. Brown, J. M. R. Fairbairn, W. J. Francis, G. G. 
Gale, R. W. Leonard, A. Surveyer, W. F. Tye, H. K. Wicksteed. 

CORNELL— CHARLES WALTER, of 531 Runnymede Road. Toronto, Ont. 
Born at London, Ont., March 14th, 1880; Educ, Grad. in C.E., Univ. of Toronto, 
1911; 1902-07, install'n., operation and matce of powerplant equipment, Toronto Rail- 
way Co. and Scarboro Beach Park Co., Toronto, Ont.; 1908-09 (summers), 1st asst., 
survey party, Dept. Indian Affairs, and electrician, Cobalt Hydraulic Power Co.- 
1911-12, waterworks dept., City of Vancouver; 1912-13, supt., B.C. Granitoid and 
Contracting Co., Vancouver, B.C.; 1913-15, mgr., Jones-Cornell Constrn. Co., Engrs. 
and Contractois, New Westminster. B.C.; 1915-16, supervisor of inspection, Canadian 
Inspection and Testing Labs.; 1916-17, testing engr., Imperial Ministry of Munitions 
(Hamilton District); 1917-18, district inspr., shrapnel forging. Imperial Ministry 
of Munitions (Toronto District), 1918-19, charge of testing and heat-treating plant 
British Forgings Co., Toronto; 1919 to date, district engr., of Countv roads, province 
of Ontario. 

References: W. A. McLean, R. C. Muir, T. H. Bvrne, A K. Hay, C. R. Young. 
P. Gillespie, F. B. Goedike, J. G. Cameron. 

DALLYN— FREDERICK ALFRED, of Spadina House, Spadina Avenue, Toron- 
to. Ont. Born at Hamilton. Ont., June 7th, 1886; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto. 
1909-10, estimating and designing reinforced concrete, Bishop Constrn. Co.; 1910-13, 
engr. in charge of experimental station, Prov. Board of Healyh of Ontario; 1913-16, 
Consultant, International Joint Commission re pollution of Boundary waters; 1913 
to date, provincial sanitary engr. and director of engr'g. divn., Prov. Board of Health 
of Ontario. 1917-21, chairman, Committee on Sewage and Sanitation, Am. Soc. 
of Mumc Improvements, 1920-22, lecturer in sanitary engr., Institute of Public 
Health, London, Ont. 

References: G. II. Ferguson, C. A. Magrath, C. H. Mitchell, R. S. Weston, H.E. T. 
Haultain, R. W. Leonard, A. F. Macallum, F. S. Keith. 



182 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PHILIP— PATRICK, of 04 Linden Avenue, Victoria, B.C. Born at London- 
derry. Ireland, Dec. 4th, 18S2; Educ, 1897-1006. night classes, Londonderry Technical 
Institute.; 1898-1903, pupil with J. J. S. Barnhill, A.M.E.I.C., Londonderry, and 
1903-07, asst. to above; 1907-10, location and constrn., G.T.P. Rly.; 1910-17, asst. to 
city engr., Vancouver, B.C.; 1917-19, dist. engr., Dept. P.W., Kamloops, B.C. in 
charge engr'g. dist. Xo. 3; 1919-21. dist. engr., Vancouver, B.C., dist. No. 2; 1921 
to date, public works engr., Prov. of British Columbia. 

References: J. E. Griffith, W H. Powell, A. E. Foreman, G. P. Napier, A. Light- 
hall, F. L. Macpherson, C. Brackenbridge. 



McKNIGHT— ROBERT CLELAND, of 352-8t,h Street West, Owen Sound, 
Ont. Born at Owen Sound, Ont., Mav 25th, 1886; Educ, Grad. R.M.C. Kingston, 
1906, 3rd year Science, McGill Univ., Class 1908; B.C.L.S., 1914; 1907-08. asst engr. 
on constrn., N.T.C.Rly.; 1911-12. in charge of party on survey of Port Edward Town- 
site, B.C.; 1912, in charge of investigation of power, dam failure near Seattle; 1912- 
14. in charge of exploration survey, topog'l. survey and location survey of Ritchie 
Agnew Power Co., at Alberni, B.C.; 1914, in charge of party on govt, land survey 
on Queen Charlotte Island; 1914-19, overseas, Major, C. F.A.; At present, county 
engr., Grey County, Ont. 



ROUTLY— HERBERT THOMAS, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Lindsay, Ont., 
Jan. 20th, 1878; Educ, Grad. S.P S. Univ. of Toronto, 1906, O.L.S. 1907. D.L.S. 
1908; 1000-03. asst. engr. in charge of office work, Kirkfield section of the Trent Canal: 
1904-05 (summers), location and constrn. work, C.N. R.;1907-17, private practice as land 
surveyor and civil engr., Haileybury, Ont.; 1908-11, town engr , Haileybury; 1908-13, 
engr for township of Coleman; 1913-19, general contracting; 1920 to date, private 
practice as contractor, Toronto, Ont. 

References: H. K. Wicksteed, W. A. McLean, P. Gillespie, C. H. Fullerton, F. Bar- 
ber, A. E. Jupp. 

SHARPE— ALBERT ERNEST, of Leader, Sask. Born at Palmerston, Ont., 
Jan. 2Sth, 1877, Educ, Private study; 1897-1900, minor positions with Northern 
Pao'fic, Lake Manitoba Rly., and Canal Co. and C.P R.; 1901-1915, with the C.P.R. 
as follows: — 1901-04, transitman and res. engr, 1904-07, res. engr., 1907-10, asst. 
engr., 1910-15. reconnaissance engr., western lines, 1915 (Mar.-Sept.), asst. engr.; 
1917, made reconnaissance and located line, Selkirk to Rice Lake Gold Fields for 
President, Central Canada Rly. and Power Co.; Aug. 1918 to date, asst. engr., C.P.R. , 
Winnipeg. 

References: W. F. Tye, J. G. Sullivan, W. A. James, J. R. C. Macredie, A. Mc- 
Culloch, J. Callaghan. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM CLASS OF JUNIOR TO HIGHER GRADE 

BELANGER— JEAN LOUIS CLOVIS, P. O. Box 11, Lauzon, Que. Born at 
Carleton, Que., Sept. 27th, 1889; Educ, Quebec Seminary., I.C.S., Private tuition; 
1907-11, tapeman on constrn. and 1911-14, asst. res. engr., T.C.Rly.; 1914-15, in charge 
of constrn. Charny Water Works; 1915-17, with Quebec Streams Commission as 
follows: — transitman on topog'l. survey of Lake St. John — 1915-16, instr'man. 
for accurate survey of flooded lands. Lake St. Francis — 2 mos. asst. res. engr. on constrn. 
of storage dam, Lake St. Francis — 5 mos. in charge of survey of St. Maurice River 
Reservoir — 1916-17, in charge of various surveys and lake inspections; — also in char- 
ge of telephone line constrn. and of foundations of St. Maurice Storage Dam; 1917-19, in 
charge of constrn. of Davie's Shops and Shipyards for Jos. Gosselin Ltd., of Levis; 
1919 to date, asst. engr., divn. engr's. office, C.N.R., Levis, Que. 

References: J. E. Gibault, J. N. R. Beaudet, A. O. Bourbonnais, J. B. D'Aeth, 
A. R. Decary, A. Amos, O. O. Lefebvre, L. C. Dupuis. 

DAVIES— DAVID CECIL MINES, of 2603 McTavish Street, Regina, Sask. 
Born at London, England. April 4th. 1892; Educ, 1906-08. mech. engr'g. course, Tech- 
nical College, London, England, 1908-12, mech. engr'g. course, London Polytechnic 
Institute, evening classes; 1908-12, asst. in drawing office of Sir Geo. Marks, Consltg. 
Engr.. London. England; 1912-16, inspr. of publicworks, Prov. Govt, of Sask.; 1916-19, 
overseas; 1919-22, asst. engr. on design and supervision of constrn. of reinforced con- 
crete, steel and timber, Dept. of Highways, Govt, of Sask., Regina. 

References: H. S. Carpenter, C. W. Dill, J. M. Patton, D. A. R. McCannel, A. N. 
Ball, H. R. MacKenzie. 

FLETT— FRANK PARKIN, of 57 Moy Avenue, Windsor, Ont. Born at 
Chatham, N.B.. Nov. 24th, 1892; Educ, B.Sc Univ. of N.B. 1914. 1 year special 
work Mass. Inst, of Tech. 1919-20; Rodman dftsman, etc., during vacations; 1915- 
17, voerseas. Lieut Can. Engrs.; 1918-19, dist. vocational officer (various locations 
in Ontario), in charge of re-education of soldiers, etc.; 1920 to date engr., sales engr. 
etc., and at present mgr. sash and engr'g. dept., Trussed Concrete Steel of Co. Canada, 
Walkerville, Ont. 

References: H. E. T. Haultain, H. W. D. Armstrong, G. Stead, H. C. McMordie, 
A. J. Riddell, N. Wilson, R. P. Rogers, J. A. Stiles. 

GOULET— SIFROY, of Peterborough, Ont. Born at Holyoke, Mass., U.S.A., 
May 8th, 1891; Educ, Grad. Mount St. Louis Scientific Course, 1910; 1910-16, dftsman 
mech. engr.'s office, and 1916 to date, chief mech. dftsman and asst. to mech. engr., 
Can. Gen. Elee. Co., Peterborough, Ont. 

References — J. A. G. Goulet, B. L. Barns, A. B. Gates, J Barnes, C. E. Sissons, 
R. L. Dobbin. 

Lf.BLANC— PIERRE MAXIME HENRI, of 120 Wurtemburg Street, Ottawa, 
Ont. Born at Montreal, Que. Oct. 1st, 1884; Educ, C.E. Laval Univ., 1908; D.L.S. ; 
1908 (4 mos.), asst. engr. on constrn. of lighthouse, St. Lawrence River; 1908-12, asst. 
engr., tidal and current surveys, Dept. Naval service; 1912-14, asst. with P. R. A. 
B&langer, inspr., D.L.S., in Western Provinces; 1914 to date, in charge of parties, 
topog'l. surveys branch, Dept. Interior, Ottawa. 

References: W. B. Dawson, G. H. Herriot, C. Rinfret, R. C. Purser, E. M. Dennis, 
F. V. Seibert, P. E. Palmer. 

McDONALD— NORMAN GEDDES, of Oshawa, Ont. Born at Cresswell, Ont. 
Aug. 4th, 1893; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1918; 1916-17 (summers), machine 
work, Metal Products Co., Peterborough; 1918 (May-Nov.), asst. chief inspr. of Rteel 
at British Forgings Ltd., Toronto, for Imperial Ministry of Munitions; 1918-19, 
dftsman, transitman etc. in constrn. of extension to Ontario Power Co. Plant at 
Niagara Falls for H. E. D. C ; Sessions 1919-20 and 1920-21, demonstrator and instruct- 
or in Hydraulics, Univ. of Toronto; April 1921 to date, town engr., Oshawa, Ont. 

References: W. Storrie, J. J. Traill, P. Gillespie, S. Shupe, G. F. Hanning, W. 
Jackson. 



11 



References: G. L. Mattice, H. St. J. Montizambert, J. M. Rolston, E. C. Goldie, 
L. Bucke. 



ROUNTHWAITE— FRANCIS GEORGE, of Tucker's Town. Bermuda. Born 

at Collingwood, Ont.; April 3rd., 1892; Educ, B.Sc, (C.E.). McGill Univ. 1916; 
1909-10. rodman, J. S. Metcalf Co. Ltd.; 1913-14(summers), rodman and instr'man. 
on constrn. Algoma Central and Hudson Bav Rly.; 1916-19, overseas, Lieut.. C.G.A.; 
1919 (Apr.-Aug.). asst. engr., Magwood & Stidwell, Munic Engrs., Cornwall. Ont.; 
1919-20, Atlas Constrn. Co., Montreal; 1920-21, office engr., under J. B. Berry, Grand 
Trunk Valuation; Aug. 1921 to date, gen supt.. The Bermuda Development Co, a sub- 
sidiary company of Messrs. Furness Withy Co., London, England. 

References: W. McNab, J. H. Trimingham, G. M. Stewart, J. B. Wain, A. S. Going, 
W. H. Magwood, F. L. C. Bond. 



RUST— FREDERICK CHARLES, of 90 Albany Avenue, Toronto, Ont. Born 
at Toronto. Sept. 24th, 1888; Educ, 3 years App. So., Univ. of Toronto; 1907-08 (sum- 
mers), rodman etc.. City of Toronto; 1909 (summer), engr'g ap'tice course. Canadian 
Westinghouse Co., Hamilton, Ont ; 1910, inspr., hydro-elec dept., City of Toronto; 
1911 (summer), machine shop. City of Toronto; 1911-12, instr'man. and road despatch- 
er. Appalachian Power Co., Virginia, New River Development; 1912-14, asst. to 
engr'g. supt., B.C. Electric Railway Co., Victoria, B.C.; 1915-19, overseas; 1919-20, 
bldg. surveys for H. H. Williams Co , Toronto; 1920-21, roving checker, Toronto 
Harbour Commissioners; Feb, 1921 to date, asst. to res. architect, Toronto Harbour 
Commissioners, Toronto. 

References: C. H. Rust, A. C. D. Blanchard, M. V. Sauer, E. L. Cousins, J. G. R. 
Wainwright, G. T. Clark. 

WOOD— GEORGE HOWARD, of 20 Cayuga Street, Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
Kincardine, Ont., May 12th, 1894; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1917. Post 
grad work at Manchester Univ., Jan-June 1919; 1913 (summer), with Kincardine 
Municipal Electric Light and Power Plant; 1914 (Season), junior asst. and 1915 (season) 
instr'man., reconn. survey of Carrot River Triangle Drainage Project, North Manito- 
ba; 1916 (season, asst. to G. G. McEwen, Dom. Water Power surveys in Manitoba; 
1917-19. overseas, Lieut., Can. Engrs.; 1919-20, junior power devel. engr., Dom. 
Water Power Branch — office work; May 1920 to date, asst. hydraulic engr.. Reclam- 
ation Service, Dept. of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont. 

References: J. S. Tempest, G. F. Richan, G. F. Horsey, J. T. Johnston, T. H. 
Dunn, G. G. McEwen, H. R. Cram. 



FOR TANSFER FROM CLASS OF STUDENT TO HIGHER GRADE 

CAMPKIN— WILBERT LEE, of 2136 Angus Street, Regina, Sask. Born at 
Indian Head. Sask., Dec. 10th, 1896; Educ, special course in telephone engr'g., Los 
Angeles, 1917-18; 1916-19, with Southern California Telephone Co., Los Angeles, on 
constrn. and mtce. of automatic telephone central office equipment; 1919 to date with 
Sask. Govt. Telephones, on constrn. and mtce of automatic telephone equipment 
also asst. in design and mtce., and at present, head switchman (asst. wire chief). 



References: W. R. Warren, H. B. Sherman, S. R. Parker, C. W. Dill.L.A. Thorn- 



ton. 



GAGNON — ALBAN, of 26 Buckingham Avenue. Montreal, Que. Born at Mont- 
real, Sept. 26th, 1892; Educ. C.E Ecole Poly. Montreal, 1915; 1912. meterman, Ottawa 
Public Works; 1913, insti'man for F. C. Laberge; 1914, instr'man., Ottawa Public 
Works; 1915, road, engr., Quinlan & Robertson., asst. engr., Town of Pointe aux 
Trembles; 1916-17, Canadian inspection — component parts inspectioninNew Eng- 
land States; 1917 (Mar.-Aug.), asst. engr. on constrn., British Chemical Co., Trenton, 
Ont.; 1917-18, shell inspr.; 1919-20, divisional engr., Quebec Roads Dept.; Aug. 1920 
to date, highway engr., Leger & Charlton Ltd., Lachine, Que. 

References: R. M. Charlton, F. C. Laberge, J. O. Montreuil, A. W. Sullivan. 

HALL— JOHN SMYTHE, of 660 Oxford Street, London, Ont. Born at Mont- 
real, Que., Jan. 27th. 1894; Educ, B.Sc McGill Univ., 1914; ap'tice and fitter, C.P.R.; 
1911-20 less college sessions and overseas service) with C.P.R., 1920 (Feb. -May), 
night locomotive foreman, Sherbrooke, Que., 1020-21, shop foreman, Farnham, Que.; 
Sept. 1921 to date, night locomotive foreman, C.P.R., London, Ont. (4 years overseas 
Lieut. Rly. Constrn. Corps). 

References: F.B. Brown, A.F.Byers, F.S.Keith, CM. McKergow, A.R.Roberts. 

MacINTYRE— W. BRYCE, of 245 Lauder Avenue, Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Avon. Ont., Oct. 18th. 1894; Educ, B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1919; 4 mos. in charge 
of Sewer layout with theDu Pont Engr'g. Corpn. Flint, Mich.;2yearstodate,in charge 
of sewer design with Barber, Wynne-Roberts & Seymour, Toronto. 

References: R. O. Wynne-Roberts, J. S. Galletly, E. V. Deverall, G. R. Jack, 
O. M. Falls, A. R. Black, J. G. Jack. 



April, 1922 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



183 



THE 



ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 




APRIL 1922 



CONTENTS 



Volume V, No. 4 



THE LIGNITE BRIQUETTING PLANT, BIENFAIT, SASK., E. R . Woodward, Jr.E.I.C... 185 

ACTUARIAL FACTORS IN THE DESIGN OF IRRIGATION STRUCTURES, 

H. B. Muckleston, M.E.I.C. 192 

MARYLAND STREET BRIDGE, WINNIPEG, J. F. Greene, M.E.I.C, 197 

EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS:— 

Professional Meetings, 1922 202 

British Columbia Professional Meeting '. 202 

Code of Ethics 202 

Committee on Policy Meeting •' 202 

C.I.M.M. Changes. '. 203 

Presentation of Leonard Medals 204 

Other Society Transactions 204 

Special Water Power Lectures at University of Toronto 205 

OBITUARY 206 

EMPLOYMENT BUREAU AND MEMBERS' EXCHANGE 207 

ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 210 

PERSONALS 211 

BRANCH NEWS 213 

TOWN PLANNING NOTES AND COMMENTS, H. L. Seymour, A.M.E.I.C 234 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 235 

INSTITUTE COMMITTEES 240 

ENGINEERING INDEX (facing page 240) 47 

The Institute does not hold itself responsible for the opinions expressed by the 
authors of the papers published in its records, or for discussions at any of its meetings, 
or for individual views transmitted through the medium of The Journal. 



Published by 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



176 Mansfield St., Montreal 
BRANCHES: 



Halifax Branch, Halifax, N.S. 

Cape Breton Branch, Sydney, Cape Breton. 

Moncton Branch, Moncton, N.B. 

St. John Branch, St. John, N.B. 

Quebec Branch, Quebec, Que. 

Montreal Branch, Montreal, Que. 

Ottawa Branch, Ottawa, Ont. 

Kingston Branch, Kingston, Ont. 

Peterborough Branch, Peterborough, Ont. 

Toronto Branch, Toronto, Ont. 

Hamilton Branch, Hamilton, Ont. 



Niagara Peninsula Branch, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

London Branch, London, Ont. 

Border Cities Branch, Windsor, Ont. 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Winnipeg Branch, Winnipeg, Man. 

Saskatchewan Branch, Regina, Sask. 

Lethbridge Branch, Alta. 

Edmonton Branch, Edmonton, Alta. 

Calgary Branch, Calgary, Alta. 

Vancouver Branch, Vancouver, B.C. 

Victoria Branch, Victoria, B.C. 



184 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



April, 1922 



Members of Council for 1922 



•H. G. ACRES, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

LT.-CoI. R. W. LEONARD, St. Catharines, Ont. 



PRESIDENT 
JOHN G. SULLIVAN, Winnipeg, Man. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 
tC. H. MITCHELL, Toronto, Ont. tA. SURVEYER, Montreal 



PAST PRESIDENTS 
R. A. ROSS, Montreal. 



tA. C. D. BLANCHARD, Niagara Falls. 
•F. A. BOWMAN, Halifax, N.S. 
•FREDERICK B. BROWN, Montreal. 
•H. M. BURWELL, Vancouver, B.C. 
tH. S. CARPENTER, Regina, Sask. 
•J. B. CHALLIES, Ottawa, Ont. 
•G. W. CRAIG, Calgary, Alta. 
•A. R. DECARY. Quebec, P.O. 
•R. L. DOBBIN, Peterborough, Ont. 
tG. B. DODGE, Ottawa, Ont. 
tJ. A. DUCHASTEL, Montreal. 



•For 1922 



COUNCILLORS 
•GUY C. DUNN, Toronto, Ont. 
tJ. E. GIBAULT. Levis. Que. 
•E. R. GRAY, Hamilton, Ont. 
tA. R. GREIG, Saskatoon, Sask. 
tH. L. JOHNSTON, Victoria, B.C. 
tC. C. KTRBY, St John, N.B. 
JGEO. MACLEOD, Montreal, Que. 
JALEXANDER. MACPHAIL, Kingston, Ont. 
•J. R. C. MACREDIE, Moose Jaw, Sask. 
tS. S. OLIVER, Quebec, P. Q. 
tS. G. PORTER, Lethbrldge, Alta. 
JD. A. ROSS, Winnipeg, Man. 

tFor 1922-23 



TREASURER 
Brig. Gen. SIR ALEX. BERTRAM, Montreal. 



•WALTER J. FRANCIS, Montreal. Que. 
J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Montreal. 



}C. H. E. ROUNTHWAITE, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

tW. M. SCOTT, Winnipeg, Man. 

tF. P. SHEARWOOD, Montreal. 

•JULIAN C. SMITH, Montreal. 

J A. F. STEWART, Moncton. N. B. 

tK. B. THORNTON. Montreal. 

JGEO. A. WALKEM, Vancouver. 

JR. S. L. WILSON, Edmonton, Alta. 

JR. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS, Toronto, Ont. 

tC. R. YOUNG. Toronto. Ont. 

tGEO. MACLEOD, Montreal, Que. 

{For 1922-23-24 

SECRETARY 
FRASER S. KEITH, Montreal. 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, C. E. W. DODWELL 
Sec.-Treas.. O. S. COX 

Asst. Engineer Public Works Dept., 

Halifax, N.S. 
Executive, H. W. L. DOANE 

F. R. FAULKNER J. B. HAYES 
W. P. MORRISON K. H. SMITH 
L. H. WHEATON 

(Ex-Officlo) F. A. BOWMAN 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman. C. M. ODELL 
Sec.-Treas., K. G. CAMERON 

Bk. of Commerce Bldg., Sydney, N.S. 
Executive, D. S. MORRISON 

D. F. MacISAAC H. LONGLEY 
ST. JOHN 

Chairman, FRANK P. VAUGHAN 
Sec.-Treas. HARRY F. BENNETT 

P.O. Box 1417, St. John, N.B. 
Executive, G. G. MURDOCH, A. G. TAPLEY 
A. DUFRESNE 

G. N. HATFIELD 
(Ex-Officlo) C. C. KIRBY 

MONCTON 
Chairman, J. D. McBEATH 
Vice-Chair., S. B. WASS 
Sec.-Treas. M. J. MURPHY 

Asst. Engr., C.N.R., Moncton 
Executive. A. F. STEWART F. O. CONDON 
R. G. GAGE R. McMANUS 

H. J. CRUDGE F. B. FRIPP 
QUEBEC 

Chairman. A. R. DECARY 
Vice-Chair., ALEX. FRASER 
Sec.-Treas. HECTOR CIMON, 

8 Laporte St., Quebec. 
Executive, L. C. DUPUIS PAUL JONCAS 

J. A. BUTEAU A. B. NORMANDIN 
(Ex-Officio) J. E. GIBAULT S. S. OLIVER 

MONTREAL 

Chairman, J. A. DUCHASTEL 
Vice-Chair., J. T. FARMER 
Sec.-Treas. J. L. BUSFIELD 

260 St. James St., Montreal 
Executive *A. E. DUBUC 

•CHAS. M. McKERGOW 

•S. F. RUTHERFORD 

tR. BICKERDIKE 

tC. J. DESBAILLETS 

tP. B. MOTLEY 
Ex-Officlo) FRED. B. BROWN 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

W.J. FRANCIS 

J. H. HUNTER 

R. A. ROSS 

F. P. SHEARWOOD 
JULIAN C. SMITH 
ARTHUR SURVEYER 
K. B. THORNTON 
GEO. MACLEOD 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, K. M. CAMERON 
Sec.-Treas. F. C. C. LYNCH 

Dept. of Interior, Motor Building. Ottawa. 
Executive. O. S. FINNIE A. FERGUSON 

A. B. LAMBE C. McL. PITS 

J. L. RENNE 
(Ex-Officlo) J. B. CHALLIES G. B. DODGE 
C. P. EDWARDS 

PETERBOROUGH 

Hon. Chair R. H. PARSONS 
Chairman. P. L. ALLISON 
Vice-Chair.. P. P. WESTBYE 
Secretary D. L. McLAREN 

291 Stewart St., Peterborough, Ont. 
Treasurer, A. B. GATES , „ 
Executive, E. R. SHIRLEY , J H. O. FISK 

A. L. KILLALY ' 

G. R. LANGLEY "* 
JAS. MACKINTOSH 

B. L. BARNES 
(Ex-Officlo) R. L. DOBBIN 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



KINGSTON 

Chairman, W. P. WILGAR 
Vice-Chair., L. M. ARKLEY 
Sec.-Treas. L. T. RUTLEDGE 

262 University Ave., Kingston 
Executive, J. M. CAMPBELL A. MACPHAIL 

D. J. EMERY 

TORONTO 

Chairman Wm. STORRIE 
Vice-Chair., E. G. HEWSON 
Sec.-Treas. F. B. GOEDIKE 

201 Humberslde Ave., Toronto 
Executive, PETER GILLESPIE 

G. G. POWELL 

M. V. SAUER R. C. MUIR 
N. D. WILSON W. A. DUFF 
(Ex-Officlo) C. R. YOUNG G. T. CLARK 

R. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS 

HAMILTON 

Hon. Chair. ROBERT HOBSON 
Chairman, E. H. DARLING 
Sec.-Treas. W. F. McLAREN 
c/o Canadian Westinghouse Co, Hamilton, Ont. 
Executive, H. GRAHAM BERTRAM 

W. G. MILNE F. W. PAULIN 
J. W. TYRRELL 
(Ex-Officlo) E. R. GRAY 

LONDON 

Hon.Chair., J. DAVIS BARNETT 
Chairman, H. A. BRAZIER 
Vice-Chair., W. J. FORBES MITCHELL 
Sec.-Treas. F. JAS. BRIDGES 

c/o Public Works of Canada, 

P.O. Box 587, London, Ont. 
Executive, F. A. BELL CHAS. TALBOT 

H. B. R. CRAIG 

E. V. BUCHANAN R. I. OLMSTED 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, N. R. GIBSON 
Vice-Chair., F. S. LAZIER 
Sec.-Treas. REX. P. JOHNSON 

Box 245, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Executive, F. E. STERNS S. R. FROST 

W. H. SULLIVAN H. L. BUCKE 
(Ex-Officlo) Lt.-Col. R. W. LEONARD 

H. G. ACRES 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, GEO. E. PORTER 
Sec.-Treas. J. CLARK KEITH 

302 Ouellette Ave., Windsor. 
Executive, L. M. ALLAN A. J. M. BOWMAN 

H. C. McMORDIE 

A. J. RIDDELL 

SAULT STE MARIE 

Chairman, K. G. ROSS 
Vice-Chair., B. E. BARNHILL 
Sec.-Treas. F. T. GNAEDINGER 

Const. Depart., Algoma Steel Corp., 

Sault Ste. Marie. 
Executive, tJ. W. LeB. ROSS 
tF. F. GRIFFIN 
tL. L. JACOBS 
•C. H. E. ROUNTHWAITE 
•J. G. McLAURIN 
•L. R. BROWN 
WINNIPEG 

Chairman, E. P. FETHERSTONHAUGH 
Sec.-Treas. GEO. L. GUY 

503 Tribune Bldg., Winnipeg 
Executive, tJ. G. LEGRAND 

tD. A. ROSS 

•A. J. S. TAUNTON 

•B. S. McKENZIE 

•J. M. LEAMY 
(Ei-Offido) GUY C. DUNN 

W. M. SCOTT 



SASKATCHEWAN 
Chairman, W. R. WARREN 
Vice-Chair., J. R. C. MACREDIE 
Sec.-Treas. D. A. R. McCANNEL 

City Engineers Dept., Regina, Sask. 
Executive, C. J. MACKENZIE 

W. H. GREENE 

J. W. CALDER 

H. McIVOR WEIR 

C. W. DILL 

A. J. McPHERSON 
(Ex-Officio) H. S. CARPENTER 

J. R. C. MACREDIE A. R. GREIG 

LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman. SAM G. PORTER 
Sec.-Trea. C. M. ARNOLD 

Lethbrldge Northern Irrigation District, 
Lethbrldge, Alta. 
Executive, G. N. HOUSTON H. W. MEECH 
C. D. MACKINTOSH 
EDMONTON 

Chairman, C. A. ROBB 
Vice-Chair. J. G. REID 
Sec.-Treas. R. H. DOUGLAS 

703 Tegler Building, Edmonton 
Executive, H. H. TRIPP 

C. F. CORBETT 
A. G. STEWART 
R. W. JONES D. J. CARTER 
(Ex-Officio) R. S. L. WILSON 
CALGARY 

Chairman, P. J. JENNINGS 
Secretary, J. A. SPRECKLEY 
Treasurer, G. P. F. BOESE 
Executive, V. MEEK 

F. E. EMERY F. K. BEACH 
(Ex-Officlo) B. L. THORNE 

P. TURNER BONE 

G. W. CRAIG 



VANCOUVER 
Chairman, 
Vice-Chair., 
Sec.-Treas. 

930 Birks 
Executive, 



CHAS. BRAKENRIDGE 
A. C. EDDY 
P. H. BUCHAN 
Building, Vancouver, B.C. 
J. N. ANDERSON WM. SMAIL 
R. G. EDWARDS R. G. E. LECKIE 
(Ex-Officlo) H. M. BURWELL 
GEO. A. WALKEM 



VICTORIA 

Ch irman, 

Vice-Chair. 

Secretary, 

Treasurer, 

Executive, 



P. PHILIP 
E. F. COOKE 
H. M. BIGWOOD. 
E. P. GIRDWOOD 
E. E. BRYDONE-JACK 
J. P. FORDE 
(Ex-Officlo) E. G. MARRIOTT 
H. L. JOHNSTON 



ONTARIO PROVINCIAL DIVISION 
Chairman, Col. W. H. MAGWOOD 
Vice-Chair., Prof. C. R. YOUNG 
Sec.-Treas. A. B. LAMBE, Ottawa, Ont. 
Ex-Officlo Members 
Lt.-Col. R. W. LEONARD 
H. G. ACRES 

Brig.-Gen. C. H MITCHELL 
J. B. CHALLIES G. B. DODGE 
A. MacPHAIL A. C. D. BLANCHARD 
R. L. DOBBIN C. R. YOUNG 
R. O. WYNNE-ROBERTS 

E. R. GRAY 

C. H. E. ROUNTHWAITE 

H. B. R. CRAIG GEO. HOGARTH 
Representative of Branches 
P. L. ALLISON, Peterborough Branch 
L. M. ARKLEY, Kingston Branch 
WILLIS CHIPMAN, Toronto Branch 
REX. P. JOHNSON, Niagara Peninsula Branch 
A. B. LAMBE, Ottawa Branch 
J. J. NEWMAN, Border Cities Branch 

F. W. PAULIN, Hamilton Branch 

K. G. ROSS, Sault Ste. Marie Branch 

G. C. WRIGHT. London Branch 

Representatives of Non-Resident Members 

D. T. BLACK 
G. H. BRYSON 
S. B. CLEMENT 

Col. W. H. MAGWOOD 
GEO. A. McCUBBIN 

F. D. REID 



•For 1922 



(For 1922-23 



THE 

ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Published Monthly at 176 Mansfield Street, Montreal 

By 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

INCORPORATED IN 1887 AS 

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 



Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, As Second Class Matter 



Volume V MONTREAL, APRIL 1922 Number 4 



The Lignite Briquetting Plant, Bienfait, Sask. 

Importance of developing lignite as commercial fuel in 
Western Canada, research work by Lignite Board, 
details of experimental work. 

E. R. Woodward, Jr.E.I.C. 

Paper Awarded Students' Prize, 1921 

At a recent sitting of the United States Senate, Saskatchewan. The object of the plant is to make possible 

referring to national coal consumption, Senator Calder, the efficient utilization of the vast low grade lignite 

Chairman of the Committee on Reconstruction and resources of the Canadian Middle West. 
Production, said: Historical Note 

"The waste alone in burning raw coal makes us i n the year 1852, Hugh Sutherland, now Chairman 
stand aghast, perhaps another generation will have the G f the Western Dominion Collieries, while on a prospect- 
foresight and courage to obtain the full value from each i ng trip in Southern Saskatchewan, heard strange stories 
pound of coal." from the Indians of the district about a place known to 

This utterance is typical of the views held by the them as the "Valley of Fire", 
most far sighted present day economists. That the Can- On investigation of this alleged phenomenon the 

adian Government is fully alive to these facts is proved ground itself was actually found to be blazing in patches 

by the erection of the Lignite Briquetting Plant just of considerable area along the valley of the Souris River, 

completed in the Souris coal mining area of Southern Mr. Sutherland's guides assured him that these fires had 



186 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



April, 1922 



burned continuously, winter and summer, for many years. 
The white man's conclusion was that he had thus most 
unexpectedly discovered surface outcroppings of coal. 
He immediately sent word to Government authorities at 
Winnipeg of the discovery of coal in Southern Saskat- 
chewan only to be ridiculed by them for his trouble. 
Having the courage of his convictions, however, he spent 
the winter building a barge. In the spring of the following 
year when the frost had been thawed from the ground 
sufficiently to make digging possible he filled his barge 
with the new found coal, and commenced a five hundred 
mile journey via the Souris and Red Rivers to Winnipeg. 
Such was the signal which precipitated an extensive 
migration of prospectors to the Souris district, and today 
lignite mines in great numbers rear their blackened tipples 
skywards throughout this part of the country. 

Lignite Coal 

Lignite is a low grade coal, which, in its natural 
state, is by no means an ideal fuel, either for domestic 
or commercial purposes. In the Middle West of both 
Canada and the United States it has been used extensively 
for many years on account of its abundance and conse- 
quent cheapness. 

Following are some of the most marked objections 
to the use of raw lignite coal as a fuel : — 

(1) It has a high moisture content, 30% to 35% 
(Anthracite contains from 1% to 5% of moisture). This 
increases the cost of transportation since the great amount 
of "water of composition" i